|2.||Parkinson Disease (Parkinson's Disease)
|4.||Movement Disorders (Movement Disorder)
|1.||Farrer, Matthew J: 32 articles (05/2015 - 03/2003)|
|2.||Lees, Andrew J: 32 articles (01/2015 - 10/2002)|
|3.||Hattori, Nobutaka: 29 articles (11/2014 - 08/2002)|
|4.||Klein, Christine: 22 articles (10/2015 - 07/2002)|
|5.||Wszolek, Zbigniew K: 21 articles (01/2016 - 08/2002)|
|6.||Brice, Alexis: 21 articles (09/2014 - 04/2002)|
|7.||Dickson, Dennis W: 20 articles (01/2016 - 01/2002)|
|8.||Poewe, Werner: 20 articles (01/2012 - 09/2002)|
|9.||Ross, Owen A: 19 articles (01/2016 - 04/2005)|
|10.||Lang, Anthony E: 19 articles (01/2015 - 08/2002)|
|1.||Levodopa (L Dopa)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2015 - "Mucuna pruriens is the best known natural source of L-dopa, the gold standard for treatment of Parkinsonism. "
08/01/2006 - "Parkinsonism improved dramatically after levodopa therapy. "
03/01/2003 - "All 3 patients responded dramatically to treatment with levodopa, and parkinsonism spontaneously improved or remitted over months. "
01/01/2007 - "We describe a patient with juvenile levodopa-responsive Parkinsonism who reported a dramatic response to cigarette smoking with transient but marked improvement of motor symptoms associated with oculogyric crises and psychotic behavior. "
12/01/1999 - "However, a marked improvement of all clinical symptoms with a low dose of L-dopa was reported in AR-DRD/parkinsonism patients. "
|2.||Dopamine (Intropin)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/1996 - "Behavioral measures of parkinsonism that are more clinically relevant than rotometry have been developed for rats with severe unilateral dopamine depletions, and the validity of these measures is supported by reports that these parkinsonian symptoms are attenuated by drugs that are effective in the clinical setting. "
07/01/1992 - "Furthermore, the data emphasize the importance of hypothalamic pathology in the development of Parkinsonism and suggest that intrahypothalamic administration of dopamine blocking agents might be useful in the treatment of Parkinsonism."
11/01/2011 - "However, the use of experimental models of parkinsonism has helped understand the motor complications associated with pulsatile dopamine replacement. "
09/01/1998 - "Efficacy of grafted immortalized dopamine neurons in an animal model of parkinsonism: a review."
11/26/1992 - "Bilateral implantation of fetal mesencephalic tissue can induce substantial long-term functional improvement in patients with parkinsonism and severe dopamine depletion and is accompanied by increased uptake of fluorodopa by the striatum. "
|3.||1- Methyl- 4- phenyl- 1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)IBA
11/01/1988 - "During the first few weeks following 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration, all monkeys gradually developed a parkinsonian syndrome, which partially, but not completely improved within 30-40 days in 2 animals. "
09/01/1995 - "2. The efficacy of D-1 receptor agonists in the treatment of experimental parkinsonism in MPTP-treated primates is demonstrated. "
03/01/2015 - "The present study investigated changes in gene expression profiles measured using whole transcript array in the SN region related to the inhibitory effects of acupuncture in a chronic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) Parkinsonism model. "
08/15/2014 - "The present study exposed monkeys to higher MPTP doses to produce significant parkinsonism and behavioral impairments. "
06/01/2014 - "In the present study, parkinsonism was induced in cynomolgus monkeys by intravenous administration of MPTP (0.2 mg/kg) for 15 days; stable parkinsonism developed over 90 days, when the symptoms were stable. "
|4.||Amantadine (Aman)FDA LinkGeneric
08/15/1998 - "Amantadine is an antiviral agent that was unexpectedly found to cause symptomatic improvement in patients with Parkinsonism, although its mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. "
02/02/1973 - "[Efficacy of amantadine sulfate as a infusion solution in the treatment of parkinsonian syndrome]."
07/10/1970 - "This release may account for the reported efficacy of amantadine hydrochloride in the treatment of human parkinsonism."
11/01/2015 - "She had been diagnosed with Parkinsonian syndrome, which was controlled with amantadine. "
10/01/2013 - "Amantadine is commonly used for Parkinsonism. "
|5.||Bromocriptine (Parlodel)FDA LinkGeneric
10/01/2005 - "His parkinsonism responded well to treatment with bromocriptine, but he continued to stutter. "
04/01/1987 - "Bromocriptine at doses of 20 mg/day or below may yield effective symptomatic improvement in de novo parkinsonism and may be considered as the initial treatment in young parkinsonian patients with only mild-to-moderate disability."
10/01/1978 - "However, the degree of improvement in the signs of parkinsonism was related to plasma bromocriptine levels was achieved. "
03/01/1994 - "We conducted this study to determine whether bromocriptine, an agent widely used for treating parkinsonism, possesses antioxidant effects. "
01/01/1976 - "Clinical studies with bromocriptine in idiopathic parkinsonism."
|6.||Selegiline (E250)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/1987 - "Therapeutic efficacy of R-(-)-deprenyl as adjuvant therapy in advanced parkinsonism."
01/01/1993 - "These results show that selegiline is safe and effective as monotherapy in early parkinsonism. "
01/01/1993 - "The French Selegiline Multicenter Trial was carried out in 1990 to investigate whether the disability of de novo patients with parkinsonism could be improved during the first 3 months by monotherapy with selegiline (10 mg/day). "
03/01/2015 - "Subjects were drawn from the Deprenyl and Tocopherol Antioxidative Therapy of Parkinsonism (DATATOP) study, a large clinical trial that enrolled initially untreated PD patients. "
05/01/2011 - "The Deprenyl and Tocopherol Antioxidative Therapy of Parkinsonism trial pioneered the use of functional clinical end points, utilized a 2 × 2 factorial design to more efficiently analyze multiple interventions, and employed a washout design to assist in sorting putative neuroprotective from symptomatic effects. "
|7.||Antipsychotic Agents (Antipsychotics)IBA
09/01/2000 - "Treatment of these symptoms is a dilemma in patients with parkinsonism because traditional antipsychotics that are usually effective in older people will often worsen motor symptoms and counteract the effect of antiparkinsonian medications. "
06/01/2013 - "It is one of ten items used in the Simpson Angus Scale, a popular measure of parkinsonism in psychiatric studies of neuroleptic drugs. "
02/01/2012 - ": Among 5,391 individuals with parkinsonism who died during the study period (2002-2008) and a matched comparison group of 25,937 who were still alive, individuals exposed to atypical antipsychotic drugs had a higher risk of death (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.8, 95% CI: 2.1-3.8, adjusted OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4-2.7). "
10/01/2008 - "The present study was performed to investigate olfactory function in depressed patients with drug-induced parkinsonism under treatment with D2-blocking neuroleptic drugs compared to depressed controls on similar neuroleptic dose without EPS (no-EPS), and neuroleptic-naive depressed controls (no-NL). "
01/01/1999 - "In six patients who met the criteria of HIV-associated psychosis and who had previously developed moderate parkinsonism as a result of the use of typical neuroleptic agents, CZP was added in an open, rising dose study. "
|8.||Haloperidol (Haldol)FDA LinkGeneric
06/01/2013 - " validation is needed, this study suggests that carriership of the -759 T allele of the HTR2C gene in females may be protective against development of parkinsonism in elderly patients during treatment with haloperidol."
08/15/1995 - "These data suggest that the protective effects of GM1 ganglioside cotreatment on haloperidol-induced alterations in cholinergic systems can be relevant for protecting against the complications of neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism."
08/01/1995 - "Abnormal positron emission tomographic scanning results in a fourth patient, whose signs and symptoms had improved with psychotherapy and haloperidol therapy, emphasizes the possibility that prominent psychogenic features may be superimposed on organic parkinsonism in some patients. "
10/01/2012 - "The aim of this study was to investigate the association between parkinsonism in elderly users of haloperidol and prescribed dose, plasma concentration, and duration of use of haloperidol in a cross-sectional design. "
05/01/1996 - "The aim of the present study was to find out whether haloperidol-induced rigidity was similar to that seen in parkinsonism. "
|9.||olanzapine (Zyprexa)FDA Link
01/01/2010 - "A significantly greater percentage of olanzapine-treated patients experienced remission of preexisting parkinsonism than did the other treatment groups (P = .047). "
06/01/2009 - "Does electroconvulsive therapy afford protection against olanzapine-induced parkinsonism? "
05/01/2003 - "In both arms there was improvement in Parkinsonism, though only olanzapine was associated with a reduction in dyskinetic symptoms. "
09/26/2000 - "After 15 patients had completed the study, safety stopping rules were invoked because of exacerbated parkinsonism in olanzapine-treated subjects. "
03/01/2011 - "The case of a patient taking high-dosage olanzapine who experienced parkinsonism after smoking cessation is reported. "
|10.||levodopa drug combination carbidopa (Nakom)FDA LinkGeneric
05/01/2013 - "The parkinsonian syndromes were relieved after the administration of sinemet. "
10/30/1991 - "This paper describes a Norwegian multi-centre study of Sinemet CR in 56 patients with mild to moderate parkinsonism. "
12/01/2004 - "The patient with disabling parkinsonism was responsive to carbidopa/levodopa. "
03/01/2002 - "Carbidopa-levodopa was associated with early improvement, but discontinuation did not result in worsening of the parkinsonism."
09/26/2000 - "To describe the clinical and molecular genetic analysis of a large family of northern Chinese descent with a mutation at the SCA2 locus causing carbidopa-levodopa-responsive parkinsonism. "
01/01/2005 - "The effect of pallidotomy for alleviation of akinetic parkinsonism is modest but significant, and continues to be effective for at least 2 years. "
11/01/1999 - "Pallidotomy helped improve overall motor function in patients with parkinsonism and, for some patients, also improved postural stability."
12/01/1999 - "The akinesia of Parkinsonism is relieved by pallidotomy and subthalamic nucleotomy, but not by thalamotomy. "
04/15/2009 - "Unilateral pallidotomy in a patient with parkinsonism and G2019S LRRK2 mutation."
05/01/2002 - "A second contralateral pallidotomy may reduce parkinsonism, although to a lesser degree compared with the first pallidotomy and with an increased risk for adverse effects."
|2.||Deep Brain Stimulation
09/01/2009 - "The reduction in beta/gamma oscillation power due to deep brain stimulation (DBS) was consistent with a significant reduction in the animals' rotational behavior, a typical symptom of parkinsonism in the rat. "
06/13/2014 - "Given that Parkinsonism has been associated with increased levels of inhibitory output activity from the basal ganglia, it is unlikely that excitation of output structures revealed in this study provides a basis for deep-brain stimulation's therapeutic action. "
04/01/2008 - "To study the frequency of different gene mutations in patients with early-onset parkinsonism and bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) and the short- and long-term surgical outcome in mutation-positive (MUT+) and -negative (MUT-) patients. "
12/01/2015 - "Parkinsonism-hyperpyrexia syndrome and deep brain stimulation."
11/01/2015 - "Our observation that lesions of the motor territory of the subthalamic nucleus were consistently associated with the prevention of parkinsonism in our SCA2 and SCA3 patients matches the clinical experience that selective targeting of the motor territory of the subthalamic nucleus by focal lesions or deep brain stimulation can ameliorate parkinsonian motor features and is likely to counteract the manifestation of parkinsonism in SCA2 and SCA3 despite a severe neurodegeneration of the dopaminergic substantia nigra. "
04/01/1993 - "Clinical neuromythology X. Faithful fashion: survival status of the brain transplant cure for parkinsonism."
05/01/1990 - "Clinical neuromythology VII. Artificial intelligence: the brain transplant cure for parkinsonism."
01/01/1990 - "Although behavioral recovery occurred in only those monkeys that received appropriate transplants (fetal SN to host CN) and not in those that received inappropriate grafts (fetal cerebellum to CN or fetal SN to cortex), the CSF HVA levels did not distinguish those monkeys with improved parkinsonism from those that remained severely parkinsonian. "
10/01/1997 - "Studies in nonhuman primates with experimental parkinsonism have shown that intrastriatal cografts of autologous adrenal medulla and peripheral nerve yield greater behavioral improvement and graft survival than do adrenal medulla grafts alone. "
02/01/1996 - "It is suggested that labeling and identification of living donor cells with FLM is feasible and thus can provide a powerful tool to study the mechanisms underlying graft-induced amelioration of neurological deficits in parkinsonism by enabling physiological assessments of grafted cells."
|4.||Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
11/01/1993 - "This report demonstrates the efficacy of extremely weak MF in reversing some of the cognitive abnormalities in Parkinsonism, notably neglect and visuoperceptive deficits, which contribute significantly to impairment of the patient's daily living activities."
01/01/2011 - "The results indicate that ZAZ2 improved activities of daily living (ADL) of parkinsonism and, thus, is a potentially suitable drug for long-term use."
06/01/1992 - "Eleven patients were recruited in this open trial and were objectively assessed by Unified Rating Scale for Parkinsonism of Columbia University, Modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging and Schwab and England activities of daily living. "
11/01/2011 - "Total PDQ39 score and all subscores were greater in welders with parkinsonism than welders without parkinsonism, with the most significant differences observed for mobility, emotional well-being, and activities of daily living (ADL's). "
05/31/2011 - "Cox proportional hazards models showed that significant baseline risk factors for driving cessation in PD were older age, preference to be driven by somebody else, positive crash history, use of compensatory strategies, low driving exposure, impairments in visual perception (especially visual processing speed and attention) and cognitive abilities, parkinsonism (especially activities of daily living score and total daily dose of antiparkinsonian medications), and higher error counts on a road test. "
|5.||Transplantation (Transplant Recipients)
01/01/2011 - "These studies suggest long-term cell survival and clinical benefit following striatal transplantation of fetal nigral tissue in PD patients and in models of experimental parkinsonism. "
03/01/1990 - "Continued transplantation studies in animal models of parkinsonism are necessary for better elucidation of these factors."
04/01/2015 - "Embryonic stem cells derived neuron transplantation recovery in models of parkinsonism in relation to severity of the disorder in rats."
12/10/2012 - "Neural transplantation in experimental parkinsonism (PD) is limited by poor survival of grafted embryonic dopaminergic (DA) cells. "
06/01/2005 - "In subjects who did not meet Core Assessment Program for Intracerebral Transplantations diagnostic criteria for PD at baseline, the presence of cardinal signs of parkinsonism was not associated with lower baseline UPSIT scores nor with a subsequent decline. "