Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma

A form of RHABDOMYOSARCOMA arising primarily in the head and neck, especially the orbit, of children below the age of 10. The cells are smaller than those of other rhabdomyosarcomas and are of two basic cell types: spindle cells and round cells. This cancer is highly sensitive to chemotherapy and has a high cure rate with multi-modality therapy. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2188)
Also Known As:
Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal; Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcomas; Rhabdomyosarcomas, Embryonal
Networked: 236 relevant articles (8 outcomes, 24 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)
2. Rhabdomyosarcoma
3. Neoplasms (Cancer)
4. Adenosarcoma
5. Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma


1. Kobayashi, Masaki: 5 articles (01/2012 - 07/2005)
2. Itagaki, Shirou: 5 articles (01/2012 - 07/2005)
3. Iseki, Ken: 5 articles (01/2012 - 07/2005)
4. Keller, Charles: 4 articles (01/2015 - 01/2013)
5. Parham, David M: 4 articles (11/2014 - 04/2005)
6. Langenau, David M: 4 articles (04/2014 - 01/2013)
7. Hirano, Takeshi: 4 articles (01/2012 - 07/2005)
8. Sorci, Guglielmo: 3 articles (09/2015 - 04/2014)
9. Donato, Rosario: 3 articles (09/2015 - 04/2014)
10. Chen, Eleanor Y: 3 articles (01/2015 - 06/2013)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma:
1. Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2000 - "The IRSG has reported improvement in the prognosis of both nonmetastatic and metastatic embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma as attributable to three, three-drug regimens that use cyclophosphamide at 2.2 g/m2 in either maintenance or induction and maintenance therapy. "
06/01/2001 - "Described here is a case of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder developing 8 years following exposure to cyclophosphamide for the treatment of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma."
04/01/2011 - "Patients with localized, grossly resected, or gross residual (orbital only) embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) had 5-year failure-free survival (FFS) rates of 83% and overall survival rates of 95% on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) protocols III/IV. IRSG D9602 protocol (1997 to 2004) objectives were to decrease toxicity in similar patients by reducing radiotherapy (RT) doses and eliminating cyclophosphamide for the lowest-risk patients. "
11/01/2003 - "Taking the lead from the use of vincristine, actinomycin-D, and cyclophosphamide (VAC) by Dr. Ruth Heyn, Dr. Harold Mauer and colleagues developed a more robust VAC as well as three similar drug regimens with hematopoietic growth factor support, which, in the context of surgery with or without radiotherapy, achieved a 3-year failure-free survival rate of 83% (IRS-IV) in nonmetastatic embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. "
06/01/1992 - "We report a case of abdominal embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma who received a combined treatment modality with radical pelvic surgery and combination chemotherapy of vincristine, actinomycin-D and cyclophosphamide (VAC). "
2. Vincristine (Oncovin)FDA LinkGeneric
3. Dactinomycin (Ac-De)FDA LinkGeneric
4. Chloroquine (Aralen)FDA LinkGeneric
5. ParaffinIBA
6. DesminIBA
7. Messenger RNA (mRNA)IBA
8. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)IBA
9. VimentinIBA
10. AntibodiesIBA
09/01/2006 - "Tissue microarray sections representing 66 rhabdomyosarcoma tumors (34 embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, 32 alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma) were surveyed by immunohistochemistry using antibodies specific for EGFR and ErbB-2. "
01/01/1982 - "Four embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas, one tumor diagnosed as an undifferentiated sarcoma, probably a rhabdomyosarcoma, and six different non-muscular sarcomas were investigated with antibodies specific for different intermediate filament types. "
01/01/1984 - "Thus, immunohistology offers by "exclusion" a differential diagnosis to avoid often misdiagnosed tumours (undifferentiated carcinomas, embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas, and malignant lymphomas), since carcinomas react with antikeratin, embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas with antibodies to desmin and malignant lymphomas show immunofluorescence with antibodies to vimentin. "
01/01/1987 - "The present study is an immunohistochemical analysis utilizing a series of mono- and polyclonal antibodies to myoglobin, desmin and vimentin in smooth and striated control muscle tissues, 7 alveolar and 7 embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas and 1 adult and 1 fetal rhabdomyoma with ultrastructurally proven rhabdomyoblastic differentiation in all the tumors. "
07/01/1994 - "Specific antibodies against neuron-specific enolase, leukocyte common antigen and desmin were assessed for their usefulness in the cytodiagnosis of 23 cases of pediatric orbital round cell tumors (10 cases of orbital recurrence of retinoblastoma, 11 cases of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and 2 cases of inflammatory pseudotumor). "

Therapies and Procedures

1. Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
2. Radiotherapy
3. Combination Drug Therapy (Combination Chemotherapy)
4. Aftercare (After-Treatment)
5. Heterologous Transplantation (Xenotransplantation)