|2.||Parkinson Disease (Parkinson's Disease)
|4.||Parkinsonian Disorders (Parkinsonism)
|1.||Zorbas, Yan G: 14 articles (05/2012 - 01/2002)|
|2.||Kakuris, Kostas K: 14 articles (11/2011 - 01/2005)|
|3.||Deogenov, Viktor A: 12 articles (11/2011 - 01/2004)|
|4.||Morari, Michele: 9 articles (06/2015 - 10/2005)|
|5.||Ohno, Yukihiro: 8 articles (11/2015 - 07/2008)|
|6.||Shimizu, Saki: 7 articles (11/2015 - 07/2008)|
|7.||Federenko, Yuri F: 7 articles (01/2014 - 01/2009)|
|8.||Akopian, V P: 7 articles (07/2010 - 09/2000)|
|9.||Oh, Myung Sook: 6 articles (12/2015 - 07/2010)|
|10.||Yerullis, Kosmas B: 6 articles (04/2008 - 01/2006)|
|1.||Levodopa (L Dopa)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/1980 - "Levodopa, orally administrated to these five patients during 8 days to 6 weeks in dosages of 75 to 600 mg per day, induced in all a marked improvement of the hypokinesia and/or rigidity, speech and social behaviour. "
08/01/2014 - "l-Dopa only slightly improved the characteristics of APAs in freezers but was effective to improve gait hypokinesia. "
07/01/2014 - "Levodopa mildly improved bradykinesia in 4 patients. "
08/01/2012 - "The effects of levodopa on both local and distant synchronization at 60-90 Hz correlated with the degree of improvement in bradykinesia-rigidity as did local STN activity at 300-400 Hz. Despite this, there were no effects of movement type, nor interactions between movement type and levodopa in the STN, nor in the coherence between STN and M1. "
06/01/2005 - "We found that the bradykinesia in Parkinsonian subjects improved by both levodopa medication and STN stimulation. "
|2.||Dopamine (Intropin)FDA LinkGeneric
08/30/1985 - "Quantitative assessment of hypokinesia revealed increased reaction time, delayed onset of muscle activity and prolonged movement time in a forelimb reaching task after selective degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system sparing mesocortical dopamine neurons. "
01/01/2016 - "Initiation of calorie restriction in middle-aged male rats attenuates aging-related motoric decline and bradykinesia without increased striatal dopamine."
01/01/2016 - "Evidence suggests that nocturnal hypokinesia exists even in patients in the early stages, and PD patients turned significantly less and with much slower speed and acceleration than controls, partly related to low nocturnal dopamine level. "
12/17/2015 - "These results identify impairment of cortico-striatal synaptic transmission and dopamine release as a potential basis of hypokinesia in HD. "
05/01/2015 - "However, the impact of regional striatal dopamine loss on specific components of bradykinesia remains unknown. "
|3.||1- Methyl- 4- phenyl- 1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)IBA
07/01/2012 - "In this study, we first investigated the degree of improvement in bradykinesia and rigidity during targeted globus pallidus DBS in three 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated rhesus macaques. "
02/01/2016 - "D-Ala2-GIP-glu-PAL treatment (25 nmol/kg ip.) for 7 days after MPTP treatment improved the locomotor and exploratory activity of mice, and improved bradykinesia and movement balance of mice. "
09/01/2007 - "TKT showed improvement of MPTP-induced PD-like symptoms (bradykinesia) in a behavioral test (pole test). "
12/24/2015 - "The treatment with DG resulted in prophylactic effects on MPTP-induced Parkinsonian bradykinesia and the immunohistochemical analysis showed that DG provided the neuroprotection against the MPP(+)-induced dopaminergic neurons loss through the anti-apoptosis effect. "
01/12/2015 - "The drd3-EGFP mice administered MPTP/p exhibited akinesia/bradykinesia. "
|4.||Bromocriptine (Parlodel)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/1982 - "When the dose of bromocriptine reached 30 mg daily, after 4 weeks' treatment, a highly significant improvement (p less than 0.001) was observed in the following six variables: bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, feeding, dressing and speech. "
01/01/1985 - "At a mean daily bromocriptine dose of 13.2 mg, 13 patients (65%) improved and had a 32% reduction in the combined score for tremor rigidity and bradykinesia. "
08/01/1987 - "The combination of L-DOPA/DI and bromocriptine gives the best therapeutic efficacy (49% improvement) in the total score (bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor). "
01/01/1997 - "Intraperitoneal pretreatment with bromocriptine (2 and 4 mg/kg) in mice reduced the catalepsy and bradykinesia produced by haloperidol at a dose of 0.125 mg/kg. The effect of bromocriptine in pole test was relatively similar to that in catalepsy test. "
01/01/1982 - "Levodopa was reduced by 18%, while bromocriptine was added with a mean dose of 29 mg. The results showed a marked tremor and rigidity response, clearly greater than that of bradykinesia of the hands. "
01/01/2010 - "The bolus of apomorphine improved the parameters of the gait related to bradykinesia and the tapping tests of the limbs, but the episodes of FOG did not vary significantly between the off and on state. "
12/01/1990 - "All of the animals had marked bradykinesia of the affected arm and stable apomorphine-induced turning before cavitation or implantation. "
09/01/1987 - "Conditioning of behavioural effects produced by an intermediate dose of apomorphine: hypokinesia, ptosis and stereotypies."
01/01/1980 - "Supersensitivity to apomorphine in experimentally induced hypokinesia and drug-induced modifications of the apomorphine response."
04/01/2008 - "The scores for tremor, bradykinesia and rigidity improved after administration of apomorphine. "
02/01/1998 - "After taking a single dose of oral levodopa/benserazide (200mg/50mg), the patients with WMH showed significantly less improvement in bradykinesia score than those without WMH (25 +/- 4.1% vs 40 +/- 4.0%, P < 0.05), but the improvements in other symptoms were comparable between the two groups. "
02/01/2001 - "With respect to levodopa/benserazide effect, the reduction in rigidity correlated with improved angular excursion of the ankle, whereas the decreased bradykinesia correlated with improved stride length and angular excursion of the hip and knee joints. "
06/01/1996 - "He was treated with 600 mg of levodopa with benserazide and 22.5 mg of bromocriptine with mild to moderate improvement in his bradykinesia and rigidity. "
06/01/1985 - "These symptoms were reduced by L-DOPA plus benserazide but the putative D1-receptor agonist SKF 38393-A did not affect tremor and increased the bradykinesia. "
01/01/1978 - "The hypokinesia is reversed by the putative dopamine-receptor agonists apomorphine, ET-495 and CB-154 as well as by the amino acids L-Dopa and m-tyrosine when administered in combination with the peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor Ro 4-4602. "
|7.||Dopamine Agonists (Dopamine Agonist)IBA
01/01/1983 - "The therapeutic profile of the dopaminergic agonists studied was similar, and the improvement in tremor was considerably better than that in rigidity and hypokinesia. "
01/01/1986 - "Subsequently, left-sided blepharospasm, slurred and stuttering speech, and right-sided rigidity and bradykinesia, responsive to dopamine agonists, appeared. "
01/01/2012 - "Last, the zFbxo7 morphants displayed severe locomotor disturbances (bradykinesia), which were dramatically improved by the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine. "
05/01/2006 - "Most patients were in Hoehn-Yahr stage 1-3. The common clinical features were bradykinesia, rigidity and resting tremor Treatments were levodopa (98.1 per cent), anticholinergic (29.9 per cent), dopamine agonists (26 per cent) and COMT inhibitor (9.1 per cent). "
04/30/1987 - "Similar to treatment with dopamine agonists, after 18 to 24 months, despite increased dosage of levodopa, a slight increase of some clinical features of parkinsonism, particularly bradykinesia and gait disorders, were observed. "
|8.||rasagiline (Azilect)FDA Link
09/01/2011 - "As a monotherapy or an adjunctive therapy, rasagiline is an effective drug for reducing the severity of bradykinesia in PD patients."
09/01/2011 - "To summarize studies that specifically examined the impact of rasagiline on bradykinesia symptoms in PD patients across disease severity. "
09/01/2011 - "In each, 1 mg/day rasagiline significantly reduced bradykinesia scores in patients. "
09/01/2011 - "Determining the efficacy of rasagiline in reducing bradykinesia among Parkinson's disease patients: a review."
09/01/2011 - "Three studies were identified that explicitly examined the effect of rasagiline on the bradykinesia subscale of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor examination. "
|9.||Dihydrotachysterol (AT 10)IBA
12/01/2011 - "In the 18 patients available for follow-up at 10 years, STN-DBS still significantly improved the UPDRS total motor score (P = .007) and resting and action tremor (P < .01 and P = .02, respectively) and bradykinesia (P = .01) subscores. "
09/01/1996 - "A 77-year-old man had substantial relief of severe rigidity, bradykinesia, poor balance, and blepharospasm at 10 mg bid, such that he could feed himself and walk independently. "
11/01/2001 - "At 10 mg/kg (ip), scores measuring bradykinesia and posture were significantly reduced and motor activity increased to levels comparable with pre-MPTP-treatment scores. "
01/01/2012 - "The authors report significant improvement at 10 years following the onset of subthalamic nucleus DBS in the off UPDRS (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) III total motor score, tremor and bradykinesia subscores, UPDRS II meds on and off scores, and UPDRS IV dyskinesia and motor fluctuation score as well as a significant reduction in the levodopa equivalent daily dose when compared with baseline. "
08/01/2004 - "Stimulation at 130 Hz slightly worsened bradykinesia overall, whereas 40 Hz had little effect. "
07/15/2008 - "Stimulation at 130 Hz caused a rapid amelioration of chorea producing the worsening of bradykinesia, whereas 40 Hz stimulation (maintaining constant the total electrical energy delivered) improved chorea while preserving the ability to walk. "
08/01/2001 - "Long-term stimulation at 130 Hz, 0.09 to 0.450 milliseconds, and 1.5 to 3.0 V produced significant improvement in tremor and rigidity and mild improvement in bradykinesia. "
10/01/1998 - "Posteroventral pallidotomy seems to be beneficial in reducing bradykinesia of upper limb movements but may have "costs" to movement patterning, particularly for reach to grasp movements to objects of differing sizes. "
09/01/2003 - "The UPDRS motor subscale ratings were similar to those reported in the literature: pallidotomy improved the overall motor score and the contralateral bradykinesia + rigidity score, but not the gait + posture score. "
05/01/1999 - "Therefore, any improvement in bradykinesia after pallidotomy must be related to mechanisms other than restoration of pallidothalamocortical connectivity. "
09/01/1998 - "Despite the clinical efficacy of pallidotomy while patients were "off," bradykinesia of elbow flexion movements while patients were "on" is not affected by pallidotomy. "
01/01/1999 - "To the extent that MT and RT are quantitative measures of bradykinesia, our study provides evidence that this parkinsonian feature improves after pallidotomy."
|2.||Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
01/01/2005 - "There was significant improvement in activities of daily living and motor subscores as well as total UPDRS score in the "off" state at the 2-year follow-up, which mainly resulted from improvement in contralateral bradykinesia and rigidity. "
11/01/2012 - "The 50-Hz rTMS did not improve gait, bradykinesia, and global and motor UPDRS, but there appeared a short-lived "on"-state improvement in activities of daily living (UPDRS II). "
01/01/2007 - "Bilateral subthalamotomy demonstrated persistent benefits in bradykinesia, rigidity of the limbs, and consequently the improvement in activities of daily living, motor function, Schwab and England scales. "
02/01/2013 - "For PWP, rigidity and bradykinesia could impair activities of daily living like multi-directional GI and may be associated with an increased risk of falls."
06/06/2012 - "In most cases, with progression, signs of more generalized bradykinesia appear, which include facial masking, reduced voice volume, and slowing of activities of daily living. "
|3.||Deep Brain Stimulation
01/01/2009 - "Recent reports, however, have indicated that deep-brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) may result in an improvement in coordinative deficits beyond the amelioration of "intensive deficits" such as bradykinesia and scaling errors. "
01/01/2000 - "In keeping with the classic pathophysiologic model, physiologic and neuroimaging studies in patients have shown that lesioning or functional blockades (by deep brain stimulation, or DBS) of these nuclei increased cortical activation, in parallel with clinical improvements of bradykinesia. "
01/01/2014 - "Anatomical targets associated with abrupt versus gradual washout of subthalamic deep brain stimulation effects on bradykinesia."
07/01/2012 - "Neural targets for relieving parkinsonian rigidity and bradykinesia with pallidal deep brain stimulation."
10/01/2011 - "Consequently, high-frequency deep brain stimulation of virtually every structure in the basal ganglia-thalamic-cortical system improves bradykinesia. "
09/15/1999 - "The greatest improvement in the hypokinesia was detected in the group treated with approximately 0.57T\30 stimuli twice a day (baseline total UPDRS: 30.62 +/- 15.23; 1 month after treatment: 17.08 +/- 7.04, P < 0.01; 3 months after treatment: 16.08 +/- 7.06, P < 0.01). "
02/15/2015 - "14 days after treatment completion) induced hypokinesia and immobility whilst the aggregate combination additionally produced rigidity. "
04/15/2014 - "Behavioral deficits at the end of the 14-day dosing regime and on day 28 (i.e., 14 days after treatment completion) induced rigidity, hypokinesia and immobility. "
08/01/1993 - "After treatment with the 0.16-mg/kg dose, force-time waveforms of the climbing behavior documented instances of arrest of movement on the rope, but no bradykinesia of individual locomotor acts was discerned. "
03/01/2014 - "Analysis of specific motor symptoms revealed significant improvement after treatment in tremor (P < 0.001), rigidity (P = 0.004), and bradykinesia (P < 0.001). "
01/15/2007 - "Additionally, stimulation through electrode contacts that improved bradykinesia and rigidity generated VTAs that overlapped the zona incerta/fields of Forel (ZI/H2). "
10/01/2011 - "Return of bradykinesia after subthalamic stimulation ceases: relationship to electrode location."
09/01/1998 - "Chronic unilateral stimulation was associated with reversible improvement of measures of reaction time and hypokinesia > 1 year after the stereotactic electrode implantation. "
09/01/1998 - "The motor effects of unilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on hypokinesia were studied in two patients 58 and 52 years old, both modified Hoehn and Yahr 2.5, at 16 and 15 months after the implantation of a quadripolar electrode (Medtronic). "
10/01/2007 - "To investigate the time span within which bradykinesia re-occurs, we registered movement parameters immediately after the termination of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in nine Parkinson patients with chronically implanted bilateral STN electrodes. "