Non-specific white matter changes in the BRAIN, often seen after age 65. Changes include loss of AXONS; MYELIN pallor, GLIOSIS, loss of ependymal cells, and enlarged perivascular spaces. Leukoaraiosis is a risk factor for DEMENTIA and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS.
Also Known As:
Networked: 185 relevant articles (2 outcomes, 28 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Stroke (Strokes)
2. Dementia (Dementias)
3. Edema
4. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
5. Brain Infarction


1. Markus, Hugh S: 9 articles (12/2015 - 02/2003)
2. Barrick, Thomas R: 4 articles (12/2015 - 08/2003)
3. Zhao, Xingquan: 4 articles (11/2014 - 05/2009)
4. Wang, Yongjun: 4 articles (11/2014 - 05/2009)
5. Wang, Yilong: 4 articles (11/2014 - 05/2009)
6. Liu, Liping: 4 articles (11/2014 - 05/2009)
7. Markus, H S: 4 articles (01/2012 - 03/2001)
8. Szolnoki, Z: 4 articles (05/2011 - 11/2001)
9. Inzitari, D: 3 articles (09/2015 - 02/2007)
10. Rothwell, Peter M: 3 articles (11/2014 - 09/2012)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Leukoaraiosis:
1. Blood Glucose (Blood Sugar)IBA
01/01/2013 - "Logistic regression analysis showed that absence of diabetic history (odds ratio (OR) 0.968 (95% CI 0.941-0.996)), absence of leukoaraiosis (OR 0.835 (95% CI 0.712-0.980)), lower baseline NIHSS score (OR 0.885 (95% CI 0.793-0.989)), lower pre-thrombolysis systolic blood pressure (OR 0.962 (95% CI 0.929-0.997)), and lower blood glucose level (OR 0.699 (95% CI 0.491-0.994)) before thrombolysis were significantly associated with better outcome. "
01/01/2013 - "Good outcome group had fewer patients with diabetic history (9.09% vs. 28.26%, P = 0.012), fewer patients with leukoaraiosis (7.27% vs. 28.26%, P = 0.005) and presented with lower blood glucose level ((5.72 ± 1.76) vs. (6.72 ± 1.32) mmol/L, P = 0.012), lower systolic blood pressure level ((135.45 ± 19.36) vs. (148.78 ± 19.39) mmHg, P = 0.003), lower baseline NIHSS score (12.02 ± 5.26 vs. 15.78 ± 4.98, P = 0.002) and shorter onset-to-treatment time (OTT) ((2.38 ± 1.21) vs. (2.57 ± 1.03) hours, P = 0.044) than poor outcome group. "
01/01/2013 - "Patients with no history of diabetes, no leukoaraiosis, low blood glucose level, low systolic blood pressure level and low baseline NIHSS score before thrombolysis have a better outcome."
08/01/2004 - "High blood glucose level in the acute period and presence of leukoaraiosis on cranial computerized (CCT) tomography were detected as risk factors in development of HT. "
08/01/2004 - "Age, sex, systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, blood glucose level in the acute period, renal and liver function tests, systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure in the acute period, previous cerebrovascular disease, leukoaraiosis, modified Rankin Disability Score (mRDS) and stroke subtype were evaluated. "
2. Arginine (L-Arginine)FDA Link
3. glucuronyl glucosamine glycan sulfate (Vessel)IBA
4. HomocysteineIBA
5. Biological Markers (Surrogate Marker)IBA
6. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)IBA
11/01/2011 - "The diagnosis is also established by imaging and laboratory studies if: (1) MRI reveals leukoaraiosis and multiple small infarcts in the deep white matter, basal ganglia, thalamus, and pons, with hyperintensities of the temporal pole and external capsule bilaterally; (2) electron microscopy demonstrates granular osmiophilic material (GOM) around vascular smooth muscles in the brain, skeletal muscle, and skin; and (3) DNA analysis shows notch3 mutations. "
11/01/2008 - "The diagnosis is also established on the basis of the following findings of imaging and laboratory studies: the presence of (1) leukoaraiosis and multiple small infarcts in the bilateral deep white matter, basal ganglia, thalamus, and pons revealed by MRI; (2) granular osmiophilic material (GOM) around the vascular smooth muscles in the brain, skeletal muscle, peripheral nerves, and skin demonstrated by electron microscopy; and (3) Notch3 mutations revealed by DNA analysis. "
10/01/2013 - "Genomic DNA of 116 patients with lacunar infarction (LI), 334 patients with leukoaraiosis (LA) and 450 control subjects was genotyped for the COX-2 -1195G > A and -765G > C polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. "
12/01/1997 - "Age-associated vascular changes not clearly linked to such conditions include hyaline arteriosclerotic changes with formation of arterial tortuosities in small intracranial vessels and the radiographic changes in deep cerebral white matter known as "leukoaraiosis." Aging is accompanied by increases in glial cell activation, in oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, in irreversible protein glycation, and in damage to DNA, and such changes may underlie in part the age-associated increasing incidence of "degenerative" conditions such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. "
7. Nimodipine (Modus)FDA LinkGeneric
8. AnticoagulantsIBA
06/01/2004 - "Patients with PICH who had microbleeds were significantly older (65.9 +/- 10.9 years) than those without microbleeds (53.9 +/- 13.0 years; P<.001), and previous stroke, medication with antithrombotics or anticoagulants, lacunes, and leukoaraiosis were more common in patients with microbleeds. "
08/01/2003 - "Leukoaraiosis has been shown to predispose to intracerebral hemorrhage at both the basal-ganglionic and lobar sites, primarily when leukoaraiosis is extensive and patients are treated with anticoagulants because of prior ischemic events. "
11/01/2010 - "Risk factors for sICH include hypertension, advanced age, leukoaraiosis, prior ICH, renal failure, use of anticoagulant drugs, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. "
04/01/2011 - "The results of this study, together with a review of the sparse relevant literature, underline the following points: these patients tend to be older and more frequently female than in recent clinical trials; TIAs are rare; these patients have numerous vascular risk factors and associated cerebrovascular diseases such as atheroma and leukoaraiosis; CI is often extensive and hemorrhagic; AF is discovered in a stroke unit in 40% of cases and is paroxystic in 33% of cases, with no consensus on the potential regulation; there is massive underuse of VKA in patients with known AF; rtPA intravenous thrombolysis is frequent; treatment difficulties arise in patients with AF-related CI and a history of ICH; the prognosis of VKA-related ICH is poor; the use of oral anticoagulants alone or combined with aspirin is controversial in case of AF associated with severe atheroma. "
9. Tissue Plasminogen Activator (Alteplase)FDA Link
10. Protons (Proton)IBA

Therapies and Procedures

1. Carotid Endarterectomy
2. Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
3. Denervation
4. Thrombectomy
5. Thrombolytic Therapy