|4.||Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
|1.||Markus, Hugh S: 9 articles (12/2015 - 02/2003)|
|2.||Barrick, Thomas R: 4 articles (12/2015 - 08/2003)|
|3.||Zhao, Xingquan: 4 articles (11/2014 - 05/2009)|
|4.||Wang, Yongjun: 4 articles (11/2014 - 05/2009)|
|5.||Wang, Yilong: 4 articles (11/2014 - 05/2009)|
|6.||Liu, Liping: 4 articles (11/2014 - 05/2009)|
|7.||Markus, H S: 4 articles (01/2012 - 03/2001)|
|8.||Szolnoki, Z: 4 articles (05/2011 - 11/2001)|
|9.||Inzitari, D: 3 articles (09/2015 - 02/2007)|
|10.||Rothwell, Peter M: 3 articles (11/2014 - 09/2012)|
|1.||Blood Glucose (Blood Sugar)IBA
01/01/2013 - "Logistic regression analysis showed that absence of diabetic history (odds ratio (OR) 0.968 (95% CI 0.941-0.996)), absence of leukoaraiosis (OR 0.835 (95% CI 0.712-0.980)), lower baseline NIHSS score (OR 0.885 (95% CI 0.793-0.989)), lower pre-thrombolysis systolic blood pressure (OR 0.962 (95% CI 0.929-0.997)), and lower blood glucose level (OR 0.699 (95% CI 0.491-0.994)) before thrombolysis were significantly associated with better outcome. "
01/01/2013 - "Good outcome group had fewer patients with diabetic history (9.09% vs. 28.26%, P = 0.012), fewer patients with leukoaraiosis (7.27% vs. 28.26%, P = 0.005) and presented with lower blood glucose level ((5.72 ± 1.76) vs. (6.72 ± 1.32) mmol/L, P = 0.012), lower systolic blood pressure level ((135.45 ± 19.36) vs. (148.78 ± 19.39) mmHg, P = 0.003), lower baseline NIHSS score (12.02 ± 5.26 vs. 15.78 ± 4.98, P = 0.002) and shorter onset-to-treatment time (OTT) ((2.38 ± 1.21) vs. (2.57 ± 1.03) hours, P = 0.044) than poor outcome group. "
01/01/2013 - "Patients with no history of diabetes, no leukoaraiosis, low blood glucose level, low systolic blood pressure level and low baseline NIHSS score before thrombolysis have a better outcome."
08/01/2004 - "High blood glucose level in the acute period and presence of leukoaraiosis on cranial computerized (CCT) tomography were detected as risk factors in development of HT. "
08/01/2004 - "Age, sex, systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, blood glucose level in the acute period, renal and liver function tests, systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure in the acute period, previous cerebrovascular disease, leukoaraiosis, modified Rankin Disability Score (mRDS) and stroke subtype were evaluated. "
|2.||Arginine (L-Arginine)FDA Link
07/01/2013 - "Is high oral dose L-arginine intake effective in leukoaraiosis? "
|3.||glucuronyl glucosamine glycan sulfate (Vessel)IBA
01/01/2011 - "2001–2011: a decade of the LADIS (Leukoaraiosis And DISability) Study: what have we learned about white matter changes and small-vessel disease?"
04/01/2000 - "The skin biopsy ultrastructural study seems to be highly informative given that we can observe vessel lesions and association of impairments in various tissues that might, in part, explain the brain vessel involvement and then the leukoaraiosis and probably some clinical symptoms. "
01/01/2015 - "Characterising the grey matter correlates of leukoaraiosis in cerebral small vessel disease."
10/01/2014 - "The combination of infarcts and leukoaraiosis carried the worst prognosis, presumably reflecting small vessel disease."
01/01/2014 - "dVRS is an indicator of cerebral small vessel diseases such as leukoaraiosis and lacune. "
10/01/2007 - "The objective of this study was to assess if high total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) levels are a risk factor for severe leukoaraiosis (LA). "
11/01/2008 - "Homocysteine correlated with leukoaraiosis severity (r=0.225, P<0.001). "
11/01/2008 - "In white populations elevated homocysteine has been associated with SVD, especially confluent leukoaraiosis, and may be acting through endothelial dysfunction. "
10/01/2007 - "Homocysteine and leukoaraiosis: time for a clinical trial?"
06/01/2007 - "In multiple linear regression models, factors associated with greater leukoaraiosis in both racial groups included age (P<or=0.002), homocysteine levels (P<or=0.006), and brain volume (P<or=0.008). "
|5.||Biological Markers (Surrogate Marker)IBA
06/01/2015 - "These syndromic designations are preferable over VaP until pathology or validated biomarkers confirm the underlying nature and relevance of the leukoaraiosis. "
03/01/2007 - "However, leukoaraiosis does not detect the presence of MB accurately enough to be considered a surrogate marker."
08/01/2003 - "In this study, the frequency of asymptomatic new lesions in ischemic leukoaraiosis and CADASIL was determined as a step toward assessing the potential of this technique as a surrogate marker of disease activity. "
11/01/2014 - "These results highlight the need to further explore leukoaraiosis as a promising surrogate marker for poor outcome after endovascular stroke therapy to improve risk assessment, patient selection, and early prognostic accuracy."
06/01/2013 - "We included multivariate analyses on MRI biomarkers (global cortical atrophy, leukoaraiosis, brain microbleeds). "
|6.||DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)IBA
11/01/2011 - "The diagnosis is also established by imaging and laboratory studies if: (1) MRI reveals leukoaraiosis and multiple small infarcts in the deep white matter, basal ganglia, thalamus, and pons, with hyperintensities of the temporal pole and external capsule bilaterally; (2) electron microscopy demonstrates granular osmiophilic material (GOM) around vascular smooth muscles in the brain, skeletal muscle, and skin; and (3) DNA analysis shows notch3 mutations. "
11/01/2008 - "The diagnosis is also established on the basis of the following findings of imaging and laboratory studies: the presence of (1) leukoaraiosis and multiple small infarcts in the bilateral deep white matter, basal ganglia, thalamus, and pons revealed by MRI; (2) granular osmiophilic material (GOM) around the vascular smooth muscles in the brain, skeletal muscle, peripheral nerves, and skin demonstrated by electron microscopy; and (3) Notch3 mutations revealed by DNA analysis. "
10/01/2013 - "Genomic DNA of 116 patients with lacunar infarction (LI), 334 patients with leukoaraiosis (LA) and 450 control subjects was genotyped for the COX-2 -1195G > A and -765G > C polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. "
12/01/1997 - "Age-associated vascular changes not clearly linked to such conditions include hyaline arteriosclerotic changes with formation of arterial tortuosities in small intracranial vessels and the radiographic changes in deep cerebral white matter known as "leukoaraiosis." Aging is accompanied by increases in glial cell activation, in oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, in irreversible protein glycation, and in damage to DNA, and such changes may underlie in part the age-associated increasing incidence of "degenerative" conditions such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. "
|7.||Nimodipine (Modus)FDA LinkGeneric
12/01/1996 - "These data indicate that nimodipine, chronically administered in patients presenting with cognitive impairment, progressive bilateral motor dysfunction, and leukoaraiosis on CT, is safe and might have beneficial effect, to be confirmed by a randomized trial."
12/01/1996 - "We treated, in a preliminary open trial, 31 patients presenting with cognitive impairment, progressive bilateral motor dysfunction, and leukoaraiosis on computed tomography (CT) with a 90-mg daily dose of nimodipine for a period as long as 1 year (minimum: 96 days, maximum: 424 days), to study the safety and possible effects on functional and cognitive conditions throughout this period. "
12/01/1996 - "A preliminary open trial with nimodipine in patients with cognitive impairment and leukoaraiosis."
07/01/1993 - "The presence of cerebral infarcts, leukoaraiosis, atrophy, and edema on ultra-low-field MRI was assessed in 88 community volunteers and 52 cardiac arrest survivors enrolled in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trial of nimodipine in out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. "
06/01/2004 - "Patients with PICH who had microbleeds were significantly older (65.9 +/- 10.9 years) than those without microbleeds (53.9 +/- 13.0 years; P<.001), and previous stroke, medication with antithrombotics or anticoagulants, lacunes, and leukoaraiosis were more common in patients with microbleeds. "
08/01/2003 - "Leukoaraiosis has been shown to predispose to intracerebral hemorrhage at both the basal-ganglionic and lobar sites, primarily when leukoaraiosis is extensive and patients are treated with anticoagulants because of prior ischemic events. "
11/01/2010 - "Risk factors for sICH include hypertension, advanced age, leukoaraiosis, prior ICH, renal failure, use of anticoagulant drugs, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. "
04/01/2011 - "The results of this study, together with a review of the sparse relevant literature, underline the following points: these patients tend to be older and more frequently female than in recent clinical trials; TIAs are rare; these patients have numerous vascular risk factors and associated cerebrovascular diseases such as atheroma and leukoaraiosis; CI is often extensive and hemorrhagic; AF is discovered in a stroke unit in 40% of cases and is paroxystic in 33% of cases, with no consensus on the potential regulation; there is massive underuse of VKA in patients with known AF; rtPA intravenous thrombolysis is frequent; treatment difficulties arise in patients with AF-related CI and a history of ICH; the prognosis of VKA-related ICH is poor; the use of oral anticoagulants alone or combined with aspirin is controversial in case of AF associated with severe atheroma. "
|9.||Tissue Plasminogen Activator (Alteplase)FDA Link
01/01/2008 - "Importance of leukoaraiosis on CT for tissue plasminogen activator decision making: evaluation of the NINDS rt-PA Stroke Study."
06/01/2010 - "Whether leukoaraiosis on baseline CT is associated with an increased risk of symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH) or poor outcome following tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment for acute ischaemic stroke is still a matter of debate. "
03/27/2007 - "To evaluate whether the presence of leukoaraiosis or multiple lacunes is associated with symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and 90-day outcome after thrombolytic treatment with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). "
09/01/2009 - "Commentary on "Leukoaraiosis predicts the need for intraoperative shunt placement during carotid endarterectomy"."
09/01/2009 - "Commentary on "Leukoaraiosis predicts the need for intraoperative shunt placement during carotid endarterectomy"."
09/01/2009 - "Leukoaraiosis predicts the need for intraoperative shunt placement during carotid endarterectomy."
05/01/2013 - "Carotid artery stenosis was defined by the criteria of the North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial; leukoaraiosis was evaluated based on the European Task Force on Age-Related White Matter Changes criteria. "
|2.||Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
06/01/2014 - "The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. "
10/01/1992 - "The prevalence of dementia and rate of dependence in activities of daily living both 1 month after the index stroke and at the end of the follow-up period were significantly higher in the patients with leukoaraiosis (all parameters, P less than 0.001). "
10/01/1992 - "We compared the prognosis with and without leukoaraiosis based on analysis of recurrent stroke, survival, and the prevalence of dementia and rate of dependence in activities of daily living. "
02/01/2009 - "After 1 year, adjusted ORs for moderate/severe leukoaraiosis compared with no leukoaraiosis were 2.0 (95%CI 1.1-4.0) for Barthel Index <or=75; 1.9 (95%CI 0.9-4.0) for help needed in ADL; 2.5 (95%CI 1.0-6.3) for not feeling totally recovered; 2.0 (95%CI 1.1-4.1) for low QoL; 1.9 (95%CI 1.0-3.5) for psychological distress, and 1.6 (95%CI 0.9-2.9) for reduced community integration. "
07/01/2015 - "However, no systematic study has been reported on the clinical features indicating concomitant nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation (NDD) in parkinsonian patients with leukoaraiosis. "
12/01/2014 - "The pathophysiology of these impairments cannot be explained completely by nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation or leukoaraiosis burden and may relate to systemic factors seen with accelerated aging."
12/01/2014 - "After adjusting for disease duration, leukoaraiosis, and nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation, Parkinson disease subjects with elevated Framingham risk scores (n = 61) displayed slower Timed Up and Go test performance (β = 1.86, t = 2.41, p = .018) compared with subjects with normal range Framingham risk scores (n = 22). "
07/01/2012 - "The purpose of this study was to determine whether leukoaraiosis (LA) predicts hemorrhagic transformation and poor outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated by mechanical thrombectomy. "
07/01/2012 - "Leukoaraiosis predicts parenchymal hematoma after mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke."