|1.||Tourette Syndrome (Tourette's Syndrome)
|4.||Tic Disorders (Tic Disorder)
|5.||Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
|1.||Cavanna, Andrea E: 20 articles (10/2015 - 10/2010)|
|2.||Leckman, James F: 16 articles (05/2015 - 01/2005)|
|3.||Murphy, Tanya K: 13 articles (10/2015 - 01/2004)|
|4.||Jankovic, Joseph: 13 articles (09/2015 - 03/2005)|
|5.||Singer, Harvey S: 12 articles (08/2015 - 09/2007)|
|6.||Soll, Jürgen: 11 articles (07/2015 - 06/2002)|
|7.||Gilbert, Donald L: 11 articles (01/2015 - 02/2004)|
|8.||Chu, Paul K: 9 articles (09/2015 - 09/2010)|
|9.||Robertson, Mary M: 9 articles (01/2015 - 02/2006)|
|10.||Kurlan, Roger: 9 articles (01/2015 - 01/2002)|
|1.||aripiprazole (Abilify)FDA Link
09/01/2010 - "The target symptoms most effectively improved after using aripiprazole were positive psychotic symptoms (mean CGI-I: 2.0±1.4, 3 responders/4 patients, 75% response) followed by aggressive behavior (2.5±1.7, 3/4, 75%), self-injurious behavior (2.0±1.0, 2/3, 67%), stereotypic behavior (2.7±1.2, 2/3, 67%), tic (2.8±1.0, 2/4, 50%), irritability (3.5±2.1, 1/2, 50%), obsessive behavior (2.5±2.1, 1/3, 33%), hyperactivity (3.4±1.6, 3/7, 43%) and mood fluctuation (3, 0/1, no response). "
08/01/2013 - "Patients who received aripiprazole demonstrated a significant reduction from baseline to end of study on the mean (SD) total tic score of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale compared to those who received placebo (-15.0 [8.4] and -9.6 [8.8], respectively, P=.0196). "
02/01/2014 - "Aripiprazole is effective for short-term treatment of TD, especially vocal tics, in children and adolescents with mild adverse effects. "
07/01/2012 - "Current evidence suggests that aripiprazole is effective for treating tic and Tourette disorders in both children and adolescents. "
01/01/2006 - "We report recent experiences with treatment with aripiprazole, a novel antipsychotic agent, which not only improved motor and vocal tics but also ameliorated some behavioural symptoms of the GTS cluster. "
|2.||Haloperidol (Haldol)FDA LinkGeneric
11/01/1985 - "The one patient who was severely bothered by the recurrence of motor and vocal tics responded well to haloperidol. "
01/01/1985 - "Haloperidol improved tic symptoms in 50/60 patients, but side effects often nullified these benefits. "
03/31/1962 - "[A severe tic syndrome cured with Haloperidol]."
10/01/2015 - "Paradoxical worsening of tics with haloperidol."
08/01/2015 - "Taken together, compared with conventional single-target anti-tics drugs such as haloperidol (Hal), NDG with the dual regulating effect would be more significant for TS treatment. "
|3.||Clonidine (ST 155)FDA LinkGeneric
03/01/1994 - "Symptoms of ADHD were treated successfully with clonidine; however, patients experienced persistent tics. "
03/01/1993 - "Clonidine treatment resulted in improvement in both the ADHD (39/54; 72%) and tic symptoms (18/24; 75%) groups. "
01/01/2016 - "The YGTSS score in both groups decreased after 4 weeks of treatment, but the clonidine adhesive patch group showed a higher reduction in the overall tic symptom scores (40.05 ± 3.44%) than that of the control group (17.88 ± 4.40%; P < 0.05). "
01/01/2015 - "Clonidine suppresses sympathetic activity, reducing the triggering of motor tics. "
05/01/2001 - "A case study is presented in which clonidine at subclinical concentrations led to an exacerbation of the tics and caused severe systemic heat sensations. "
|4.||Antipsychotic Agents (Antipsychotics)IBA
01/01/2004 - "Neuroleptics are generally highly effective in suppressing tics, but their many adverse effects limit their usefulness. "
03/01/2012 - "While the evidence supports the efficacy of many of the antipsychotics for the treatment of tics, the high rates of side effects associated with these medications resulted in only weak recommendations for these drugs. "
12/30/2014 - "The pharmacological treatment of TS is mainly based on antipsychotic agents; while these drugs are often effective in reducing tic severity and frequency, their therapeutic compliance is limited by serious motor and cognitive side effects. "
08/01/2010 - "The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between antipsychotic use and weight in tic patients and compare the effects of SGAs to first-generation (typical) antipsychotics (FGAs). "
01/01/2000 - "Interest in the atypical neuroleptics is understandable, but much more study is needed before these agents can become first-line treatments for tics. "
|5.||Risperidone (Risperdal Consta)FDA LinkGeneric
11/01/2006 - "Risperidone is usually the first choice and may have efficacy for behavior problems that often accompany tics. "
01/01/2007 - "His score on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale dropped from 74 at the first assessment to a score of 50 at week 4 of treatment with risperidone 0,5 mg/day and sertralin 25 mg/day. "
05/01/2006 - "Risperidone and late onset tics."
04/01/2005 - "Effectiveness and safety of risperidone for children and adolescents with chronic tic or tourette disorders in Korea."
04/08/2003 - "The 12 children randomized to risperidone showed a 36% reduction in tic symptoms compared to an 11% decrease in the 14 children on placebo (F[2,48] = 6.38; p = 0.004). "
|6.||Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum Toxin)IBA
01/01/2008 - "Botulinum toxin (BnT) appears to be a safe and effective treatment for tics, but some concern exists about which group of patients may benefit from treatment. "
03/13/2001 - "Case series with unblinded assessments have reported improvement in tic frequency and associated urge with botulinum toxin. "
10/01/2012 - "Other treatments which may be needed for loud and severe phonic tics include botulinum toxin. "
11/01/2010 - "Botulinum toxin to control an incapacitating tic in a child with a clavicular fracture."
03/01/2008 - "Botulinum toxin in the management of laryngeal tics."
|7.||Pimozide (Orap)FDA Link
03/10/1999 - "Chronic, longer term treatment with pimozide appears to be more effective in controlling the course of tics than using the drug acutely to treat an exacerbation."
06/01/1989 - "However, pimozide proved immediately effective in suppressing tics and this improvement was maintained at follow-up. "
07/01/2001 - "The symptoms improved considerably in 82% of the patients with eye tics on treatment with a neuroleptic (pimozide). "
03/31/2000 - "Pimozide is an antipsychotic agent also used to treat facial tics. "
06/01/1990 - "Pimozide in children with chronic motor tics."
|8.||Methylphenidate (Ritalin)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2011 - "Fear of worsening tics limited dose increases of methylphenidate in one study. "
01/01/2004 - "This study analyzes the incidence of tics reported across five studies of children with ADHD who received methylphenidate (MPH)-based therapy as part of the clinical development program for once-daily OROS MPH (CONCERTA McNeil Consumer & Specialty Pharmaceuticals, Fort Washington, PA). "
02/26/2002 - "Prior recommendations to avoid methylphenidate in these children because of concerns of worsening tics are unsupported by this trial."
04/01/1999 - "This study examined changes in attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) behaviors and motor and vocal tics during long-term treatment with methylphenidate. "
10/01/2015 - "However, our findings suggest the association between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and the occurrence of tics and nail-biting as an adverse event of methylphenidate. "
|9.||olanzapine (Zyprexa)FDA Link
12/01/2012 - "Olanzapine had been reported to be effective in the control of tics in a few adult female patients who had a short follow-up period. "
03/01/2007 - "In 17 case reports of children and adolescents with aggression (42, 45), associated with tics in 10 patients (49), treatment with olanzapine from 2 weeks to 10 months lowered the presenting symptoms, enhanced the cooperation, and improved the mood of the patients. "
10/01/2008 - "Over the 6-week trial, olanzapine administration was associated with a significant decrease in total tic severity as measured by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (30% reduction by week 6; effect size 0.49). "
01/01/2004 - "Olanzapine produced clinically and statistically significant reductions of aggression and tic severity from baseline to trial completion, as measured by the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). "
12/01/2012 - "Her tic symptoms were well controlled with gradual reduction of her dose of olanzapine to 2.5 mg/day during the following 8 years. "
|10.||Desipramine (Pertofrane)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2011 - "Although there is evidence that desipramine is effective for both tics and ADHD in children, safety concerns will likely continue to limit its use in this population. "
07/01/2002 - "The tic response rate was substantial (58% vs 5%; desipramine vs placebo, P<.001). "
07/01/2002 - "Likewise, desipramine significantly reduced tic symptoms (Yale Global Tic Severity Scale; 30% decrease from baseline relative to placebo, P<.001), with equal response in motor and phonic tic symptoms (P<.01 for both). "
07/01/2002 - "Treatment with desipramine was well tolerated and was associated with robust clinically significant reductions in tic and ADHD symptoms in children and adolescents with chronic tic disorders and ADHD diagnoses."
11/01/1988 - "Desipramine treatment of boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and tics: preliminary clinical experience."
|1.||Deep Brain Stimulation
03/01/2007 - "Recently, deep brain stimulation, by modulating neuronal activity in structures involved in the pathophysiology of the disease, has become a promising therapeutical approach, producing a marked decrease in the severity of tics over that obtained with other treatments."
07/01/2013 - "Since 1999, 34 studies including more than 90 patients have been performed to investigate the efficacy and safety of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of tics resulting in the vast majority of patients in an improvement of tics and in some patients even of comorbidities. "
04/01/2013 - "As these behavioural disorders shared some similarities with simple motor tics, hyperactivity and compulsive behaviours observed in GTS patients, this model could be a good tool for future studies involving the modulation of neuronal circuits, such as deep brain stimulation."
04/01/2015 - "Lesion therapy as well as deep brain stimulation has been observed to suppress tics in at least some of these cases. "
04/10/2013 - "A neurosurgical intervention that has shown potential for treating basal ganglia (BG) mediated motor tics involves high-frequency deep brain stimulation (HF-DBS) targeted to the output nucleus of the BG: the globus pallidus internus (GPi). "
05/01/1994 - "All 10 patients experienced moderate to marked improvement in the intensity and frequency of tics after BTX injections into the involved muscles. "
05/01/1994 - "BTX injections appear to be safe and effective treatment for patients with focal dystonic tics. "
01/01/2013 - "A clear somatotopic organization was observed only in rats, where injections to the anterior or posterior striatum led to tics in the forelimb or hindlimb areas, respectively. "
12/01/1991 - "Videointensity analysis of digitized end-diastolic frames produced myocardial TICs (total as well as background-subtracted intensity curves) in 20 of 43 injections. "
05/01/1993 - "TIC injections extended throughout the intensification and maintenance periods are superior to IDM pulses for prevention of CNS leukemia. "
02/01/2009 - "After treatment, YGTSS and TSGS scores had very significant changes in the two groups as compared with those before treatment (both P < 0.01), indicating an obvious improvement in kinetic Tic and vocalizing Tic. "
07/01/2009 - "The therapeutic efficacy was assessed based on the results of the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) 4 weeks after treatment. "
07/01/2015 - "Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) scores and immunologic indices were assessed after treatment. "
02/01/2015 - "The tic time, tic frequency and tic severity score at the each time point after treatment were reduced obviously as compared with those before treatment (all P<0. "
02/01/2015 - "Yale global tic severity scale (YGTSS) was adopted to observe tic time, tic frequency and tic severity score before treatment and in 30 days, 60 days and 90 days after treatment in the two groups. "
|4.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
08/01/2012 - "Only two patients required ongoing pharmacotherapy for tics after surgery, and patients improved significantly on all secondary measures. "
07/01/2014 - "In addition, a number of different pharmacotherapies have been implemented in the search for improved management of tics with better tolerability. "
08/01/2013 - "High-quality randomized trials comparing behavior therapies for tics with pharmacotherapy are needed."
11/01/2015 - "Though tics can often be managed with nonmedical therapies, pharmacotherapy is often used for refractory, severe, or injurious tics but is complicated by side effects and incomplete benefit. "
12/15/2014 - "In vivo, while inhibition of CD115 suppressed the macrophage-dependent CD34- TIC population, chemotherapy accelerated its development. "
|5.||Psychology Biofeedback (Biofeedback)
01/01/2015 - "The potential efficacy of biofeedback/VNS in TS and the implications for understanding the underlying neural mechanisms of tics will be discussed. "
07/01/1986 - "Specifically, the simple and the complex tic, both of long duration, were eliminated via this EEG biofeedback training procedure. "
03/01/2014 - "Despite a negative finding in this study, electrodermal biofeedback training may have a role in managing tics if optimal training schedules can be identified."
01/01/2015 - "Electrodermal biofeedback training to elicit a reduction in sympathetic tone has a demonstrated association with reduced tic frequency. "
12/01/2009 - "These findings indicate that the conjunction of focused attention to task and reduced peripheral sympathetic tone inhibits tic expression and suggests a potential therapeutic role of biofeedback relaxation training for tic management in patients with TS."