|1.||Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage)
|5.||Brain Ischemia (Cerebral Ischemia)
|1.||Zhang, John H: 18 articles (12/2012 - 02/2002)|
|2.||Seifert, Volker: 17 articles (09/2013 - 03/2003)|
|3.||Suzuki, Hidenori: 15 articles (01/2015 - 12/2003)|
|4.||Lin, Chih-Lung: 14 articles (01/2015 - 08/2002)|
|5.||Kwan, Aij-Lie: 14 articles (01/2015 - 08/2002)|
|6.||Zhang, J H: 14 articles (01/2008 - 01/2000)|
|7.||Raabe, Andreas: 13 articles (08/2011 - 03/2003)|
|8.||Taki, Waro: 12 articles (01/2015 - 12/2003)|
|9.||Kassell, Neal F: 12 articles (01/2014 - 08/2002)|
|10.||Vatter, Hartmut: 12 articles (05/2013 - 03/2003)|
|1.||Nimodipine (Modus)FDA LinkGeneric
03/01/2013 - "Till date, nimodipine is the only drug with proven efficacy in preventing cerebral vasospasm. "
11/01/1987 - "In humans, a large, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in subarachnoid haemorrhage showed that nimodipine significantly reduced the severity of neurological deficits associated with delayed cerebral vasospasm. "
12/01/2015 - "Continuous intra-arterial nimodipine infusion is an effective treatment for patients with severe cerebral vasospasm who fail to respond to HHT and oral nimodipine alone. "
05/01/2009 - "A multimodal approach with translumbar lysis in combination with kinetic therapy followed by intrathecal nimodipine lavage proved to be effective against cerebral vasospasm and for clinical outcome. "
01/01/1982 - "From its pharmacological properties nimodipine is predicted to be effective in the prevention and therapy of cerebrovascular spasm of various origins and especially in the treatment of postischaemic brain damage."
|2.||Nicardipine (Dagan)FDA LinkGeneric
12/01/2011 - "Intracisternal nicardipine prolonged release implants (NPRI) have been shown to be effective in the prophylaxis of cerebral vasospasm (VS). "
12/01/2000 - "These results suggested that nicardipine-prolonged release preparation is safe as well as effective for cerebral vasospasm."
09/01/2012 - "Intra-arterial nicardipine is an effective and safe treatment for cerebral vasospasm. "
02/01/2009 - "Based on these positive results, we believe that larger scale studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of IT nicardipine for the management of cerebral vasospasm are warranted."
10/01/2011 - "We present a case of diffuse cerebral vasospasm, which improved with intra-arterial nicardipine. "
|3.||Tissue Plasminogen Activator (Alteplase)FDA Link
06/01/2006 - "As fibrinolytic drug, intrathecal administration of tissue plasminogen activator showed sufficient elimination of subarachnoid clot and prevention of cerebral vasospasm in the experimental studies and in the clinical case trials and nonrandomized case-control trials. "
01/01/2000 - "For a few years conducted experimental studies and clinical trials set one's hopes on the role of the fibrynolytic treatment using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in preventing cerebral vasospasm. "
11/01/1992 - "The results of preliminary clinical trial (a multicenter, open-label, dose escalation study) of intrathecal recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) for the prevention of cerebral vasospasm were reported. "
02/01/1994 - "Recently intrathecal thrombolysis using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) has been introduced as an innovative pharmacological method for the removal of subarachnoid blood accumulations, in order to prevent the development of cerebral vasospasm. "
02/01/1994 - "Intrathecal fibrinolysis using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) for prevention of cerebral vasospasm and delayed ischaemic deficits after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. "
03/01/2004 - "Efficacy of multiple intraarterial papaverine infusions for improvement in cerebral circulation time in patients with recurrent cerebral vasospasm."
09/01/2002 - "The efficacy of papaverine administration by different routes for the treatment of experimental acute cerebral vasospasm."
07/01/2001 - "Efficacy of controlled-release papaverine pellets in preventing symptomatic cerebral vasospasm."
10/01/1983 - "[Topical application of papaverine for cerebral vasospasm using prolonged release pellet--experimental studies]."
12/01/2006 - "Use of either intra-arterial or intracisternal papaverine as an alternative treatment of refractory cerebral vasospasm has been associated with various complications including haemodynamic instabilities. "
|5.||Milrinone (Primacor)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2015 - "High dose IV milrinone therapy for symptomatic DCI after SAH can lead to rapid neurological improvement with dramatic early angiographic improvement of cerebral vasospasm. "
02/01/1997 - "Milrinone is effective in preventing chronic cerebral vasospasm in a canine model of experimental chronic cerebral vasospasm. "
02/01/2011 - "Intra-arterial milrinone was a safe and effective treatment of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal SAH."
01/01/2009 - "The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intra-arterial Milrinone in patients with symptomatic refractory cerebral vasospasm. "
02/01/1997 - "The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of milrinone on chronic experimental cerebral vasospasm. "
08/01/2008 - "Dysregulation of the intracellular calcium concentration is thought to play a key role in the so-called ischemic cascade, as well as for the development of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhaging (SAH). "
01/01/2001 - "CSF from SAH patients suffering from delayed ischaemic neurological deficits due to cerebral vasospasm can generate near maximal force in vitro and previous experiments have ascribed this generation of force to be a calcium mediated event. "
07/01/2000 - "Fluid management and calcium antagonist have a beneficial effect on cerebral vasospasm following SAH, but is not tolerated or is ineffective in some patients. "
01/01/1999 - "Changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in smooth muscle cells play the key role in regulation of vascular smooth muscle tone and pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm. "
09/01/1994 - "Loss of relaxations, metabolic failure and increased calcium permeability of smooth muscle during chronic cerebral vasospasm."
|7.||Endothelin Receptors (Endothelin Receptor)IBA
01/01/2012 - "Therefore, endothelin receptor antagonists (ETAs) have emerged as a promising therapeutic option for SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm. "
06/01/2004 - "Endothelin receptor antagonists and cerebral vasospasm."
12/01/2002 - "THIS REVIEW UPDATES: the current status of endothelin receptor antagonists in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm. "
12/01/2002 - "Endothelin receptor antagonists and cerebral vasospasm: an update."
06/23/2013 - "Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is the most treatable component of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which can be reduced by endothelin receptor antagonists. "
|8.||Simvastatin (Zocor)FDA LinkGeneric
10/01/2015 - "This study demonstrated that 80 mg simvastatin treatment was effective in preventing cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH, but did not improve the clinical outcome in Korean patients."
12/18/2012 - "The purpose of the present study was to determine the impact of simvastatin on microthrombi formation and cerebral vasospasm after SAH and explore its mechanism. "
05/01/2009 - "The authors conducted a prospective observational study to determine whether a standardized regimen of simvastatin would reduce the incidence of cerebral vasospasm and improve neurological outcomes in patients with aSAH. "
12/01/2008 - "The present study elucidates the critical role of the PI3K activation leading to phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in simvastatin-mediated attenuation of cerebral vasospasm after SAH."
01/01/2010 - "In conclusion, simvastatin administration attenuates cerebral vasospasm and alleviates microthrombosis in the late phase of SAH in this prechiasmatic blood injection model."
03/01/1989 - "These results demonstrate considerable therapeutic promise for U74006F in the prevention of cerebral vasospasm."
02/01/1989 - "The efficacy of U74006F in the prophylaxis of chronic cerebral vasospasm (VSP) was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. "
07/01/1990 - "A dosage study of the effect of the 21-aminosteroid U74006F on chronic cerebral vasospasm in a primate model."
02/01/1989 - "A trial of the 21-aminosteroid U74006F in a primate model of chronic cerebral vasospasm."
03/01/1989 - "Effect of the nonglucocorticoid 21-aminosteroid U74006F experimental cerebral vasospasm."
|10.||Calcium Channels (Calcium Channel)IBA
01/01/1986 - "Cerebral vasospasm and calcium channel blockade. "
07/01/2007 - "NIM is a widely used calcium channel blocker which has to be administered as an intravenous infusion for a prolonged period of 1-2 weeks in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm. "
01/01/2011 - "intrathecal administration of calcium channel antagonists has been proposed to reduce cerebral vasospasm (CVS) in animal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) models. "
07/01/2008 - "Find out how this calcium channel blocker treats cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage."
09/01/1984 - "Future indications for calcium channel blocker therapy may include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cerebral vasospasm, migraine headaches, pulmonary hypertension, asthma, esophageal spasm, intestinal ischemia, Raynaud's phenomenon, dysmenorrhea, and premature labor."
09/01/1991 - "Percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty can offer marked improvement to selected patients with ischemic deficits caused by cerebral vasospasm. "
04/01/2003 - "Transluminal balloon angioplasty led to a continuous and effective resolution of cerebral vasospasm observed by sustained, improved cerebral biochemical parameters. "
10/01/2009 - "Transluminal balloon angioplasty has been considered a safe and effective treatment for cerebral vasospasm resistant to maximal medical treatment. "
03/01/1994 - "Balloon angioplasty of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm has demonstrated improvement in neurologic function in approximately 70% of patients. "
06/01/1997 - "To study the effects of in vivo transluminal balloon angioplasty (TBA) on the structure and function of the arterial wall, a canine model of hemorrhagic cerebral vasospasm of the high cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) was used. "
07/01/2002 - "We conclude that hemodilution to hematocrit 0.28 is not beneficial for patients with cerebral vasospasm after SAH."
05/01/2011 - "We performed a literature review to identify the current state of support for hemodilution as a therapeutic modality in treatment of cerebral vasospasm. "
05/01/2011 - "The evolving role of hemodilution in treatment of cerebral vasospasm: a historical perspective."
09/01/1995 - "We monitored various hemorheological and hemodynamic parameters to assess the effects of hypervolemic hemodilution therapy in SAH patients with cerebral vasospasm. "
04/01/2010 - "Historically, the mainstay of treatment for cerebral vasospasm has been a combination of hypervolemia, hemodilution, and hypertension. "
|3.||Angioplasty (Angioplasty, Transluminal)
01/01/2015 - "All patients who underwent cerebral angioplasty using the Scepter XC balloon for the treatment of medically refractory cerebral vasospasm after SAH were identified. "
09/01/2013 - "Treatment of cerebral vasospasm associates maintenance of cerebral perfusion and more invasive techniques such as chemical or mechanical angioplasty."
03/01/2012 - "Multiple symptomatic traumatic cerebral vasospasm treated by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty."
08/01/2011 - "Our analysis suggests that the odds of a patient being discharged to home are better at hospitals performing angioplasty for cerebral vasospasm. "
08/01/2011 - "Of the 74,356 estimated patients with nontraumatic SAH, 47% (n = 35,172) were admitted to hospitals that perform angioplasty for cerebral vasospasm and only 1307 patients (3.8%) were treated with angioplasty for vasospasm. "
09/01/2012 - "Intraarterial infusion therapy for cerebral vasospasm: promising but preliminary."
01/01/1999 - "We analysed effects of intra-arterial infusion on angiographically evident cerebral vasospasm in 10 patients including 3 with symptoms of vasospasm. "
02/01/2011 - "Studies attempting to establish the safety and efficacy of standard and high-dose intra-arterial infusions of calcium channel blockers for treatment of cerebral vasospasm have focused on hemodynamic changes during the angiographic procedure. "
06/01/2010 - "Continuous selective intraarterial infusion of nimodipine for therapy of refractory cerebral vasospasm."
02/01/2005 - "Intra-arterial infusion (IA) of fasudil hydrochloride for cerebral vasospasm is performed in many institutions and is associated with few side effects. "
|5.||Counterpulsation (External Counterpulsation)
01/01/1998 - "We previously established the ability of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABC) to improve cerebral blood flow (CBF) significantly in a canine model of cerebral vasospasm. "
04/01/1995 - "We tested the effect of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABC) on cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a canine model of cerebral vasospasm. "
02/01/2000 - "The use of intra-aortic counterpulsation balloon for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm and edema."
04/01/1995 - "Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation augments cerebral blood flow in a canine model of subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm."
08/01/2010 - "Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation pump (IABP) is used for hemodynamic support of patients in cardiogenic shock and its use in the setting of aSAH, cardiomyopathy, and cerebral vasospasm can be beneficial in preventing delayed ischemic deficits."