|1.||Cheshenko, Natalia: 3 articles (01/2011 - 01/2009)|
|2.||Mesquita, Pedro M M: 3 articles (01/2011 - 01/2009)|
|3.||Fakioglu, Esra: 3 articles (01/2011 - 01/2009)|
|4.||Wilson, Sarah S: 3 articles (01/2011 - 01/2009)|
|5.||Herold, Betsy C: 3 articles (01/2011 - 01/2009)|
|6.||Ramjee, Gita: 3 articles (11/2006 - 09/2002)|
|7.||Doncel, Gustavo F: 2 articles (06/2011 - 01/2011)|
|8.||Keller, Marla J: 2 articles (08/2009 - 01/2009)|
|9.||Van Damme, Lut: 2 articles (06/2009 - 09/2002)|
|10.||Mehendale, S: 2 articles (10/2008 - 04/2003)|
05/01/2004 - "Clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of nonoxynol-9 (N-9) as a topical microbicide concluded that N-9 offers no in vivo protection against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, despite demonstrated in vitro inactivation of HIV-1 by N-9. "
04/01/2003 - "Nonoxynol-9 containing compounds have shown anti-HIV activity in in vitro studies and protection against cervical infections. "
11/01/2002 - "2. Nonoxynol-9 offers no protection against sexually transmitted infections such as gonorrhoea or chlamydia. "
06/19/2009 - "Trials of nonoxynol-9 were excluded, as were trials without a control group, trials that enrolled only male participants or reported on the investigation of a product for the treatment of a genital infection. "
10/01/2002 - "Nonoxynol-9 spermicide for prevention of vaginally acquired HIV and other sexually transmitted infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials including more than 5000 women."
|2.||Sexually Transmitted Diseases (Sexually Transmitted Disease)
11/18/1988 - " Nonoxynol-9, the most common spermicide used in the US, is a chemical surfactant that destroys the cell walls of sperm and offers some protection against sexually transmitted diseases. "
08/20/1999 - "Although no statistically significant differences in adverse outcomes were detected, clinically there appeared to be an increase in minor lesions and self-reported side-effects with nonoxynol-9 and less protection against sexually transmitted diseases with the placebo. "
12/01/1990 - " Spermicides, such as nonoxynol 9, are effective against STDs. "
12/01/2011 - "Several studies have shown that users of vaginal preparations containing nonoxynol-9 (N-9) are at a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. "
08/20/1998 - "The potential of nonoxynol-9 to reduce women's susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted among 1170 HIV-negative sex workers in Cameroon. "
|3.||HIV Infections (HIV Infection)
07/22/1992 - "We were unable to demonstrate that nonoxynol 9 sponge use was effective in reducing the risk of HIV infection among highly exposed women."
11/01/2000 - "At the end of the trial, the Advantage-S group was found to have a higher incidence of new HIV infections than the control group, who were using a vaginal lubricant. "
04/01/2003 - "Nonoxynol-9 ineffective in preventing HIV infection."
09/01/2002 - "Nonoxynol-9 ineffective in preventing HIV infection."
01/01/2002 - "There is no evidence that nonoxynol-9 protects against vaginal acquisition of HIV infection by women from men. "
08/01/2005 - "To understand why clinical trials failed to demonstrate efficacy of nonoxynol-9 in preventing gonorrhea. "
06/01/1994 - "The use of nonoxynol-9 for protection against cervical gonorrhea."
10/01/1998 - "The first "real-life" controlled trial of the spermicide Nonoxynol 9 (N-9) has indicated that N-9 may be ineffective in reducing rates of HIV, gonorrhea, or chlamydia. "
07/01/2001 - "There was a significantly higher incidence of gonorrhea in the nonoxynol-9 group than in the placebo group. "
08/20/1998 - " The rates of gonorrhea were 33.3 and 31.1 cases per 100 woman-years in the nonoxynol-9 and placebo groups, respectively (RR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4), while those of chlamydia were 20.6 and 22.2 cases per 100 woman-years, respectively (RR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.7-1.3). "
|5.||Herpes Genitalis (Genital Herpes)
01/01/2009 - "Previous studies have demonstrated an increased susceptibility to genital herpes in mice following repeated applications of nonoxynol-9 (N-9). "
10/01/1993 - "Nonoxynol-9 protects mice against vaginal transmission of genital herpes infections."
03/01/1979 - "A prospective study of 37 men and 32 women with culture-proved genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection was undertaken to characterize the clinical manifestations of the disease and effects of topical therapy with Nonoxynol 9, a nonionic surfactant active in vitro against HSV. "
01/01/1990 - "We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial on 98 subjects to assess the efficacy of two strengths of topical human leukocyte alpha-interferon, 10(4) and 10(6) IU/g in a 1% nonoxynol-9 base, in the treatment of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus (HSV). "
04/01/1990 - "Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, patient-initiated study of topical high- and low-dose interferon-alpha with nonoxynol-9 in the treatment of recurrent genital herpes."
|1.||Benzalkonium Compounds (Benzalkonium Chloride)
|2.||Interferon-alpha (Interferon Alfa)
|5.||Gramicidin (Gramicidin A)
|8.||Polyethylene Glycols (Polyethylene Glycol)
|9.||polypropylene glycol (poly(propylene oxide))
|10.||Nonoxynol (Nonoxynol 9)
|2.||Contraception (Birth Control)
|3.||Female Contraceptive Devices (Vaginal Ring)
|4.||Female Condoms (Female Condom)