|5.||Addison Disease (Addison's Disease)
|1.||Hwang, Bang Yeon: 8 articles (07/2015 - 11/2009)|
|2.||Kim, Youngsoo: 8 articles (07/2015 - 05/2002)|
|3.||Gold, Michael H: 7 articles (12/2014 - 06/2006)|
|4.||Goldman, Mitchel P: 7 articles (03/2013 - 01/2002)|
|5.||Han, Sang-Bae: 6 articles (07/2015 - 11/2009)|
|6.||Imokawa, Genji: 6 articles (06/2015 - 02/2002)|
|7.||Harii, Kiyonori: 6 articles (05/2011 - 12/2002)|
|8.||Yoshimura, Kotaro: 6 articles (05/2011 - 12/2002)|
|9.||Moon, Hyung Ryong: 5 articles (12/2015 - 04/2011)|
|10.||Passeron, Thierry: 5 articles (12/2015 - 04/2005)|
|1.||Tretinoin (Retinoic Acid)FDA LinkGeneric
10/01/2011 - "Both peel and peel plus all-trans retinoic acid treatments achieved significant improvement in fine lines, radiance, roughness, skin tone clarity, skin tone evenness, and hyperpigmentation appearance. "
01/01/2005 - "Treatment with tretinoin resulted in significantly greater improvement relative to placebo in clinical signs of photodamage (fine and coarse wrinkling, mottled hyperpigmentation, lentigines, and sallowness), overall photodamage severity, and investigator's global assessment of clinical response (p<0.05). "
01/01/1993 - "Tretinoin-treated forearms showed significantly greater improvement in roughness, mottled hyperpigmentation, fine wrinkling, and lentigines at 24 and 48 weeks. "
09/01/1989 - "Fine wrinkling, coarse wrinkling, sallowness, looseness, and hyperpigmentation were significantly improved with tretinoin therapy. "
02/01/1992 - "Fine wrinkling, mottled hyperpigmentation, and roughness were more improved in subjects who received tretinoin emollient cream 0.05% than in vehicle-treated subjects (p less than 0.05). "
|2.||hydroquinone (Black and White)FDA Link
07/01/2014 - "Topical formulation containing hydroquinone is the most widely used remedy for the treatment of hyperpigmentation disorders. "
03/01/2013 - "Hydroquinone (HQ) is the gold standard and remains the only prescription product available in the United States for the treatment of generalized facial hyperpigmentation. "
12/01/2004 - "Hydroquinone (HQ) bleaching creams are considered the gold standard for treating hyperpigmentation. "
10/01/1998 - "Efficacy of hydroquinone in the treatment of cutaneous hyperpigmentation in hairless descendants of Mexican hairless dogs (Xoloitzcuintli)."
03/01/2013 - "This investigator-blinded, randomized trial was conducted to compare a new hydroquinone (HQ)-free hyperpigmentation regimen against a leading HQ-based hyperpigmentation regimen for the treatment of facial hyperpigmentation and photoaging. "
08/01/2010 - "Four weeks after the procedure, there was significant improvement in gingival melanin hyperpigmentation. "
12/01/2011 - "At 3- and 6-month follow-up, clearance of hyperpigmentation was assessed by physician global assessment, reflectance spectroscopy, melanin index, patient global assessment, patient satisfaction, and histology. "
08/01/2015 - "In this study, 40 maxillary sites from 20 patients presenting bilateral melanin gingival hyperpigmentation were selected. "
03/01/2013 - "Results from these studies indicate that a product designed to affect multiple pathways of melanogenesis and melanin distribution may provide an additional treatment option beyond HQ for hyperpigmentation."
11/01/2015 - "Gingival melanin hyperpigmentation is caused by several reasons and affects people across ethnicity, race, age, and both gender. "
|4.||tazarotene (Tazorac)FDA Link
01/01/2006 - "Once-daily application of tazarotene cream was shown to be effective against PIH, achieving significantly greater reductions compared with vehicle in overall disease severity and in the intensity and area of hyperpigmentation within 18 weeks (P< or =.05). "
11/01/2002 - "Compared with the vehicle, at week 24 tazarotene resulted in a significantly greater incidence of patients achieving treatment success (>or=50% global improvement) and at least a 1-grade improvement in fine wrinkling, mottled hyperpigmentation, lentigines, elastosis, pore size, irregular depigmentation, tactile roughness, coarse wrinkling, and the overall integrated assessment of photodamage (P<.01). "
12/01/2004 - "In this multicentre, double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled study, 50 patients with photodamaged facial skin (at least mild fine wrinkling and mottled hyperpigmentation, with at least one of these being moderate) were randomized to apply tazarotene 0.1% cream or vehicle cream to their face, once daily for 24 weeks. "
06/01/2004 - "All significant between-group differences in efficacy measures were in favor of tazarotene - for fine wrinkling at the study endpoint and, at earlier timepoints, for treatment success (> or =50% global improvement), and the overall integrated assessment of photodamage, mottled hyperpigmentation, and coarse wrinkling. "
02/01/2005 - "Tazarotene cream was significantly more effective than vehicle in reducing fine wrinkles, mottled hyperpigmentation, lentigines, irregular depigmentation, apparent pore size, elastosis, tactile roughness, and an overall integrated assessment of photodamage. "
01/01/2013 - "Bleaching agents with phenolic compounds with non-phenolic agens as follow-up therapy appears to be the most beneficial treatment options for the hyperpigmentation. "
01/01/2003 - "Two cases developed severe postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and were effectively treated with bleaching agents. "
08/01/2013 - "Various types of whitening agents are used to treat hyperpigmentation. "
01/01/2013 - "Currently, there is no widely accepted treatment for the disorder, but it is usually treated with bleaching agents because it is considered a variant of inflammatory hyperpigmentation. "
11/01/2007 - "are promising compounds that could be useful for treating hyperpigmentation as skin-whitening agents."
01/01/2011 - "Taking reasonable precaution to prevent the postinflammatory hyperpigmentation is the most important point in making ALA-IPL PDT a successful therapy."
06/01/2013 - "PDT is a therapeutic option for photorejuvenation, with improvement in fine wrinkles, mottled hyperpigmentation, roughness and sallowness reported."
10/01/2009 - "ALA- and MAL-PDT showed equivalent local side-effect frequencies, except for a higher frequency of hyperpigmentation after 28 d using ALA-PDT (P=0.006). "
03/01/2007 - "PDT-induced transitional hyperpigmentation was reported in some patients but disappeared without the need of treatment within 3-6 months. "
06/01/2006 - "Three months after the final treatment, improvement was greater in the ALA-PDT-IPL side than in IPL-alone side for all facets of photodamage-crow's feet appearance (55 vs 29.5%), tactile skin roughness (55 vs 29.5%), mottled hyperpigmentation (60.3 vs 37.2%), and telangectasias (84.6 vs 53.8%). "
|7.||Monophenol Monooxygenase (Tyrosinase)IBA
12/15/2015 - "Results from the present study suggest that CPA2 bearing a linear β-phenyl-α,β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold may be the potential candidate for treatment of diseases associated with hyperpigmentation and that a linear β-phenyl-α,β-unsaturated carbonyl scaffold might be closely related to potent tyrosinase inhibition. "
06/01/2011 - "This study will enhance understanding of the mechanism of tyrosinase inhibition and will contribute to the development of effective drugs for use hyperpigmentation."
01/01/2011 - "Tyrosinase inhibition studies are needed due to the medicinal applications such as hyperpigmentation. "
07/01/2015 - "Hyperpigmentation mechanism of methyl 3,5-di-caffeoylquinate through activation of p38 and MITF induction of tyrosinase."
02/01/2015 - "Skin hyperpigmentation and browning of foods are undesirable phenomena which tyrosinase represents. "
|8.||glycolic acid (glycolate)IBA
04/01/2012 - "This prospective study evaluated the safety and efficacy of decapeptide-12 in conjunction with an antioxidant cleanser, glycolic-acid containing facial moisturizer and broad-spectrum sunscreen in the treatment of facial hyperpigmentation associated with chronic photodamage. "
01/01/2007 - "Three patients in the glycolic acid peel group developed a mild-degree postinflammatory hyperpigmentation with total clearance at the end of the treatment period. "
03/01/1997 - "This pilot study demonstrates that serial glycolic acid peels provide an additional benefit, with minimal adverse effects, for the treatment of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in dark-complexioned individuals."
03/01/1997 - "Glycolic acid peels for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in black patients. "
01/01/2009 - "Many clinicians have used glycolic acid (GA) peels for facial acne, scarring, and hyperpigmentation, mainly in lighter skin types. "
|9.||Vitamin EFDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2000 - "Oral vitamin E supplementation has been reported to improve facial hyperpigmentation. "
09/01/1999 - "Oral vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) supplementation has been reported to improve facial hyperpigmentation. "
07/01/1999 - "Oral vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol, alpha-T) supplementation has been reported to improve facial hyperpigmentation. "
12/01/2001 - "A novel vitamin E derivative, (6"-hydroxy-2",5",7",8"-tetramethylchroman-2"-yl)methyl 3-(2',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)propionate (TM4R), which has a chromanoxyl ring and 4-substituted resorcinol moieties, was synthesized; and its inhibitory effects on tyrosinase, antioxidant ability, and lightening effect of ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced hyperpigmentation were estimated. "
|10.||Niacinamide (Nicotinamide)FDA LinkGeneric
12/01/2009 - "Since these two agents function by different mechanisms, we conducted two studies to determine if their combination is more effective than niacinamide alone in reducing facial hyperpigmentation. "
02/01/2010 - "In small clinical studies, niacinamide-containing and NAG-containing formulations reduced the appearance of hyperpigmentation. "
12/01/2009 - "In both studies, the combination formulation was significantly more effective than the vehicle and the 5% niacinamide formulation in reducing the appearance of hyperpigmentation after 8 weeks. "
03/01/2007 - "In a second clinical study involving the topical combination of 2% NAG with 4% niacinamide, an agent previously shown to be clinically active, the effect on hyperpigmentation was greater. "
07/01/2002 - "In the clinical studies, niacinamide significantly decreased hyperpigmentation and increased skin lightness compared with vehicle alone after 4 weeks of use. "
11/01/2008 - "Effective treatment of psychotropic drug-induced facial hyperpigmentation with a 755-nm Q-switched alexandrite laser."
03/01/2013 - "Studies on the Er:YAG laser showed better results with the use of short square-shaped pulses, which determined low rates of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation and long-lasting maintenance of results. "
08/01/2015 - "Comparison of Nd:YAG Laser and Surgical Stripping for Treatment of Gingival Hyperpigmentation: A Clinical Trial."
04/01/2014 - "Both diode and Er:YAG lasers gave excellent results in gingival hyperpigmentation. "
03/01/2014 - "Esthetic treatment of gingival hyperpigmentation with Nd:YAG laser or scalpel technique: a 6-month RCT of patient and professional assessment."
12/01/2010 - "The micro laser peel in conjunction with the test products helped to significantly improve hyperpigmentation, wrinkles, and texture as compared to before treatment. "
10/01/2004 - "In general, long-pulse laser and intense pulsed light sources can be effective with a low risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) when used for the treatment of lentigines. "
01/01/2015 - "To evaluate the efficacy of these lasers in the treatment of hyperpigmentation due to Lifa disease. "
02/01/2015 - "Of these, 18 patients completed the study, 3 were lost to or unavailable for follow-up, and 2 withdrew owing to inflammatory hyperpigmentation after the laser treatment. "
12/01/2015 - "Using high-magnification digital epiluminescence dermatoscopy, laser confocal microscopy, and histological examination, we showed that benign vascular lesions of the skin have restricted but significant hyperpigmentation compared with the surrounding skin. "
01/01/2013 - "We observed a marked disruption of the basal membrane in axillary hyperpigmentation and an inflammatory infiltrate that improved after treatment. "
03/01/2014 - "After treatment, the facial hyperpigmentation improved. "
08/01/2004 - "Although iris hyperpigmentation and abnormal eyelash changes may occur after treatment with unoprostone, the incidence of these events appears to be low in the 2-year clinical study."
01/01/2015 - "Rationale for the development of speckled hyperpigmentation in the areas of psoriatic plaques after treatment with biologic agents."
02/01/2012 - "Hyperpigmentation after treatment was noted in three patients (6%), which lasted for 3-10 days. "
05/01/2007 - "All patients recovered in 1-3 weeks with no skin graft or no significant sequelae except post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation."
09/01/2014 - "Despite poorer fat graft take within the disease region of Romberg patients, fat grafting resulted in long-term improvement in hypoplasia and skin hyperpigmentation."
01/01/2014 - "This study evaluates the orientation of the inset of groin grafts according to their donor sites (superior-inferior) and its role in graft hyperpigmentation. "
05/01/2015 - "Potential disadvantages include an insufficient volume of soft tissue and graft hyperpigmentation. "
05/01/2014 - "Case report: Dermoscopic and histological aspects of skin graft and perigraft hyperpigmentation in acral location."
|5.||Laser Therapy (Surgery, Laser)
06/01/1999 - "The combination laser therapy was highly effective in removing the hyperpigmentation and all patients in this group showed complete resolution without any peripheral hyperpigmentation."
07/01/2010 - "Topical therapy is typically effective for epidermal postinflammatory hyperpigmentation; however, certain procedures, such as chemical peeling and laser therapy, may help treat recalcitrant hyperpigmentation. "
09/01/2007 - "Cutaneous hyperpigmentation after endovenous laser therapy: a case report and literature review."
01/01/2007 - "Methods to remove gingival hyperpigmentation vary, but it seems that the most reliable and satisfactory procedure is laser ablation. "
09/01/2000 - "In contrast, laser therapies have not produced completely satisfactory results, because they can induce hyperpigmentation and recurrences can occur. "