|2.||Pathologic Constriction (Stenosis)
|4.||Melanoma (Melanoma, Malignant)
|5.||Deglutition Disorders (Dysphagia)
|1.||Onoue, Satomi: 13 articles (08/2015 - 03/2008)|
|2.||Chignell, Colin F: 12 articles (07/2010 - 06/2003)|
|3.||Yamada, Shizuo: 11 articles (12/2013 - 03/2008)|
|4.||Seto, Yoshiki: 10 articles (08/2015 - 08/2008)|
|5.||Roberts, Joan E: 10 articles (08/2012 - 03/2003)|
|6.||Detty, Michael R: 9 articles (08/2015 - 11/2002)|
|7.||Fu, Peter P: 9 articles (01/2014 - 03/2002)|
|8.||Letizia, C S: 8 articles (12/2013 - 09/2012)|
|9.||Api, A M: 8 articles (12/2013 - 09/2012)|
|10.||You, Youngjae: 8 articles (01/2013 - 03/2005)|
08/01/2001 - "Potential advantages of this approach include the use of lower bulk [AlPcS(4)](4-) concentrations, rapid plasma clearance of free [AlPcS(4)](4-), and better phototoxic responses, due to higher intracellular [AlPcS(4)](4-) concentrations combined with reduced collateral photodamage arising from misguided sensitizer accumulation, thereby enhancing the selective phototoxicity of PDT treatments."
09/01/2008 - "These data suggest that intact mitochondrial function may provide a basal level of anti-oxidant defense against PDT-induced phototoxicity in Candida, and reveals pathways of resistance to oxidative stress that can potentially be targeted to increase the efficacy of PDT against this pathogenic fungus."
05/01/2004 - "It is known that Gram-(-) bacteria are resistant to PDT with many commonly used PS that will readily lead to phototoxicity in Gram-(+) species, and that PS bearing a cationic charge or the use of agents that increase the permeability of the outer membrane will increase the efficacy of killing Gram-(-) organisms. "
10/01/1998 - "We assess the ability of one such special (Solumbra) fabric and one "typical" summer fabric to provide protection against PDT phototoxicity produced in tape-stripped Sk-1 hairless mice by topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and (primarily) visible light (360-800 nm). "
01/01/2012 - "For the phototoxicity study, CRL-1666 cells were treated with PDT and cell viability was measured by WST-1 assay. "
09/01/1998 - "Irradiation of L1210 cells in the presence of N-hydroxypyridine-2(1H)-thione, a nonspecific, photochemical source of hydroxyl radical, was also found to trigger phototoxicity and lipid peroxidation. "
01/01/1992 - "These data suggested that cutaneous phototoxicity in Balb/c mice is initiated by the generation of reactive oxygens in the target tissue, especially of hydroxyl radicals."
09/01/2005 - "Dimethyl thiourea, a hydroxyl radical scavenger, was effective in reducing phototoxicity (P </= 0.05). "
06/01/1987 - "Hydroxyl radical scavengers also conferred protection against tetracycline phototoxicity. "
01/01/1991 - "Our results strongly support a role for the hydroxyl radical in producing the cutaneous phototoxicity associated with PDT."
07/01/2015 - "These data indicate that atRAL sequestration is an essential mechanism underlying the protective effects of emixustat and related compounds against retinal phototoxicity. "
07/01/2015 - "Using agents that lack either RPE65 inhibitory activity or the capacity to sequester atRAL, we assessed the relative importance of these 2 modes of action in protection against retinal phototoxicity in mice. "
09/01/2015 - "In the present study we explored damage mechanisms accounting for UV-induced retinal phototoxicity in the rats exposed to UVA and UVB irradiation using a proteomics approach. "
08/01/2013 - "Blinded by the light: retinal phototoxicity in the context of safety studies."
11/01/2010 - "The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of blue light on retinal phototoxicity and its relationship to A2E, oxidized A2E and its isomers. "
10/01/2003 - "Intracellular localization is a cofactor for the phototoxicity of protoporphyrin IX in the gastrointestinal tract: in vitro study."
12/01/2002 - "Phototoxicity studies reveal PME to be a more potent photosensitizer than is PpIX, at the early and late incubation time points. "
10/16/2000 - "This work relates to studies on modes of phototoxicity by protoporphyrin (PpIX) after incubation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) on cultured cells. "
02/01/2012 - "Cotreatment with the surfactant resulted in an increased intracellular ALA level, PpIX formation, and phototoxicity."
06/01/2011 - "Based on the nanoparticle structure, PpIX-GC-NPs showed the self-quenching effect that is 'off' state with no fluorescence signal and phototoxicity with light exposure. "
09/01/1997 - "Furthermore, phototoxicity may be different after application of pure hypericin, since some constituents in the plant extract may exhibit protective effects."
11/01/2006 - "This study was conducted to determine whether the phototoxicity of hypericin in HaCaT keratinocytes could be attenuated by H. "
03/01/2005 - "In this study, we have synthesized several new methyl helianthrone derivatives and compared their phototoxicity with that of hypericin. "
08/05/2013 - "Hypericin encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles: phototoxicity and photodynamic efficiency."
03/01/2012 - "Evaluation of hypericin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: physicochemical properties, photostability and phototoxicity."
11/01/2011 - "The efficiency of cellular uptake of Fospeg was reduced by 30-40% with respect to m-THPC in standard solution causing a slight reduction of the phototoxicity but without serious impairment of the efficacy of the treatment. "
05/01/2012 - "Dark cytotoxicity of temoporfin delivered by NPs was less than that of free temoporfin in standard solution (Foscan(®), Biolitec AG [Jena, Germany]), whereas phototoxicity was not reduced. "
02/14/2011 - "After release the ((1)O(2)) generation as well as the phototoxicity are more efficient compared with mTHPC applied without the HSA nanoparticles."
12/02/2010 - "Dark toxicity, phototoxicity and intracellular localization of mTHPC were studied. "
09/02/2010 - "Similar in vitro characteristics and phototoxicity were observed for Fospeg, the water-soluble formulation of mTHPC. "
01/01/2007 - "The B[a]P phototoxicity was not eliminated by well-known antioxidants but was markedly diminished by diversity of plant ingredients. "
10/01/2015 - "The phototoxicity of the UV filters and antioxidants was evaluated using 3T3 fibroblast cultures that were subjected (or not) to irradiation according to OECD TG 432. "
07/01/2011 - "Some phototoxicity may be counteracted or reduced by dietary intake of antioxidants and protective phytonutrients."
03/01/1997 - "Inhibiting effects of antioxidants on drug-induced phototoxicity in cell cultures. "
01/01/2013 - "We developed and optimized the method to minimize tissue damage to the ear, rapidly immunostain for multiple extracellular or cell surface receptors of interest, minimize immunotoxicity with pre-blocking Fcγ receptors and phototoxicity with extracellular antioxidants, and highlight the major dermal tissue structures with basement membrane markers. "
02/12/2010 - "Radachlorin appears to be an excellent photosensitizer, with similar phototoxicity to Chlorin e(6) on cell cultures, but with quicker kinetics, which could be an improvement if confirmed on further in vivo studies."
05/01/1994 - "In addition to the characteristic 670 nm chlorin absorbance, the conjugate exhibited new absorbance bands at 517 and 743 nm, but these were not a part of the fluorescence emission spectra, nor was fluorescence observed at wavelengths > 670 nm. The action spectrum indicated that the long-wavelength absorbance of the conjugate was not involved in phototoxicity in cell culture, and that only irradiation at wavelengths associated with the chlorin moiety yielded a cytotoxic effect. "
12/07/2012 - "Higher phototoxicity was roughly correlated with higher numbers of PEG groups, with the tri-PEG chlorin conjugate showing the best overall ovarian cancer cell photokilling of the series. "
12/07/2012 - "These chlorin sensitizers were studied for hydrolytic stability and solubility, as well as ovarian OVCAR-5 cancer cell uptake, localization, and phototoxicity. "
05/02/2012 - "Synthesis of chlorin-based unsaturated fatty acid conjugates: their in vitro phototoxicity on TC-1 cancer cell line."
07/01/1995 - "Phthalocyanine-mediated photoinactivation of cell-bound CAT results in loss of protection against accumulating H2O2, providing an additional pathway of phototoxicity."
06/14/2013 - "Chloroaluminium phthalocyanine polymeric nanoparticles as photosensitisers: photophysical and physicochemical characterisation, release and phototoxicity in vitro."
01/13/2006 - "Phototoxicity of the derivatives was of the same order of magnitude as for tetrasulphonated phthalocyanine but with an overall trend of increased phototoxicity with increasing amino acid chain length. "
05/15/1998 - "This good efficacy towards AML and the observed lower phototoxicity towards normal cells (PBL, normal progenitors) suggest that this phthalocyanine is a potential bone marrow purging agent."
01/01/2013 - "A nano complex of hydrophilic phthalocyanine and polyethylenimine for improved cellular internalization efficiency and phototoxicity."
|10.||Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/1993 - "Among them, L-ascorbic acid was found to be most effective in protecting SnPP-treated rats against phototoxicity. "
01/01/1993 - "The present study shows that L-ascorbic acid may be a promising chemical to prevent the phototoxicity of SnPP."
12/01/2009 - "Addition of vitamin C significantly increased the resistance of UV-B acclimated individuals against Cu, while no change was observed for the other chemicals, suggesting that the mode of Cu phototoxicity is different from those of the other phototoxicants under UV-B light. "
01/01/1993 - "Protection by L-ascorbic acid against phototoxicity in tin-protoporphyrin-treated suckling rats."
10/01/1999 - "The aim of the present study was to evaluate the supposed photoprotective effects of ascorbic acid, acetylsalicylic acid, and indomethacin by the photo hen's egg test, a recently developed new model for phototoxicity. "
02/01/2015 - "UV imaging was effective for the early detection of type 1 leukoderma, which seems to be related to the cumulative laser energy delivered, but not for detecting type 2 leukoderma, which may be due to direct phototoxicity."
01/01/2015 - "This study addresses the therapeutic dose limits, biological safety and molecular pathway of near-infrared (NIR) laser phototoxicity. "
07/01/1998 - "In this paper, we have addressed this issue by correlating mechanistic studies using laser flash photolysis with cellular phototoxicity data, obtained under the same experimental conditions. "
01/01/1984 - "Moreover, studies using mice whose brain temperature was kept below 37 degrees C during laser treatment showed a greater phototoxicity than mice without temperature regulation. "
11/01/2015 - "We established a three-dimensional fluorescent protein expressing cellular model in order to reliably investigate the extent and major exposure parameters responsible for both photobleaching and phototoxicity under pulsed laser exposure, unveiling a variety of possible effects on living cells, from reversible photobleaching to cytotoxicity and cell death. "
|2.||Photochemotherapy (Photodynamic Therapy)
12/01/2011 - "The mAb-IR700 conjugates were most effective when bound to the cell membrane and produced no phototoxicity when not bound, suggesting a different mechanism for PIT as compared to conventional photodynamic therapies. "
08/14/2015 - "The resultant biohybrid offers valuable features for photodynamic therapy such as remarkable cellular selectivity, rapid cell uptake by receptor-mediated endocytosis, efficient generation of (1)O2 upon irradiation, potent phototoxicity as well as low cytotoxicity in the "off"-state. "
02/01/2015 - "The intracellular porphyrin fluorescence levels showed good correlation with cellular phototoxicity following light exposure, suggesting the potential application of the ALA-HPO conjugates in photodynamic therapy. "
07/14/2011 - "Tetrabenzoporphine and 5-aminolevulinic acid, which are used for photodynamic therapy, showed phototoxicity. "
08/01/2010 - "Based on these results, we suggest that self-quenching PFP nanogels can be used to design new photodynamic therapies with minimal unfavorable phototoxicity."
|3.||Phototherapy (Light Therapy)
04/26/1985 - "The photochemistry of drugs can be useful (phototherapy) or harmful (phototoxicity). "
02/01/1978 - "The potential for phototoxicity to be additive to the normal aging of the retina is proposed, and we conclude that there is a sound basis for the current practice of patching the eyes of infants undergoing phototherapy."
02/01/1997 - "The observed photoprotective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photoprotection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such phototherapies."
02/01/2002 - "A brief overview of phototoxicity, photoallergy, and photoprotection is discussed with further elaboration upon the principles of phototherapy and its utility in treating idiopathic photodermatoses."
01/01/2007 - "It is important to be cognizant of phototoxicity associated with PUVA photochemotherapy or NB-UVB phototherapy in patients with mycosis fungoides, who may be taking photosensitizing medications or have depigmented patches which renders them more sensitive to lower doses of ultraviolet light."
|4.||Intraocular Lenses (Intraocular Lens)
09/01/1989 - "Erythropsial phototoxicity associated with nonultraviolet-filtering intraocular lenses."
01/01/2009 - "To establish a novel murine intraocular lens (IOL) implantation model to study the protective effects of colored-IOLs against retinal phototoxicity. "
04/01/2010 - "The photoprotective performances of crystalline and intraocular lenses were analyzed using relevant epidemiologic and laboratory data and action spectra for acute retinal phototoxicity and melanoma photocarcinogenesis. "
08/01/1988 - "A characteristic retinal phototoxicity reaction was noted in four patients who underwent penetrating keratoplasty, extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE), and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. "
10/01/2008 - "To present a new approach for evaluating intraocular lenses (IOLs) for retinal protection from age-related lipofuscin accumulation-mediated phototoxicity. "
11/01/2011 - "Even though IY69 phototoxicity with the diode laser was less effective than that with the broadband light, the diode laser was quite effective in vitro (IC(50)=0.1 μm, 10 J cm(-2), colon 26 cells). "
11/01/2011 - "In vitro phototoxicity of IY69 with the diode laser was compared with that with broadband light against colon 26 cells. "
08/01/2000 - "Following irradiation with a cw-diode laser (805 nm, 80 mW/cm2) at doses of 24 or 48 J/cm2, the phototoxicity was determined using the MTT assay as a measure of cell viability. "
10/01/2000 - "Photosensitizer uptake was measured by target J774 murine macrophage-like cells and nontarget OVCAR-5 human ovarian cancer cells, and phototoxicity was examined after illumination by a 660 nm diode laser by a tetrazolium assay. "
06/01/2001 - "TTT uses 810-nm diode laser infrared radiation, which has no significant retinal phototoxicity. "