|3.||Sleep Apnea Syndromes (Sleep Apnea)
|4.||Central Sleep Apnea (Central Sleep Apnea Syndrome)
|1.||Javaheri, Shahrokh: 12 articles (12/2015 - 02/2003)|
|2.||Bradley, T Douglas: 10 articles (07/2015 - 05/2005)|
|3.||Morgenthaler, Timothy I: 10 articles (05/2013 - 09/2006)|
|4.||Badr, M Safwan: 5 articles (12/2013 - 01/2006)|
|5.||Floras, John S: 5 articles (03/2013 - 05/2005)|
|6.||CANPAP Investigators: 5 articles (03/2010 - 06/2001)|
|7.||Skatrud, James B: 5 articles (03/2009 - 05/2002)|
|8.||Malhotra, Atul: 4 articles (09/2015 - 05/2010)|
|9.||Arzt, Michael: 4 articles (01/2014 - 06/2006)|
|10.||Chowdhuri, Susmita: 4 articles (12/2013 - 01/2010)|
01/01/2009 - "Sleep at extreme altitudes is characterized by the repetitive occurrence of central apneas that in some cases may lead to a marked decrease in arterial oxygen saturation. "
10/01/1985 - "A post-surgery polysomnogram revealed marked improvement in the number of central apneas (74 events) and only mild decreases in oxygen saturation (to 94%)."
01/01/2014 - "Oxygen therapy resulted in a significant decrease in the median central apnea index from 14 (5,68) to 1 (0,6; p = 0.008) events/hour and an improvement in the oxygen saturation nadir from 70% (52, 92) to 81% (64, 95; p = 0.080). "
01/01/2014 - "Data of infants with central sleep apnea treated with oxygen were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of this treatment. "
04/01/1998 - "The median number of central apneas with desaturation per study was 0.5 (0 to 49), the median oxygen saturation nadir was 91% (50% to 99%), and the median peak end-tidal pCO2 was 47 mm Hg (36 to 87 mm Hg). "
|2.||Acetazolamide (Diamox)FDA LinkGeneric
08/01/2001 - "Recently, low-dose acetazolamide was shown to reduce symptomatic central sleep apnea in adults. "
08/01/2001 - "Acetazolamide treatment for infantile central sleep apnea."
04/01/1998 - "One month administration of acetazolamide (ACET) (at sea level) improves periodic breathing and decreases the number of central apneas (CA) (De Backer et al., 1995 Am. J. "
04/01/1998 - "Central sleep apnea after interrupting longterm acetazolamide therapy."
01/01/1995 - "Central apnea index decreases after prolonged treatment with acetazolamide."
12/15/1999 - "Treatment with O2 resulted in a significant reduction in AHI (49+/-19 vs 29+/-29, means+/-SD), central apnea index (28+/-23 vs 13+/-18 per hour), and the percent of total sleep time below an arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation of 90% (23+/-21% vs 0.8+/-2.3%). "
07/01/2003 - "SHHS methodologies have been previously reported and include performance of overnight, in-home polysomnography (PSG), which recorded variables reflecting sleep architecture and breathing, permitting identification of obstructive and central apneas, hypopneas, periodic breathing and oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO(2)). "
05/01/2002 - "Relative to the first-night PSG, on the second PSG, we observed the following: shorter latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (P<0.001), increased sleep efficiency (P<0.01), decreased wake after sleep onset (WASO) time (P<0.01), decreased percentage of non-REM time with oxyhemoglobin saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO(2))< or =90% (P<0.05), decreased number of central apneas per hour (P<0.05) and reduced respiratory rate in stage 2 sleep on night 2 (P<0.05). "
09/01/2012 - "In the ASV group, indices for apnea-hypopnea, central apnea, and oxyhemoglobin saturation were improved on ASV. "
03/01/2006 - "Snoring-associated arousals accounted exclusively for this relationship; spontaneous arousals and those that were associated with central apnea and oxyhemoglobin desaturation episodes (> or =4%) were not significantly correlated with MDI. "
11/23/2010 - "Real-time dynamic carbon dioxide administration: a novel treatment strategy for stabilization of periodic breathing with potential application to central sleep apnea."
01/01/2005 - "To assess the efficacy of added carbon dioxide as adjunctive therapy to positive airway pressure-refractory mixed obstructive and central sleep-disordered breathing, using a prototype device-the positive airway pressure gas modulator. "
01/01/2005 - "Low concentrations of carbon dioxide added to conventional positive airway pressure effectively control severe treatment-resistant mixed obstructive and central sleep-disordered breathing."
09/23/1999 - "Although enhanced sensitivity to carbon dioxide helps maintain the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide within a narrow range during waking hours, in some persons a large hyperventilatory response during sleep may lower the value below the apneic threshold, thereby resulting in central apnea. "
01/01/2014 - "The driving forces in the pathophysiology are felt to be ventilator instability associated oscillation in PaCO2 arterial partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide, continuous cositive airway pressure (CPAP) related increased CO2 carbon dioxide elimination, and activation of airway and pulmonary stretch receptors triggering these central apneas. "
|5.||Theophylline (Theon)FDA LinkGeneric
04/01/2005 - "Theophylline is effective in the treatment of central apneas and periodic breathing. "
04/01/2005 - "The role of oral theophylline may be in patients with predominately central apneas not eligible for ventilation therapy or severe cases."
01/01/2001 - "Theophylline reduces central apneas and periodic breathing in infants. "
03/01/1998 - "Treatment of CSR-CSA by supplemental O2, theophylline, and CPAP can alleviate central apneas. "
01/01/1989 - "Central apneas greater than 15 s did not vary significantly as a function of BPD, theophylline, or postconceptional age. "
|6.||Congenital central hypoventilation syndromeIBA
11/16/2015 - "The supporting evidence include the fact that central apnea in neonates correlates with immaturity of the CO2-sensing mechanism, and that congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is characterized by the absence of a ventilatory response to elevated PCO2. "
10/01/2014 - "The absence of RTN likely causes severe central apneas in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. "
03/15/2014 - "A case of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome with a novel mutation of the PHOX2B gene presenting as central sleep apnea."
03/15/2014 - "A case of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome with a novel mutation of the PHOX2B gene presenting as central sleep apnea."
07/16/2003 - "Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a rare disorder defined as failure of chemical control of breathing causing central alveolar hypoventilation, especially during sleep. "
08/01/2008 - "Complex SAS is defined as SAS that initially manifests as primarily obstructive SAS, but is characterized by the frequent central apneas after the removal of upper airway obstruction. "
01/01/2008 - "The EF was 36.3 +/- 7.4%, and 36 patients were NYHA class II, 23 were class III, and one patient was class IV. A total of 38 patients had SAS (63%): 14 (36%) had central sleep apnea and 24 (64%) had obstructive sleep apnea. "
06/01/2007 - "There are two types of SAS: obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and central sleep apnea syndrome (CSAS). "
06/01/2000 - "The SAS consisted of three subtypes: central apnea (CA) in 56 patients, obstructive apnea (OA) in 124 and mixed apnea (MA) in eight. "
05/01/1996 - "Seventy-five percent of the central apnea group had SO, and 70% of the mixed apneas had MO, while only 15% of the obstructed apneas had MO. The percentage of patients with severe SAS (AI of 20% or higher) was 48% for the SO, and 70% for the MO. The lowest SaO2 value tended to be low in the mixed apnea in the case of PSG, and tended to be low in the MO at MR examination. "
|8.||mirtazapine (Rexer)FDA LinkGeneric
12/01/1999 - "This study reports the effects of mirtazapine, an antidepressant with 5-HT(1) agonist as well as 5-HT(2) and 5-HT(3) antagonist effects, on sleep and respiration in an established animal model of central apnea. "
12/01/1999 - "We conclude that mirtazapine, over a 50-fold dose range, significantly reduces central apnea expression during NREM and REM sleep in the rat. "
09/01/2004 - "In an animal model of central apnea the use of mirtazapine produced a significant reduction of apneas. "
02/01/1990 - "These data, if replicated, imply that benzodiazepine use may be beneficial in patients with central sleep apnea."
03/01/1998 - "We conclude that both hypnotic and non-hypnotic doses of benzodiazepines may be associated with suppression of sleep-related central apnea. "
03/02/1990 - "Although the benzodiazepines may reduce sleep fragmentation, their long-term use may also cause health problems, such as complete obstructive sleep apnea in heavy snorers or short repetitive central sleep apnea in patients with recent myocardial infarction. "
05/01/2008 - "We found a direct relation between the central apnea index and the daily dosage of methadone (P = 0.008) and also with benzodiazepines (P = 0.004). "
03/01/2005 - "Prescribing benzodiazepines during an opiate withdrawal of the methadone type is not recommended when central apnea occurs."
|10.||Brain Natriuretic Peptide (Natrecor)FDA Link
01/01/2006 - "His left ventricular ejection fraction was 36%, diastolic left ventricular dimension was 71.4mm, and brain natriuretic peptide was 383.8 pg/ml. In this patient, central sleep disordered breathing was improved by biventricular pacing therapy after only 48 days."
05/01/2005 - "Brain natriuretic peptide in patients with congestive heart failure and central sleep apnea."
05/01/2005 - "To assess the possible relationship between Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) associated with central sleep apnea (CSA) syndrome and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in an outpatient population presenting with stable congestive heart failure (CHF). "
02/01/2009 - "Polysomnographic findings, left ventricular (LV) function, and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level were evaluated before and 6 months after induction of carvedilol in 16 patients with CHF (New York Heart Association functional class II or III and LV ejection fraction <50%) who had CSA (central apnea index [CAI] >5 with dominant central apneic events). "
|1.||Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
12/01/2007 - "Moving beyond empiric continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) trials for central sleep apnea: a multi-modality titration study."
07/01/2007 - "The significance and outcome of continuous positive airway pressure-related central sleep apnea during split-night sleep studies."
08/01/2004 - "Mortality data is emerging also, and the first of a large scale mortality trial assessing the effect of attenuating central sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure in patients with moderate to severe CHF, is well underway. "
09/01/1996 - "Recent medium-term trials involving small numbers of patients have demonstrated that nocturnally applied continuous positive airway pressure in patients with CHF and central sleep apnea alleviates central sleep apnea, improves left ventricular function, reduces sympathetic nervous system activity and improves symptoms of CHF. "
01/01/2013 - "Emergence of central sleep apnea has been described in the setting of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) initiation. "
09/01/1992 - "In one patient with a tracheostomy, the stimulus applied to his isolated upper airway evoked respiratory efforts during central apnea in 13 of 15 trials. "
11/01/2008 - "Five of 6 patients with a tracheostomy were decannulated; 1 patient had persistent central apnea that prevented decannulation. "
08/01/2005 - "Excluded were 1 ) adults, 2 ) neonates without tracheostomy, and 3 ) patients with central apnea. "
07/01/2003 - "One of these 15 patients required a tracheostomy for postoperative central apnea. "
03/01/1994 - "We hyperventilated nine 11- to 30-day-old awake nonsedated lambs via a tracheostomy for 1 min to induce central apnea. "
|3.||Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
12/01/2008 - "Alleviation of pulmonary hypertension by cardiac resynchronization therapy is associated with improvement in central sleep apnea."
01/01/2006 - "[Improvement of central sleep disordered breathing with severe congestive heart failure by biventricular pacing therapy: a case report]."
07/07/2004 - "We studied the effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on heart failure (HF) patients with central sleep apnea (CSA). "
03/01/2012 - "Upon receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is an improvement of cardiac function and central sleep apnea syndrome (CSA) with Cheyne-Stokes respiration; however, effects of CRT on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome seemed to be without clinical relevance. "
02/15/2005 - "Cardiac resynchronization therapy, central sleep apnea, and Cheyne-Stokes respiration in chronic heart failure patients."
|4.||Mechanical Ventilators (Ventilator)
09/17/2015 - "Adaptive servo-ventilation is a therapy that uses a noninvasive ventilator to treat central sleep apnea by delivering servo-controlled inspiratory pressure support on top of expiratory positive airway pressure. "
04/01/2013 - "Adaptive servo ventilation (ASV) is a method of ventilator support aimed to treat central sleep apnea (CSA). "
12/01/2011 - "Our primary aim was to compare the performance of the advanced servo-ventilator (BiPAP autoSV Advanced) with conventional servo-ventilator (BiPAP autoSV) in treating central sleep apnea (CSA). "
05/01/2011 - "BiPAP S/T ventilator therapy was effective to the treat dominantly central sleep apnea in our patient."
12/15/2009 - "Central alveolar hypoventilation and failure to wean from the ventilator."
|5.||Positive-Pressure Respiration (PEEP)
09/01/2009 - "Newer forms of positive pressure ventilation, such as adaptive servo-ventilation, appear to be even more effective at correcting central sleep apnea. "
07/01/1989 - "The central apneas were eliminated with home nocturnal positive-pressure ventilation via cuffed tracheostomy tube. "
08/01/2013 - "Randomized controlled trial of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) versus servoventilation in patients with CPAP-induced central sleep apnea (complex sleep apnea)."
08/01/2013 - "To compare the treatment effect of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) and anticyclic servoventilation in patients with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)-induced central sleep apnea (complex sleep apnea). "
04/28/1997 - "Nasal positive pressure ventilation was effectively able to treat central apneas and hypoventilation, nocturnal hypoxemia and cardiac arrhythmias were no longer observed. "