|1.||Birth Weight (Birth Weights)
|5.||Premature Obstetric Labor (Premature Labor)
|1.||Iams, Jay D: 40 articles (08/2015 - 03/2002)|
|2.||Crowther, Caroline A: 38 articles (06/2015 - 11/2003)|
|3.||Caritis, Steve N: 31 articles (11/2015 - 03/2002)|
|4.||Menon, Ramkumar: 31 articles (11/2015 - 01/2006)|
|5.||Mercer, Brian M: 29 articles (02/2015 - 03/2002)|
|6.||Thorp, John M: 29 articles (02/2015 - 03/2002)|
|7.||Rouse, Dwight J: 28 articles (12/2015 - 08/2007)|
|8.||Wapner, Ronald J: 28 articles (06/2015 - 11/2002)|
|9.||Romero, Roberto: 26 articles (12/2015 - 05/2003)|
|10.||Goldenberg, Robert L: 26 articles (05/2015 - 03/2002)|
03/01/2010 - "Progesterone treatment has proven to be effective in preventing recurrent preterm birth. "
01/01/2009 - "While there have been recent reports of progesterone supplementation for women at risk of preterm birth which show promise in this intervention, there is currently insufficient data on clinically important outcomes for both women and infants to enable informed clinical decision-making. "
01/01/2013 - "Progesterone versus placebo for women with 'other' risk factors for preterm birth Progesterone, was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of infant birthweight less than 2500 g (three studies; 482 infants; RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.91). "
01/01/2011 - "Previous studies showed good results of progesterone in women with either a history of preterm birth or a short cervix. "
01/01/2009 - "Two new randomized controlled trials of women with previous preterm birth were added to the four analyzed in the Cochrane review, and the meta-analysis of all six studies now showed that progesterone supplementation was associated with a significant reduction of delivery before 32 weeks and of perinatal mortality. "
|2.||Adrenal Cortex Hormones (Corticosteroids)IBA
10/01/2009 - "Repeat prenatal corticosteroids given to women at continuing risk of preterm birth 7 or more days after an initial course reduced the inherent respiratory complications of prematurity and improved health outcomes of preterm infants. "
01/01/1998 - "Because cardiovascular function after premature birth is improved by the use of antenatal corticosteroids, we also tested the hypothesis that corticosteroid administration would evoke a more pronounced sympathetic response in prematurely delivered lambs (n = 7, 118- to 125-day gestation). "
01/01/2006 - "Corticosteroids given prior to preterm birth (as a result of either preterm labour or elective preterm delivery) are effective in preventing respiratory distress syndrome and neonatal mortality. "
01/01/2000 - "Corticosteroids given prior to preterm birth (as a result of either preterm labour or elective preterm delivery) are effective in preventing respiratory distress syndrome and neonatal mortality. "
01/01/2015 - "The efficacy of antenatal corticosteroids is well established in the induction of lung maturation in premature births. "
08/01/2001 - "Of these, fetal fibronectin and endovaginal ultrasound examination of the cervix have proven effective in predicting which symptomatic women are actually at low risk of preterm birth. "
03/01/2005 - "To assess efficacy of cervico-vaginal fetal fibronectin as a predictor of spontaneous preterm birth in a high risk antenatal population, and to evaluate the psychological impact of fetal fibronectin testing. "
07/01/1997 - "As an example, the risk of spontaneous preterm birth at < 30 weeks for women with two negative fetal fibronectin test results at 24 and 26 weeks was 0.3% versus 16% for women with two positive results. "
09/01/2015 - "The aim of the study was to investigate whether cervical sonoelastography improves prediction of spontaneous preterm birth compared with cervical length measurement and a fetal fibronectin (fFN) test. "
01/01/2015 - "The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sexual intercourse on the accuracy of quantitative fetal fibronectin (qfFN) in the prediction of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) in asymptomatic high-risk women. "
01/01/2013 - "To assess whether magnesium maintenance therapy is effective in preventing preterm birth after the initial threatened preterm labour is arrested. "
01/01/2010 - "To assess whether magnesium maintenance therapy is effective in preventing preterm birth after the initial threatened preterm labour is arrested. "
01/01/2000 - "There is not enough evidence to show that magnesium maintenance therapy is effective in preventing preterm birth after an episode of threatened preterm labour."
01/01/2014 - "The BRAzil MAGnesium (BRAMAG) trial: a randomized clinical trial of oral magnesium supplementation in pregnancy for the prevention of preterm birth and perinatal and maternal morbidity."
01/01/2013 - "The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of administering magnesium sulphate to patients in whom preterm birth at < 32+0 weeks gestation is either imminent or threatened for the purpose of fetal neuroprotection. "
|5.||Folic Acid (Vitamin M)FDA LinkGeneric
02/01/2010 - "Folic acid alone in the third trimester associated with 0.6 week longer gestational age and a more significant reduction in the rate of preterm births (4.8%). "
04/01/2015 - "Our results do not indicate a link between folic acid fortification and early term birth but suggest an improvement in preterm birth rates after implementation of a nationwide folic acid fortification program."
10/01/2010 - "An improved understanding of folate metabolism during pregnancy may lead to targeted intervention strategies that decrease the rate of preterm birth."
12/01/2015 - "There was no support for any beneficial effect of folic acid use on preterm birth or low birth weight, and we found no evidence of any harmful effects of folate use for the outcomes included in our study."
01/01/2014 - "Folic acid supplementation and preterm birth: results from observational studies."
|6.||Metronidazole (Metric)FDA LinkGeneric
12/01/1997 - "In the subset of 46 women with a previous preterm birth, women in the metronidazole group showed a significant reduction in spontaneous preterm birth (2/22 [9.1%] vs 10/24 [41.7%], OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.01-0.84). "
01/01/2015 - "We selected 17 studies investigating the association between exposure to oral metronidazole and the risk of preterm birth, from which 12 were randomized clinical trials. "
01/01/2011 - "The trial was stopped before reaching its target recruitment because metronidazole was not effective in reducing preterm birth and there was a likelihood of harm (risk ratio 1.78; 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 2.66). "
04/01/2005 - "The purpose of this study was to determine if a change in the vaginal flora was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, and to determine if metronidazole therapy before 32 weeks increased the risk of preterm birth. "
01/01/2002 - "The trial was stopped before reaching its target recruitment because metronidazole was not effective in reducing preterm birth and there was a likelihood of harm (relative risk: 1.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 2.7). "
|7.||Anti-Bacterial Agents (Antibiotics)IBA
10/01/2015 - "Studies have shown broad-spectrum antibiotics plus anaerobic antimicrobial therapy did not prevent the deterioration of NEC among very low birth preterm infants. "
10/01/2015 - "Study Design Secondary analysis by utilizing stored vaginal samples obtained during a previous randomized controlled trial studying the effect of antibiotics on preterm birth (PTB). "
12/01/2009 - "This study provides no support for the use of antibiotics as routine prophylaxis to prevent preterm birth in high risk populations; prevention of preterm birth requires alternative strategies. "
10/01/2006 - "Data from women who were enrolled in a trial of antibiotics for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 and of preterm birth were analyzed. "
03/01/2006 - "A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of antibiotics to reduce preterm birth was conducted in 4 African sites. "
|8.||Vitamin A (Retinol)FDA LinkGeneric
08/20/1999 - "Vitamin A supplementation, a low-cost intervention, does not appear to be effective in reducing overall mother-to-child transmission of HIV; however, its potential for reducing the incidence of preterm births, and the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in these infants needs further investigation."
01/01/2015 - "1) Vitamin A alone versus placebo or no treatmentOverall, when trial results are pooled, vitamin A supplementation does not affect the risk of maternal mortality (risk ratio (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65 to 1.20; four trials Ghana, Nepal, Bangladesh, UK, high quality evidence), perinatal mortality (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.07; one study, high quality evidence), neonatal mortality, stillbirth, neonatal anaemia, preterm birth (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.01, five studies, high quality evidence), or the risk of having a low birthweight baby.Vitamin"
01/01/2010 - " when trial results are pooled, Vitamin A supplementation does not affect the risk of maternal mortality (risk ratio (RR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55 to 1.10, 3 studies, Nepal, Ghana,UK ), perinatal mortality, neonatal mortality, stillbirth, neonatal anaemia, preterm birth or the risk of having a low birthweight baby. "
01/01/2002 - "There is no evidence of heterogeneity between the trials (p = 0.37), and no evidence of an effect of vitamin A supplementation in HIV-infected pregnant women on stillbirths (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.80), very preterm births, i.e. "
01/01/2011 - "However, antenatal vitamin A supplementation significantly improved birth weight (3 trials, 1809 women: MD 89.78, 95%CI 84.73 to 94.83; I(2)=33.0%), but there was no evidence of an effect on preterm births (3 trials, 2110 women: RR 0.88, 95%CI 0.65 to 1.19; I(2)=58.1%), stillbirths (4 trials, 2855 women: RR 0.99, 95%CI 0.68 to 1.43; I(2)=0%), deaths by 24 months (2 trials, 1635 women: RR 1.03, 95%CI 0.88 to 1.20; I(2)=0%), postpartum CD4 levels (1 trial, 727 women: MD -4.00, 95% CI -51.06 to 43.06), and maternal death ( 1 trial, 728 women: RR 0.49, 95%CI 0.04 to 5.37). "
01/01/2012 - "Zinc supplementation resulted in a small but significant reduction in preterm birth (risk ratio (RR) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76 to 0.97 in 16 RCTs; 16 trials of 7637 women). "
07/01/2012 - "A meta-analysis completed in 2007 showed that maternal zinc supplementation resulted in a small but significant reduction in preterm birth. "
01/01/2007 - "Zinc supplementation resulted in a small but significant reduction in preterm birth (relative risk (RR) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76 to 0.98 in 13 RCTs; 6854 women). "
01/01/2015 - "The evidence for a 14% relative reduction in preterm birth for zinc compared with placebo was primarily represented by trials involving women of low income and this has some relevance in areas of high perinatal mortality. "
01/01/2015 - "Zinc supplementation resulted in a small reduction in preterm birth (risk ratio (RR) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76 to 0.97 in 16 RCTs; 16 trials of 7637 women). "
|10.||Biological Markers (Surrogate Marker)IBA
02/01/2015 - "The 2 biomarkers that were measured in the present study had opposite associations with preterm birth; an improved understanding of what each represents may help to identify more precisely important mechanisms in the pathway to preterm birth."
04/01/2012 - "These findings, which are relevant to human cervical biology, provide new insights that will allow targeted studies on the human cervix as well as identify potential biomarkers for early detection of premature cervical ripening and development of improved therapies to prevent premature ripening of the cervix and subsequent preterm birth."
02/01/2015 - "The purpose of this study was to investigate oxidative stress as a mechanism of preterm birth in human subjects; we examined associations between urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress that were measured at multiple time points during pregnancy and preterm birth. "
01/01/2015 - "In our study, we used a mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach to search for biomarkers that may act as early indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). "
03/01/2014 - "This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). "
|1.||Bed Rest (Bedrest)
10/01/2010 - "Antepartum bed rest/activity restriction (ABR/AR) has been a mainstay of treatment to prevent preterm birth for the past 30 years prescribed for nearly 1 million women in the United States annually, despite a lack of evidence for its effectiveness. "
10/01/2004 - "The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of cerclage and bed rest versus bed rest-only for the prevention of preterm birth in women with a short cervix found on transvaginal ultrasound examination. "
01/01/2015 - "Future trials should evaluate both the effectiveness of bed rest, and the effectiveness of the prescription of bed rest, to prevent preterm birth."
01/01/2015 - "Randomized, cluster-randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials with reported data that assess clinical outcomes in women at high risk of spontaneous preterm birth who were prescribed bed rest in hospital or at home for preventing preterm birth, and their babies. "
01/01/2004 - "Future trials should evaluate both the effectiveness of bed rest, and the effectiveness of the prescription of bed rest, to prevent preterm birth."
|2.||Neonatal Intensive Care
05/01/2008 - "The higher rates of very premature birth and more ready admission to neonatal intensive care for infants in the UK may help to explain why perinatal and neonatal mortality are higher there than in Australia. "
11/27/1995 - "During the last ten years the rate of preterm birth has remained unchanged, and even though advances in neonatal intensive care have improved the chances of survival of the preterm child, the mortality remains high. "
10/01/1979 - "While the high risk infants' prognosis for normal development has been greatly improved by modern neonatal intensive care, premature birth, low birthweight and perinatal complications involving compromised brain function still represent major risk factors. "
07/01/2015 - "Five main themes resuming fathers' experience of preterm birth and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit stay were identified from 14 studies. "
01/01/2014 - "One small trial (145 women), which did not employ blinding of the intervention, showed an increase in the number of preterm births (before 37 weeks' gestation) (RR 1.56, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.14; NNTH 5, 95% CI 3 to 19), a lower gestational age at birth (MD -1.20 weeks, 95% CI -2.15 to -0.25) and an increase in admission to neonatal intensive care unit (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.47; NNTH 5, 95% CI 3 to 20). "
01/01/2014 - "Cervical cerclage reduces the incidence of preterm birth in women at risk of recurrent preterm birth, without a statistically significant reduction in perinatal mortality or neonatal morbidity. "
01/01/2012 - "Compared with no treatment, cervical cerclage reduces the incidence of preterm birth in women at risk of recurrent preterm birth without statistically significant reduction in perinatal mortality or neonatal morbidity and uncertain long-term impact on the baby. "
01/01/2013 - "The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough summary of published studies that have assessed the efficacy of adjunctive therapies used in addition to cervical cerclage as a preventive measure for preterm birth. "
06/01/2013 - "All available randomized trials comparing the effects of cervical cerclage for preventing preterm birth in twin pregnancies with no cerclage were included. "
04/01/2013 - "Randomised trial of cervical cerclage, with and without occlusion, for the prevention of preterm birth in women suspected for cervical insufficiency."
11/01/2010 - "All payment groups show a trend toward significant reduction in preterm birth prevalence as adequacy of prenatal care improved from inadequate to adequate. "
05/01/2014 - "The results showed that the quantity of prenatal care is effective in reducing preterm birth and low birth weight. "
04/01/2012 - "Studies among ethnic minorities suggest that prenatal care (PNC) may be less protective against preterm birth (PTB) among foreign-born relative to US-born mothers. "
10/01/2009 - "Improved quality of prenatal care and the identification of the above factors during pregnancy may help reduce premature birth."
01/01/2015 - "The rate of preterm births and of adequate prenatal care increased significantly over the study period. "
10/01/1996 - "Overall improvement in perinatal outcome may be achieved with a comprehensive program of preterm birth prevention without the use of maintenance oral tocolytic therapy."
03/01/2015 - "We found no difference between groups in tocolysis or preterm birth. "
06/01/2014 - "In an unselected group of women with signs of preterm labour, maintenance tocolysis is not effective in the prevention of preterm birth and does not improve neonatal outcome. "
11/01/2011 - "These data indicate that pharmacologic stimulation of myometrial K(Ca)2.2/2.3 channels effectively suppresses Ca(2+)-mediated uterine contractions and delays preterm birth in mice, supporting the potential utility of this approach in tocolytic therapies."
10/01/2011 - "Myth: tocolysis for prevention of preterm birth has a major role in modern obstetrics."