|3.||Sciatica (Sciatic Neuralgia)
|4.||Radiculopathy (Radiculopathy, Cervical)
|5.||Neck Pain (Cervicalgia)
|1.||Manchikanti, Laxmaiah: 40 articles (11/2015 - 01/2002)|
|2.||Pampati, Vidyasagar: 28 articles (06/2015 - 01/2002)|
|3.||Takahashi, Kazuhisa: 24 articles (10/2015 - 04/2004)|
|4.||Ohtori, Seiji: 24 articles (10/2015 - 04/2004)|
|5.||Inoue, Gen: 21 articles (10/2015 - 04/2006)|
|6.||Singh, Vijay: 20 articles (11/2015 - 01/2002)|
|7.||van Tulder, Maurits W: 20 articles (01/2015 - 05/2005)|
|8.||Cash, Kimberly A: 20 articles (01/2014 - 05/2007)|
|9.||Childs, John D: 19 articles (10/2015 - 02/2004)|
|10.||Fritz, Julie M: 19 articles (10/2012 - 07/2003)|
05/01/2011 - "How effective--and safe--are systemic steroids for acute low back pain?"
01/01/2013 - "Additional preclinical research is needed to address other possible reasons for limited efficacy of steroids, such as central sensitization or presence of an ongoing inflammatory stimulus in some forms of low back pain."
06/01/2008 - "The goal of this article is to review the literature regarding the efficacy of intradiscal steroids to treat low back pain of discogenic origin."
11/01/2011 - "After institutional review board approval, 42 age-matched patients with similar lower back pain and unilateral radicular symptoms were enrolled and randomized in a patient and evaluating physician blinded trial to IL or TF epidural steroids from 2007 through 2009. "
02/01/2004 - "This study aimed at describing the use of epidural steroids to treat low back pain syndromes. "
|2.||Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents (NSAIDs)IBA
07/15/2008 - "There is strong evidence that various types of NSAIDs, including COX-2 NSAIDs, are equally effective for acute low back pain. "
01/01/2008 - "There is strong evidence that various types of NSAIDs, including COX-2 NSAIDs, are equally effective for acute low-back pain. "
01/01/2006 - "There is strong evidence (level 1) that various types of NSAIDs are equally effective for acute low back pain. "
07/29/2000 - "There was strong evidence that advice to stay active, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and muscle relaxants were effective in acute low back pain. "
01/01/2000 - "There is strong evidence (level 1) that various types of NSAIDs are equally effective for acute low back pain. "
|3.||Acetaminophen (Paracetamol)FDA LinkGeneric
11/01/2014 - "Efficacy of paracetamol for acute low-back pain: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial."
11/01/2008 - "There is insufficient evidence to assess the efficacy of paracetamol in patients with low back pain. "
01/01/2016 - "This was a secondary analysis of the PACE trial that evaluated paracetamol for acute low back pain. "
08/01/2015 - "This study used data from a randomized placebo-controlled trial of paracetamol for acute low back pain. "
01/01/2013 - "PACE is a randomized double dummy placebo controlled trial that investigates and compares the effect of paracetamol taken in two regimens for the treatment of low back pain. "
|4.||salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM)IBA
11/01/2013 - "High-quality clinical evidence suggests that although acupuncture appears superior to usual care in the management of chronic low back pain, there is little meaningful difference between true and sham acupuncture. "
12/01/2009 - "VAS low back pain improved significantly from 61 (+/-25) to 32 (+/-27) with the IDD protocol and 53 (+/-26) to 36 (+/-27) in the SHAM protocol. "
02/01/2013 - "SMT is no more effective for acute low back pain than inert interventions, sham SMT or as adjunct therapy. "
01/01/2012 - "SMT is no more effective in participants with acute low-back pain than inert interventions, sham SMT, or when added to another intervention. "
12/01/2010 - "Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and reviews concluded that acupuncture is not an effective treatment for low back pain (LBP) and there is no difference between real acupuncture and sham acupuncture in the treatment of LBP. "
|5.||3- (3- dimethylamino- 1- ethyl- 2- methylpropyl)phenolFDA Link
01/01/2011 - "Tapentadol in the management of chronic low back pain: a novel approach to a complex condition?"
08/01/2010 - "Efficacy and safety of tapentadol extended release for the management of chronic low back pain: results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled Phase III study."
01/01/2010 - "Approximately equivalent TDDs of tapentadol IR and tapentadol ER provided equivalent analgesic efficacy for the relief of moderate to severe chronic low back pain and were similarly well tolerated, allowing for direct conversion between the 2 formulations. "
06/01/2015 - "Effectiveness and Tolerability of a Moderate Dose of Tapentadol Prolonged Release for Managing Severe, Chronic Low Back Pain with a Neuropathic Component: An Open-label Continuation Arm of a Randomized Phase 3b Study."
08/01/2010 - "To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tapentadol extended release (ER) for the management of moderate to severe chronic low back pain. "
|6.||Opioid Analgesics (Opioids)IBA
01/01/2013 - "The use of opioids in the long-term management of chronic low-back pain (CLBP) has increased dramatically. "
05/01/2010 - "In the 8-week, double-blind portion of this study, BTDS 10 to 40 microg/h was effective compared with placebo in the management of chronic, moderate to severe low back pain in patients who had previously received opioids. "
09/01/2015 - "Short-term (<4 months) treatment with opioids provides modest relief of chronic low back pain, but only minimal improvement in function compared with placebo. "
04/01/2014 - "To assess the efficacy of opioids in adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP). "
03/01/2013 - "Steering patients to relief from chronic low back pain: opioids' role."
|7.||Oxycodone (Oxycontin)FDA LinkGeneric
10/01/1999 - "In a study of similar design, 57 patients with low back pain were titrated with either CR or IR oxycodone (maximum dose, 80 mg/day) for a period of up to 10 days. "
05/01/2011 - "Long-term safety of Remoxy® (extended-release oxycodone) in patients with moderate to severe chronic osteoarthritis or low back pain."
05/01/2011 - "Evaluate the long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of Remoxy® (extended-release oxycodone) in patients with chronic pain related to osteoarthritis of the hip and/or knee or chronic low back pain. "
01/01/2012 - "One formulation, oxycodone CR, has shown effectiveness in cancer pain patients and in some trials of noncancer low back pain. "
05/01/2007 - "Adult patients who previously participated in controlled trials of CR oxycodone for osteoarthritis pain, diabetic neuropathy pain, or low back pain, and who continued to require opioid analgesia for moderate or severe pain, were enrolled in an open-label, uncontrolled, registry study. "
03/01/2000 - "Among patients who tolerated it well, tramadol was effective for the treatment of chronic low back pain."
03/01/2008 - "This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of tramadol ER 300 mg and 200 mg versus placebo once daily in the treatment of chronic low back pain, using an open-label run-in followed by, without washout, a randomized controlled study design. "
12/01/2000 - "Efficacy of tramadol in treatment of chronic low back pain."
03/01/2000 - "Efficacy of tramadol in treatment of chronic low back pain."
09/01/2008 - "This multicentre, open-label, single-dose study examined the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of Tramadol Contramid OAD in patients with acute low back pain. "
|9.||Diclofenac (SR 38)FDA LinkGeneric
03/01/2007 - "(with a second dose on day 1) provides effective relief for acute low back pain, and was at least as efficacious as diclofenac 75 mg b.i.d., with a nonsignificant but numerically lower incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events."
10/01/2009 - "This study involved a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial investigating the efficacy of diclofenac in 239 patients presenting to general practitioners for acute low back pain. "
01/01/2007 - "A randomised, double-blind, parallel, active controlled, multicentre study that included 370 outpatients with acute low back pain was conducted to compare the analgesic efficacy of dexketoprofen 50mg twice daily versus diclofenac 75mg twice daily administered intramuscularly for 2 days. "
01/01/2013 - "Comparison of the efficacy of dexketoprofen and diclofenac in treatment of non-specific low back pain."
07/01/2013 - "We here present a case of a patient who suffered such a reaction as a result of exposure to diclofenac, employed as a topical analgesic for low backache. "
|10.||duloxetine (Cymbalta)FDA Link
01/01/2016 - "Efficacy of Duloxetine in Chronic Low Back Pain with a Neuropathic Component: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Crossover Trial."
09/01/2013 - "The objective of this study was to obtain parameter estimates for the efficacy of duloxetine versus alternative oral therapies for the treatment of chronic low back pain. "
09/01/2013 - "Efficacy of duloxetine versus alternative oral therapies: an indirect comparison of randomised clinical trials in chronic low back pain."
09/01/2009 - "This study assesses the efficacy of duloxetine in chronic low back pain (CLBP). "
09/01/2009 - "A double-blind, randomized trial of duloxetine versus placebo in the management of chronic low back pain."
02/01/1999 - "Based on the most recent and comprehensive systematic reviews, there is moderate evidence of short-term efficacy for spinal manipulation in the treatment of both acute and chronic low back pain. "
05/01/2005 - "Spinal manipulation (SM) is an effective treatment for low back pain (LBP), and it has been theorized that SM induces a beneficial neurophysiological effect by stimulating mechanically sensitive neurons in the lumbar facet joint capsule (FJC). "
02/01/1994 - "These nerve impingements are postulated to be the result of misaligned vertebra or "subluxations." Research indicates that spinal manipulation may be beneficial in low back pain, but the claim that spinal manipulation is of value for optimizing general health and treating non-musculoskeletal conditions is unfounded."
02/01/1982 - "Three criteria of reliability and validity were used: (1) significant agreement between independent observers, (2) significantly different scores in the groups with and without low back pain, and (3) significant improvement following a successful spinal manipulation. "
04/15/2012 - "Is spinal manipulation an effective treatment for low back pain? "
01/01/2015 - "We hypothesise that facet joint injections might facilitate engagement with physiotherapist-led, best usual care (a combined physical and psychological programme) and is a clinically and cost-effective treatment for people with suspected low back pain of facet joint origin. "
05/01/2014 - "Most clinical guidelines do not recommend routine use of epidural steroid injections for the management of chronic low back pain. "
08/01/2008 - "The rates of epidural steroid injections have increased dramatically over time, with conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of epidural steroid injections for the treatment of various low-back pain disorders. "
03/01/2008 - "Research studies have shown that injections of sterile water to relieve low back pain during labor are effective with good maternal satisfaction. "
02/01/2012 - "Spinal steroid injections are beneficial for low back pain and disability in the short-term. "
|3.||Musculoskeletal Manipulations (Manipulative Therapy)
07/01/2011 - "Several conservative therapies have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of chronic low back pain (CLBP), including different forms of exercise and spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). "
11/01/2005 - "Manual therapy with specific adjuvant exercise appears to be beneficial in treating chronic low back pain. "
08/01/2010 - "The main objective of this study was to assess whether a higher percentage of adherence to the Dutch physical and manual therapy guidelines for low back pain is related to improved outcomes. "
01/01/2013 - "There is no evidence that spinal manipulative therapy is superior to other standard treatments for patients with acute or chronic low-back pain."
10/01/2011 - "We sought to answer the following clinical questions: (1) Is structured exercise more effective in the treatment of chronic low back pain (LBP) than spinal manipulative therapy (SMT)? "
08/01/2012 - "Epidural injections have become the most commonly performed intervention in the management of chronic low back pain in the United States."
06/01/2015 - "A recent cost utility analysis of caudal epidural injections in managing chronic low back pain of various pathologies showed a high cost utility with improvement in quality of life years, competitive with various other modalities of treatments. "
01/01/2015 - "To assess the comparative efficacy of caudal and lumbar interlaminar approaches of epidural injections in managing axial or discogenic low back pain. "
05/01/2012 - "Caudal epidural injections in the management of chronic low back pain: a systematic appraisal of the literature."
01/01/2009 - "Systematic review of caudal epidural injections in the management of chronic low back pain."
|5.||Exercise Therapy (Therapy, Exercise)
08/01/2006 - "Exercise therapy has limited value for acute low back pain, but strong evidence supports exercise therapy in the management of chronic low back pain. "
11/01/2000 - "There is strong evidence that exercise therapy is not more effective for acute low back pain than inactive or other active treatments with which it has been compared. "
10/01/2009 - "During the last few decades a change of paradigm in treating non-specific low back pain has happened: physical activity and exercise therapy are now recommended as the first-line treatment in all relevant national and international guidelines. "
06/01/2001 - "Long-term results suggest that specific exercise therapy in addition to medical management and resumption of normal activity may be more effective in reducing low back pain recurrences than medical management and normal activity alone."
04/01/2010 - "Systematic reviews have shown that exercise therapy is effective for chronic but not for acute low back pain. "