|4.||Male Infertility (Male Sterility)
|1.||Fujisawa, Masato: 13 articles (11/2015 - 11/2002)|
|2.||Schlegel, Peter N: 11 articles (12/2012 - 06/2005)|
|3.||Zhang, Wei: 10 articles (07/2013 - 05/2006)|
|4.||Lipshultz, Larry I: 9 articles (06/2015 - 03/2002)|
|5.||Wang, Xinru: 8 articles (09/2014 - 07/2008)|
|6.||Xia, Yankai: 8 articles (09/2014 - 07/2008)|
|7.||Lu, Chuncheng: 8 articles (09/2014 - 07/2008)|
|8.||Yamaguchi, Kohei: 8 articles (11/2012 - 03/2008)|
|9.||Nieschlag, E: 8 articles (12/2011 - 06/2000)|
|10.||Yang, Yuan: 8 articles (07/2010 - 10/2004)|
|1.||Testosterone (Sustanon)FDA Link
01/01/1998 - "Our data may also help to explain the greater efficacy of testosterone-induced spermatogenic suppression to azoospermia observed in Asian compared to non-Asian men."
10/20/1990 - "Contraceptive efficacy of testosterone-induced azoospermia in normal men. "
09/01/2014 - "Several trials aimed at improving the sperm retrieval from men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) by optimizing intratesticular testosterone (ITT) have reported partial responses, however, an appropriate level of ITT has not been identified. "
12/01/2011 - "The study shows that in Caucasian men with normal sperm counts as well as in men with subnormal sperm counts, testosterone alone can produce azoospermia in about half and suppression below one million in about two-thirds of the volunteers. "
03/01/2007 - "The aim of the study is to confirm that karyometric evaluations of the seminal tubule cells in men with azoospermia indicate stimulating influence of the Leydig cell and testosterone on the functions of Sertoli cells, whereas serum LH concentration may in fact lead to regressive changes in the wall of the seminal tubule. "
|2.||testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl)FDA LinkGeneric
04/01/2002 - "Testosterone-enanthate induced azoospermia has proven to provide optimal contraceptive protection. "
05/01/1995 - " One multicenter study injected men weekly with testosterone enanthate to induce azoospermia. "
01/01/1995 - "Factors in nonuniform induction of azoospermia by testosterone enanthate in normal men. "
11/01/1985 - "Testosterone enanthate, given on a weekly or bimonthly basis, failed to predictably induce azoospermia in men. "
10/01/1996 - "In conclusion, testosterone enanthate alone is effective in suppression of spermatogenesis for male hormonal contraception due to the high rate of azoospermia induced, which is known to ensure reliable and effective, reversible contraception. "
|3.||Levonorgestrel (Plan B)FDA LinkGeneric
08/01/2002 - "Although more efficacious than T patch alone, Norplant II or oral LNG plus T patch was not as effective in suppressing spermatogenesis to severe oligo- or azoospermia as in previous reports using oral LNG plus TE. "
01/01/2012 - "5) TU 500 mg was less likely to produce azoospermia than TU 1000 mg (with levonorgestrel implants). "
12/01/2001 - "The primary aim of the present study was to determine the therapeutic dose of subcutaneous levonorgestrel (LNG) to induce azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia (<3 x 10(6)/mL) in normal men requiring contraception. "
02/01/2005 - "The addition of levonorgestrel 500 microg po daily improved the effectiveness of testosterone enanthate 100 mg im weekly by itself (OR for azoospermia with the combined regimen, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.00-15.99). "
01/01/2004 - "The addition of levonorgestrel 500 mcg by mouth daily improved the effectiveness of testosterone enanthate 100 mg IM weekly by itself (OR for azoospermia with the combined regimen 4.0; 95%CI 1.00-15.99). "
|4.||Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH)FDA Link
10/01/1983 - "Azoospermia was, however, not achieved even after 22 weeks of treatment although in a previous study in which the LHRH agonist had been administered alone, azoospermia had been achieved after 8-10 weeks. "
10/01/1998 - "Combined GnRH antagonist and T induces azoospermia more rapidly and at a higher incidence than T alone; this combination has therefore been proposed as a prototype male contraceptive. "
10/01/1996 - "The results indicate that immunoneutralization of GnRH induced complete azoospermia, and subsequent treatment with DHT implants of 2 or 4 cm for 8 wk restored accessory organ weights, but did not restore spermatogenesis or fertility. "
10/01/1996 - "Twenty-five sexually mature male rats of proven fertility were actively immunized against gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) to induce azoospermia. "
10/01/1996 - "Genetic defects are associated with a variety of clinical presentations by the infertile man ranging from gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency to spermatogenic failure to obstructive azoospermia. "
01/01/2006 - "Inhibin B has a high specificity when combined with serum FSH and their measurements can be helpful in all patients with nonobstructive azoospermia before decision making for sperm retrieval."
10/01/2005 - "The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of serum inhibin B in men with nonobstructive azoospermia in comparison with FSH. "
08/01/2007 - "This study investigates circulating concentrations of AMH and inhibin B in men with azoospermia. "
10/01/2005 - "The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of the seminal plasma inhibin-B level, which might more directly reflect the secretion by Sertoli cells, and to discriminate between successful and failed testicular sperm extraction (TESE) in non-obstructive azoospermia. "
08/01/2000 - "The purpose of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of serum inhibin B measurement to predict the success of testicular sperm extraction (TESE) in 17 men with nonobstructive azoospermia to be treated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) (group 1). "
|6.||Messenger RNA (mRNA)IBA
11/01/2012 - "Expression levels of testicular claudin-11 mRNA in nonobstructive azoospermia men were significantly greater than in obstructive azoospermia men, whereas there was no significant difference in testicular claudin-11 mRNA expression between men with and without successful sperm retrieval by testicular sperm extraction. "
08/01/1999 - "Testis tissues from a patient with idiopathic azoospermia and from a normal fathered man were investigated with an improved mRNA differential display approach. "
04/01/2012 - "This study applied cfs-mRNA in identifying the presence of either germ cells or complete obstruction in men with azoospermia. "
02/01/2002 - "In this study, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was optimized to analyse the presence of DAZ, RBMY1, USP9Y, protamine-2, SRY and actin messenger RNA (mRNA) in testicular cells of men suffering from idiopathic azoospermia. "
05/01/2015 - "Indeed, ActA plus bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) strongly increased germ cell differentiation potential of hESCs based on the high expression of late PGC markers DAZL (deleted in azoospermia-like) and VASA/DDX4 (DEAD-box polypeptide 4) at mRNA and protein level. "
11/01/2002 - "Azoospermia was achieved in 8/10 and 8/12 men in the 150 micro g and 300 micro g desogestrel groups. "
06/01/2002 - "Azoospermia was achieved by a higher proportion of men in the 300 microg desogestrel group: 28/28 men versus 22/31 men (P < 0.05). "
11/01/2002 - "These data demonstrate that the combination of oral desogestrel with depot testosterone is an effective regimen for suppression of spermatogenesis in African as in Caucasian and Chinese men, with azoospermia achieved in a total of 83/98 (85%) men."
06/01/2002 - "This combination of oral desogestrel with depot testosterone maintains physiological testosterone concentrations with consistent suppression of spermatogenesis to azoospermia in both Caucasian and Chinese men and therefore has many of the properties necessary for a contraceptive preparation for men."
06/01/2002 - "Oral desogestrel with testosterone pellets induces consistent suppression of spermatogenesis to azoospermia in both Caucasian and Chinese men."
05/01/1998 - " For both androgens alone and androgens in combination with a progestin, the suppression of spermatogenesis to persistent azoospermia occurred in about 90% of Asian men compared to 60-70% of Caucasians. "
07/01/1986 - "A single intratesticular injection of bacillus Calmette-Guerin induces azoospermia within 3 to 6 weeks in a variety of animals without loss of androgens. "
01/01/1999 - "From these preclinical studies, it can be concluded that in men, applying hormonal contraception precautions against pregnancy must be recommended before azoospermia is induced, since the epididymis can partially compensate for poor-quality sperm produced by a regressing testis even when levels of circulating androgens and tissue androgens are low."
04/01/1992 - "Androgens and androgen-progestogen concentrations will induce azoospermia in over 90% of Asian men and azoospermia or severe oligospermia in Caucasian ethnic groups. "
12/01/1993 - "Comparison of two androgens plus depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate for suppression to azoospermia in indonesian men. "
|9.||Follicle Stimulating Hormone (Follitropin)FDA Link
03/01/2015 - "Follicle-stimulating hormone as a predictor for sperm retrieval rate in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia: a systematic review and meta-analysis."
07/01/2014 - "The association between serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels and the success of microdissection testicular sperm extraction in patients with azoospermia."
10/01/2012 - "Semen analysis showed azoospermia and serum follicle stimulating hormone value was high (28.42 mIU/ml). "
06/01/2012 - "The objective of research was to determine the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of serum follicle stimulating hormone and testis size in predicting spermatogenesis in infertile men with azoospermia. "
09/01/2011 - "Semen analysis showed azoospermia and the serum follicle stimulating hormone value was high (36.9 mIU/ml). "
|10.||Biological Markers (Surrogate Marker)IBA
12/01/2013 - "To identify potential biomarkers of azoospermia to determine a particular stage of spermatogenetic differentiation. "
12/01/2013 - "Potential biomarkers of nonobstructive azoospermia identified in microarray gene expression analysis."
11/20/2013 - "Differential diagnosis of azoospermia with proteomic biomarkers ECM1 and TEX101 quantified in seminal plasma."
05/01/2013 - "Thus, our aim was to identify biomarkers of residual spermatogenesis in seminal plasma of patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) using an isotope-coded protein label (ICPL)-based proteomic strategy coupled with conventional protein assay. "
07/01/2010 - "Specifically, expression of the testicular MSH4 gene could be useful as a surrogate marker for the presence of intratesticular elongated spermatid in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, contributing to predict the viability of assisted reproduction. "
|1.||Vasectomy (Vas Occlusion)
10/01/1998 - "Physicians' variations in occlusion methods, use of fascial interposition, and postvasectomy protocols underscore the need for large scale, controlled, and statistically valid studies to determine the efficacy of occlusion methods and fascial interposition, as well as whether azoospermia is the only determination of a successful vasectomy."
05/01/2004 - "Vasal perfusion with saline during vasectomy was effective in removing sperm from the distal vas; however, perfusion did not increase the rate at which men achieve azoospermia."
04/01/2015 - "The study included men undergoing MESA or TESE at St. Luke's Hospital for obstructive azoospermia due to CBAVD or vasectomy. "
01/01/2014 - "Lastly, one trial found that an intra-vas was less likely to produce azoospermia than was no-scalpel vasectomy. "
10/01/2007 - "This study aimed to evaluate factors that may influence the outcome of ICSI in males with secondary azoospermia due to previous vasectomy. "
|2.||Contraception (Birth Control)
02/01/2005 - "We conducted a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials of male hormonal contraception and azoospermia. "
12/01/1995 - "Landmark WHO contraceptive efficacy studies have established that hormonally-induced azoospermia provides highly effective and reversible contraception for at least 12 months with minimal short-term side effects. "
02/18/1991 - " The goal of this preliminary study was to determine if azoospermia was necessary or sufficient for effective contraception. "
11/30/2007 - "Complete azoospermia might not be necessary in order to achieve an acceptable failure rate compared with other forms of male fertility control. "
11/11/2003 - "Extrapolated to humans, it may indicate that only total abolition of testicular androgen action will result in consistent azoospermia, which is necessary for effective male contraception."
08/01/1975 - "In the majority of patients with obstructive azoospermia and after ligation of the vas deferens, spermatogenesis continued normally and the spermatozoa so formed were eliminated by epididymal macrophages. "
03/01/2015 - "Copy-number variations in Y-chromosomal azoospermia factor regions identified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification."
02/01/2005 - "It is possible that the smaller testes usually associated with azoospermia indicate smaller testicular arteries, thus posing a greater risk of accidental ligation."
09/01/1982 - "The existence of an accessory vas could explain failure of azoospermia following a ligation procedure."
02/01/1964 - "FATE OF SPERMATOZOA IN CASES OF OBSTRUCTIVE AZOOSPERMIA AND AFTER LIGATION OF VAS DEFERENS IN MAN."
03/10/1979 - " His major concern seems to be the failure rate and, excluding those pregnancies associated with repeated and confirmed azoospermia (which are hardly likely to be operative failures) the Schmidt's technique is more effective than any doubling back or different suture materials and equally as good as excising the 5 cm Dr. Selvey suggested. "
03/01/2006 - "Between December 2002 and November 2004, 29 men with idiopathic obstructive azoospermia underwent vaso-epididymostomy with the two-suture invagination technique. "
03/01/2006 - "To prospectively evaluate the results of vaso-epididymostomy, using a two-suture microsurgical invagination technique, when used for men with azoospermia due to an obstruction at the vaso-epididymal junction. "
12/01/2014 - "To evaluate the efficacy of microsurgical two-suture single-armed longitudinal intussusception vasoepididymostomy for patients with obstructive azoospermia (OA) attending our institution. "
12/01/2014 - "Two-suture single-armed longitudinal intussusception vasoepididymostomy for obstructive azoospermia: report of patients characteristics and outcome."
|5.||Vasovasostomy (Vasectomy Reversal)
03/01/2015 - "This study included 76 patients with obstructive azoospermia, 53 treated by bilateral vasoepididymostomy (8 involving the epididymal head, 18 involving the epididymal body, 5 involving the epididymal tail, and 22 involving the epididymal head, body and tail), 14 by unilateral vasoepididymostomy, and the other 9 by unilateral vasoepididymostomy + unilateral vasovasostomy (including cross anastomosis). "
05/01/2005 - "The results of our study demonstrated that secondary azoospermia after vasovasostomy is rare. "
03/01/2015 - "To investigate the clinical effect of microsurgical vasoepididymostomy and/or vasovasostomy in the treatment of obstructive azoospermia. "
06/01/2011 - "Aberrant DNA methylation at imprinted genes in testicular sperm retrieved from men with obstructive azoospermia and undergoing vasectomy reversal."
12/01/2010 - "In men with obstructive azoospermia in whom vasovasostomy is not indicated, sperm can be easily obtained by either aspiration from epididymis or testis, or a testicular biopsy. "