|1.||Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS)
|5.||Cardiovascular Diseases (Cardiovascular Disease)
|1.||Zipfel, Cyril: 20 articles (08/2015 - 08/2005)|
|2.||Netea, Mihai G: 17 articles (03/2015 - 08/2008)|
|3.||Akira, Shizuo: 16 articles (01/2015 - 02/2006)|
|4.||Brown, Gordon D: 14 articles (07/2015 - 04/2005)|
|5.||Bowie, Andrew G: 13 articles (12/2014 - 10/2005)|
|6.||Wang, Lingling: 11 articles (10/2015 - 01/2009)|
|7.||Song, Linsheng: 11 articles (10/2015 - 01/2009)|
|8.||Joosten, Leo A B: 11 articles (02/2015 - 03/2010)|
|9.||Ronald, Pamela C: 10 articles (03/2015 - 01/2010)|
|10.||Paludan, Søren R: 9 articles (04/2015 - 03/2005)|
02/01/2006 - "These results indicate that the high immunogenicity of the modified GP5 might facilitate the development of improved PRRS vaccines in the future."
06/12/2000 - "The recent outbreaks of atypical or acute PRRS in vaccinated pigs have raised a serious concern about the efficacy of the current vaccines and provided the impetus for developing more effective vaccines. "
06/02/2003 - "Safety and protective efficacy of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome recombinant virus vaccines in young pigs."
01/22/2014 - "Current PRRS vaccines are only partially effective and new vaccine development faces great challenges. "
11/01/2006 - "These findings, supported by the epidemiological data, indicate that the new variant PRRS viruses might originate from a vaccine virus and demonstrate the limited efficacy of modified live vaccines against heterologous PRRS virus strains."
|2.||Pattern Recognition ReceptorsIBA
04/01/2015 - "This study evaluated the gastrointestinal microbial diversity and the expression of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the small intestine during the first week post-weaning in newly weaned piglets. "
02/01/2014 - "The regulation of phagocytosis and its outcomes by inflammatory pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is now followed by new studies strengthening this concept and adding further complexity to the relationship between phagocytosis and innate immune signaling. "
02/01/2014 - "The purpose of this study was to extend previous in vitro data and determine the requirement for the alarmin S100A8 in the PMN response and to evaluate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that initiate the response. "
02/01/2014 - "In this study, we aimed to determine which pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize HSV2 in primary vaginal epithelial cells. "
01/01/2014 - "The aim of this study was to assess the effect of genetic variants of genes encoding for pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on susceptibility to RVVC. "
|3.||Toll-Like Receptors (Toll-Like Receptor)IBA
10/01/2013 - "Two decades ago, Toll like receptors (TLRs) family was known as one of the important PRRs with unique functions especially in protection against invading pathogens. "
09/01/2015 - "An important family of PRRs are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) with numerous evidences indicating their crucial role in identifying microbial or viral compounds. "
04/01/2015 - "The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best-described set of PRRs. "
03/01/2015 - "The sources of DAMPs are dead or dying cells or the extracellular matrix and can signal through the PRRs, the Toll-like receptors or cytosolic Nod-like receptors, culminating in nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. "
09/01/2014 - "Toll-like receptors (TLRs), as members of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), play critical roles in the recognition of viruses and the induction of appropriate immune responses. "
|4.||poly(2- acrylamido- 2- methyl- 1- propanesulfonic acid)IBA
02/25/2015 - "Innate immune system recognises pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by limited number of germline encoded and non-clonally developed pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs). "
01/01/2015 - "Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) are a class of germ line-encoded receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). "
10/01/2014 - "These results implicate multiple modes of signaling for PRRs in response to PAMPs and SA. "
10/01/2014 - "Within a few hours, SA signaling promotes defenses and downregulates PRRs, whereas later (within 24 to 48 h) SA signaling upregulates PRRs, and plants are rendered more responsive to PAMPs. "
10/01/2014 - "This PAMP-independent effect of SA causes a transient reduction of PRRs and ACD6-dependent reduced responsiveness to PAMPs. "
08/15/2010 - "In this study, the adjuvant efficacy and the protective effects of recombinant plasmid containing CpG ODN, in combination with PRRS KV vaccine against PRRSV were evaluated. "
08/15/2010 - "Our findings indicated that the immune responses of the pigs immunized with plasmid containing CpG ODN and PRRS KV vaccine were stronger than those induced by PRRS KV vaccine or PBS alone. "
03/10/2006 - "High titers of PRRS specific antibody can also be tested in the newborn piglets serum immunized PRRS vaccine and CpG ODN (p<0.05)."
03/10/2006 - "Effects of CpG ODN on CD4+ and CD8+ T subpopulations in the immune response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome killed virus vaccine."
02/26/2007 - "In present study, the objective was to investigate the immunoadjuvant effects of CpG ODN to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) killed virus vaccine (PRRSV) and its protective effects against PRRS virus in piglets. "
|6.||DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)IBA
09/01/2009 - "However, PRRs that mediate the recognition and clearance of free DNA and fragmented DNA in apoptotic cells have not been characterized clearly. "
03/01/2011 - "This study constitutes "proof-of-principle" validating the use of intracellular PRRs as genetic adjuvants to enhance DNA vaccine potency."
09/09/2004 - "DNA vaccination of pigs with open reading frame 1-7 of PRRS virus."
10/01/1999 - "The results obtained demonstrated that DNA immunization against PRRS virus results in the production of both humoral and cell mediated immune responses in pigs. "
10/01/1999 - "Antibody and cellular immune responses of swine following immunisation with plasmid DNA encoding the PRRS virus ORF's 4, 5, 6 and 7."
04/15/2015 - "This study compares and characterizes the production of cytokines by pulmonary macrophages in pigs experimentally infected with four different PRRSV-1 strains: two low-virulent strains, Lelystad (LV) and a British field strain (215-06); a HP strain (SU1-bel) from Belarus and the attenuated vaccine strain DV (Porcilis(®) PRRS). "
02/01/2015 - "Using PCR and Western-blot analysis, this study investigated the differential expression in the intestine of 14 PRRs and nine associated cytokines. "
05/15/2014 - "This study demonstrated the dysregulation of PRRs and proinflammatory cytokines in ICRPs of MDs, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease."
01/01/2013 - "Therefore, the purpose of the study was to analyze the expression of those PRRs and the cytokines in HaCaT cells stimulated with heat-inactivated T. "
04/01/2012 - "Therefore, lymphoid organs and proinflammatory cytokines represent an important target of study for clarifying the immunopathogenesis of PRRS."
07/01/2013 - "Recent studies reveal that gut bacterial ligands from the microbiota signal through PRRs to promote development of host tissue and the immune system, and protection from disease. "
01/15/2012 - "Therefore, this study demonstrates that some PRRs are expressed in the uterus during pregnancy, which coincides with its ability to respond to stimulation with TLRs ligands as well as heat-killed organisms known to cause abortion in cattle."
05/01/2010 - "Recent studies have started to clarify the molecular basis of PRR-ligand interactions, yet the numbers of PRRs and their ligands continue to increase. "
02/01/2010 - "Recent studies have focused on identifying the particular viral ligands recognized as nonself by cytosolic PRRs, and on defining the nature of the PRRs and their signaling pathways involved in immunity. "
01/01/2016 - "albicans with TLRs is a complex process, as TLRs may collaborate with other PRRs and expression of surface-associated fungal ligands depends on the strain and the morphotype (yeasts or hyphae), thus defining the final induced adaptive response (Th1/Th2/Th17). "
|9.||Tretinoin (Retinoic Acid)FDA LinkGeneric
02/25/2015 - "Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are important cytosolic PRRs for sensing viral RNAs. "
02/01/2011 - "Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs) are a member of PRRs and are known to be crucial molecules in innate immune responses. "
09/14/2010 - "Out of all PRRs found to date, retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) has been shown to play a key role in recognition of RNA viruses. "
03/03/2015 - "We showed that replication of the yellow fever live vaccine YF-17D in human pDCs and pDC-like cell lines stimulated type I IFN production through RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I), a member of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family of cytosolic PRRs. "
01/01/2013 - "Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) are the key innate immune PRRs and are tightly regulated by elaborate mechanisms to ensure a beneficial outcome in response to foreign invaders. "
|10.||Messenger RNA (mRNA)IBA
03/01/2015 - "The expression of TLR3 and TLR7 mRNA in lymph nodes were higher in TTS than in the control group after PRRS vaccine inoculation (P < 0.05). "
06/15/2013 - "We examined the mRNA expression patterns for several recently described cytosolic nucleic acid sensing PRRs in canine monolayer keratinocyte cultures using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. "
02/15/2011 - "Taken together, our data describe the presence of specific PRRs transcripts in the mRNA isolated from bovine neutrophil and show a CD11b-/Ca(2+) dependent ROS production by these cells."
01/01/2010 - "We found that mRNA and protein levels for most PRRs were increased under pro-inflammatory conditions, with the most pronounced increases in the RIG-like helicase (RLH) family. "
05/01/2009 - "In CSCC there was a significantly higher expression of mRNA for the Numb-PRRL isoform but not for the Numb-PRRS isoform. "
01/01/2014 - "In addition to vaccination, an immunomodulation strategy for PRRS can be reasonably advocated in pig "problem" farms, where a substantial control of disease prevalence and disease-related losses is badly needed. "
01/01/2012 - "However, insight into the role of PRRs in the pathophysiology of some disorders has already resulted in new therapeutic approaches based on immunomodulation of PRRs."
01/01/2015 - "An understanding of the PRRs in dental pulp is important for immunomodulation and hence for developing therapeutic targets in the field of endodontics. "
01/01/2000 - "Accounts of field disease and experimental studies involving porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) are reviewed for evidence of immunomodulation or immunosuppression by the causative virus. "
08/01/2012 - "The signalling pathways and ligands of many PRRs have now been characterised and there is no doubt that this rich vein of research will aid the discovery of new therapeutics for infectious conditions and chronic inflammatory disease."
01/01/2015 - "Here, we review the different families of mammalian PRRs, the ligands they recognize, the mechanisms of activation, their role in disease, and the potential of targeting these proteins to develop the anti-inflammatory therapeutics of the future. "
12/01/2010 - "These studies should identify new candidate genes and biological pathways associated with host PRRS resistance and alternate viral disease processes and mechanisms; they may unveil biomarkers that account for genetic control of PRRS or, alternately, that reveal new targets for therapeutics or vaccines. "
|4.||Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)
|5.||Homologous Transplantation (Allograft)