Cryptococcal Meningitis

Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)
Also Known As:
Meningitis, Cryptococcal; Cerebral Cryptococcosis; Cerebral Cryptococcoses; Cerebral Cryptococcoses, Granulomous; Cerebral Cryptococcosis, Granulomous; Cryptococcal Meningitides; Cryptococcoses, Cerebral; Cryptococcoses, Granulomous Cerebral; Cryptococcosis, Cerebral; Cryptococcosis, Granulomous Cerebral; Granulomous Cerebral Cryptococcoses; Meningitides, Cryptococcal; Torulomas; Granulomous Cerebral Cryptococcosis; Toruloma
Networked: 676 relevant articles (78 outcomes, 88 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
2. Infection
3. Candidiasis (Moniliasis)
4. Aspergillosis
5. Cryptococcosis


1. Harrison, Thomas S: 24 articles (12/2015 - 05/2004)
2. Meintjes, Graeme: 20 articles (12/2015 - 10/2006)
3. Jarvis, Joseph N: 17 articles (12/2015 - 04/2009)
4. Boulware, David R: 16 articles (02/2016 - 06/2008)
5. Bicanic, Tihana: 16 articles (12/2015 - 10/2006)
6. Meya, David B: 11 articles (02/2016 - 06/2008)
7. Wood, Robin: 11 articles (12/2015 - 01/2007)
8. Loyse, Angela: 8 articles (12/2015 - 07/2008)
9. Jaffar, Shabbar: 8 articles (07/2012 - 07/2008)
10. Brouwer, Annemarie E: 7 articles (12/2015 - 05/2004)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Cryptococcal Meningitis:
1. Fluconazole (Zonal)FDA LinkGeneric
2. Amphotericin B (Amphotericin)FDA LinkGeneric
3. Flucytosine (Ancobon)FDA Link
4. Itraconazole (Sporanox)FDA LinkGeneric
5. liposomal amphotericin BFDA Link
6. AntigensIBA
7. Ketoconazole (Nizoral)FDA LinkGeneric
8. phospholipid emulsion soybean oil (Intralipid)IBA
9. Deoxycholic Acid (Sodium Deoxycholate)IBA
10. LatexIBA

Therapies and Procedures

1. Transplants (Transplant)
2. Intraventricular Infusions
3. Combination Drug Therapy (Combination Chemotherapy)
4. Intravenous Injections
5. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)
10/01/2008 - "The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes among adults with a first episode of cryptococcal meningitis (CM), comparing those on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with those not on HAART. "
05/15/2003 - "Discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis for cryptococcal meningitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy: a prospective, multicenter, randomized study."
07/01/2013 - "While the previous review of CNS-IRIS in the HIV-infected patient on highly active antiretroviral therapy (Part 1) dealt with an overview of the biology, pathology, and neurologic presentation of this condition and a discussion of the atypical imaging findings in PML-IRIS and cryptococcal meningitis-IRIS due to the robust inflammatory response, the current review (Part 2) discusses the imaging findings in other commonly encountered organisms seen in association with CNS-IRIS, namely, VZV, CMV, HIV, Candida organisms, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Toxoplasma gondii. "
06/01/2013 - "Here, we present the case of an HIV-positive man, who developed cryptococcal meningitis two months after having started HAART and experienced several meningeal relapses and a "paradoxical" C-IRIS during the following year."
01/01/2013 - "To compare the clinical and immunologic outcomes for early initiation ART (less than four weeks after starting antifungal treatment) versus later initiation of HAART (four weeks or more after starting antifungal treatment) in HIV-positive patients with concurrent cryptococcal meningitis. "