|2.||Pathologic Constriction (Stenosis)
|3.||Carotid Artery Diseases
|4.||Transient Ischemic Attack
|1.||Brown, Martin M: 30 articles (02/2015 - 01/2004)|
|2.||Rothwell, Peter M: 22 articles (04/2015 - 07/2003)|
|3.||Qureshi, Adnan I: 18 articles (01/2015 - 05/2002)|
|4.||Markus, Hugh S: 15 articles (10/2014 - 03/2002)|
|5.||Rothwell, P M: 15 articles (02/2012 - 11/2002)|
|6.||Spence, J David: 14 articles (01/2016 - 05/2003)|
|7.||Bonati, Leo H: 14 articles (02/2015 - 10/2008)|
|8.||Ogasawara, Kuniaki: 14 articles (01/2015 - 09/2003)|
|9.||Hopkins, L Nelson: 14 articles (11/2014 - 05/2002)|
|10.||Ederle, Jörg: 12 articles (02/2015 - 11/2008)|
|1.||Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid)FDA LinkGeneric
12/01/1995 - "Perhaps, inclusion of insufficient numbers of women in the aspirin trials for symptomatic carotid stenoses explains the apparent lack of therapeutic efficacy. "
10/01/2013 - "In the Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis trial (1995), medical management was defined as aspirin in addition to adequate control of comorbidities. "
06/01/2007 - "The study included 86 patients with a history of CEA on long-term aspirin therapy (100 mg daily) and 29 age-matched patients with newly diagnosed carotid artery stenosis not taking aspirin. "
01/01/1994 - "The results of three trials in asymptomatic patients, the Mayo asymptomatic trial, the Carotid Artery Stenosis with Asymptomatic Narrowing: Operation Versus Aspirin trial, and the VA Asymptomatic Trial (Cooperative Studies Protocol 167 of the Department of Veterans Affairs), have been reported. "
07/01/1991 - "Those with a carotid stenosis of 50% or greater are enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of aspirin. "
|2.||glucuronyl glucosamine glycan sulfate (Vessel)IBA
04/01/2012 - "Even inexperienced readers are able to achieve good results in the assessment of carotid artery stenosis when using advanced vessel analysis software."
02/01/2016 - "Vessel wall MR imaging of the carotid arteries has proved helpful in the evaluation of plaque burden and vulnerable plaque characteristics, and in stratifying risk in low-grade carotid stenosis. "
08/01/1986 - "Comparisons were made considering CA as the "gold standard." Factors reviewed for correlation included carotid artery stenosis, ulceration, fibromuscular disease, vessel occlusion, and subclavian and intracranial lesions. "
09/01/2012 - "The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical features and early and late outcome of patients treated with carotid artery stenting for carotid stenosis with occlusion of the contralateral vessel (CAS-CCO), and compare them to patients without occlusion (CAS-NO). "
09/01/2012 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate time efficiency and diagnostic reproducibility of an advanced vessel analysis software for diagnosis of carotid artery stenosis. "
|3.||Ticlopidine (Ticlid)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/1992 - "Ticlopidine was more effective in patients without carotid stenosis. "
09/01/2002 - "Antiplatelet therapy (ASA alone or with dypiridamole, ticlopidine) is effective in secondary prophylaxis of athero-thrombotic stroke; its use in asymptomatic carotid stenoses can be recommended, even if more because of a plausible rationale than of clinical trial-based evidences."
01/01/1992 - "The patients who benefit most from ticlopidine may be women, those who have vertebrobasilar symptoms, those with cerebral ischemic symptoms while on aspirin or anticoagulant therapy, and patients with diffuse atherosclerotic disease rather than high-grade carotid stenosis."
05/01/1994 - "This has three aspects: 1) Correction of risk factors: hypertension, smoking, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, obesity, alcohol abuse, hematological abnormalities and oral contraception; 2) the prescription of one of two platelet anti-aggregants, the efficacy of which has been proved: acetylsalicylic acid or ticlopidine; 3) surgical elimination of tight carotid stenoses. "
10/01/1998 - "After the acute phase, antiplatelet agents (aspirin, ticlopidine, clopidogrel or aspirin associated with dipyridamole) and surgery in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis greater than 50% or 70-80% (according to the method of measurement) have been shown to be effective. "
12/01/1998 - "A cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study was performed in a tertiary North American center, with the results of the dichotomous diagnostic test (the presence or absence of visible retinal emboli) being placed against the dichotomous outcome of the presence or absence of hemodynamically significant carotid artery stenosis (defined as > or = 60%, or < 60%, carotid artery stenosis on either side). "
03/01/2014 - "Carotid stenoses leading to transient or permanent neurologic or retinal symptoms within the preceding 6 months are deemed symptomatic and require prompt noninvasive evaluation and treatment. "
12/01/2013 - "To examine retinal function in relation to retinal perfusion pressure in patients with carotid artery stenosis. "
12/01/2009 - "Our findings suggest concomitant retinal and cerebral microvascular disease may be present in patients with carotid stenosis or occlusion disease. "
03/01/2009 - "Two cases of branch retinal arterial occlusion after carotid artery stenting in the carotid stenosis."
|5.||clopidogrel (Plavix)FDA Link
07/01/2012 - "Clopidogrel load for emboli reduction in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis undergoing urgent carotid endarterectomy."
06/01/2008 - "More recently, the combined use of clopidogrel with ASA has evidenced a better protection than ASA alone in some patients: patients with past history of AMI, angina pectoris, intermittent claudication or PAD, IS or TIA, coronary bypass, and diabetes mellitus, patients on treatment with statins, and patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis >/=50%. "
05/03/2005 - "In patients with recently symptomatic carotid stenosis, combination therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin is more effective than aspirin alone in reducing asymptomatic embolization. "
05/01/2010 - "Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for reducing embolisation in patients with acute symptomatic cerebral or carotid artery stenosis (CLAIR study): a randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial."
04/01/2006 - "The CARESS (Clopidogrel and Aspirin for Reduction of Emboli in Symptomatic carotid Stenosis) trial proved the effectiveness of the combination of clopidogrel and aspirin compared with aspirin alone in reducing presence and number of microembolic signals (MES) in patients with recently symptomatic carotid stenosis. "
|6.||atorvastatin (Lipitor)FDA Link
01/01/2010 - "This open-label, prospective study aimed to examine whether aggressive lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin is more effective than moderate lipid-lowering in increasing carotid plaque echogenicity, assessed by Gray-Scale Median (GSM) score and suppressing serum OPN and OPG levels in patients with moderate carotid stenosis. "
01/01/2011 - "In the patient study, 40 patients with >40% carotid stenosis were randomised to low- and high-dose statin therapy (10 and 80 mg of atorvastatin). "
11/01/2009 - "Thirty-five subjects with carotid stenosis >60% who provided written informed consent and completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study were evaluated at baseline and at three months after receiving either 80 mg atorvastatin (16 subjects, nine male, mean age 68+/-8.6 y) or placebo (19 subjects, 15 male, mean age 70+/-9.4 y) daily. "
01/01/2013 - "The data set consists of sixty-eight, 17 × 2 × 2, 3D US volume data acquired from the left and right carotid arteries of seventeen patients (eight treated with 80 mg atorvastatin and nine with placebo), who had carotid stenosis of 60% or more, at baseline and after three months of treatment. "
11/01/2011 - "In conclusion, we observed decreased echolucency (increased echodensity) of carotid artery plaques after short-term treatment with atorvastatin."
|7.||Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors (Antiplatelet Drugs)IBA
01/01/2011 - "Although several randomized controlled trials (RCTs), mostly conducted in late-1980s and mid-1990s, have proved CEA to be effective in the prevention of ipsilateral ischemic events in selected patients with carotid artery stenosis, aggressive risk factor modification and medical therapy with recently introduced antiplatelet agents, statins, and more effective antihypertensive medications may have reduced compelling indications for immediate surgery in asymptomatic populations. "
12/01/2015 - "In this cohort of 100 patients with recently symptomatic carotid stenosis, the previous use of antiplatelet agents is associated with carotid IPH on magnetic resonance imaging. "
07/01/2014 - "A total of 949 patients with cervical carotid artery stenosis were enrolled at 43 institutions in Japan; 934 who had undergone CAS with antiplatelet drugs and followed for 1 year were analyzed. "
01/01/2011 - "Prevention of vascular events requires rapid treatment with platelet inhibitors and timely surgical intervention for high-grade symptomatic carotid stenosis, if present. "
12/01/2005 - "Best medical therapy for carotid stenosis has evolved in recent years and clinicians can now employ newer antiplatelet agents, aggressive use of statins, and targeted blood pressure reduction. "
|8.||Phenobarbital (Luminal)FDA Link
08/01/1982 - "Bruit spectral analysis provides an improved noninvasive method of quantifying the severity of carotid stenosis, and the method of Lees estimates the residual luminal diameter. "
03/01/2014 - "The main aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of change of carotid luminal narrowing over 1 year, as a risk factor for ipsilateral ischemic events, in patients with a >50% asymptomatic carotid stenosis. "
11/01/2005 - "The aim of this study was to investigate CT angiography (CTA) luminal area measurements in the assessment of carotid artery stenosis compared with the current clinically used criteria based on lumen diameter measurements. "
02/01/2015 - "A decision analytic model was developed to project lifetime quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs for asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis with 70%-89% carotid luminal narrowing at presentation. "
03/01/2009 - "The evaluation of plaque characteritics as well as the degree of luminal narrowing is important in the management of carotid stenosis. "
|9.||Aluminum Oxide (Sapphire)IBA
09/01/2008 - "This review will summarize the results of randomized controlled trials (CAVATAS, WALLSTENT, SAPPHIRE, EVA-3S, SPACE, and CaRESS) as well as pivotal carotid registry studies (ARCHeR, BEACH, CAPTURE, CASES-PMS, CREATE, and CABernET) intended to evaluate the safety and efficacy of CEA and CAS in treatment of carotid stenosis. "
03/01/2015 - "The generalizability of trials like the SAPPHIRE or CREST to the Medicare population may be limited, underscoring the need to evaluate real-world effectiveness of carotid stenosis treatments."
03/01/2015 - "Indications and therapeutic management of carotid stenosis in high-risk patients: SAPPHIRE and beyond."
06/01/2007 - "Randomized trials like the SAPPHIRE trial have demonstrated that CAS is not inferior to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in the treatment of carotid artery stenosis, and maybe even superior in high-risk symptomatic patients. "
07/01/2005 - "The SAPPHIRE trial compared the results of carotid endarteriectomy to those of carotid artery stenting with an emboli-protection device in patients with carotid artery stenosis and coexisting conditions that potentially increased the risk posed by endarteriectomy. "
05/13/2014 - "On multivariable linear regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, degree of carotid stenosis, statins, and smoking, LDL (p = 0.008) and total cholesterol (p = 0.04) were independently associated with SUVmax. "
04/01/2014 - "Cholesterol efflux capacity is inversely associated with increasing carotid stenosis and is associated with more advanced carotid plaque morphology, suggesting that cholesterol efflux capacity may be a biomarker for severity of carotid atherosclerotic burden. "
09/01/2013 - "We investigated the association between cholesterol across the LDL density range and in the VLDL and IDL particles with the prevalence of inflammatory cells in plaques of patients with severe carotid artery stenosis. "
01/01/2013 - "We assessed the associations of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) defined MetS and its criteria with high resolution B-mode ultrasound determined common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid artery plaque in multivariable regression models in 104 black and 93 Caucasian women with RA. "
01/01/2007 - "A correlation was revealed between parameters of carotid artery stenosis and age of patients, level of arterial pressure, blood plasma concentration of total cholesterol. "
10/01/2011 - "In summary, evidence indicates that CEA (carotid endarterectomy) is the gold standard therapy for carotid artery stenosis, as opposed to the "best medical treatment" and CAS (carotid artery stenting). "
04/01/2011 - "Plaque surface and structural echomorphology assessment and standardization, along with the degree of carotid stenosis, might be helpful in identifying patients most likely to benefit from carotid endarterectomy."
08/01/2009 - "This trial, now funded and open for randomisation, will provide important evidence comparing the immediate and long-term safety and efficacy of carotid endarterectomy and stenting in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis."
02/01/2015 - "The objective is to compare the efficacy of carotid endarterectomy + optimal medical therapy versus optimal medical therapy alone in patients with asymptomatic (70-79%) extracranial carotid stenosis. "
11/01/2009 - "Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is still considered the gold standard in the treatment of patients with significant carotid stenosis and has proven its value over the past decades. "
01/01/1997 - "These results encourage the feasibility of prognostic studies to evaluate the clinical significance of embolic signals and suggest that silent microembolism could be helpful in selecting a high-risk group of asymptomatic or < 70% carotid stenoses for endarterectomy."
01/26/1995 - "Current trials are addressing the question of whether endarterectomy is beneficial for patients with moderate degrees of carotid stenosis. "
09/01/2005 - "Protected stenting has emerged as a safe and effective alternative to endarterectomy for the treatment of carotid stenosis in patients at high operative risk. "
02/01/1996 - "The reported risks of endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis show significantly greater variability than would be expected by chance. "
10/01/1994 - "In six of eight patients cerebral hemodynamics on the occluded side improved after endarterectomy of a contralateral high-grade carotid stenosis. "
|3.||Angioplasty (Angioplasty, Transluminal)
05/01/2012 - "Significant carotid stenosis of right internal carotid artery (ICA) was detected on digital subtraction angiography as the underlying cause and subsequently treated with percutananeous transluminal angioplasty and stenting with good outcome. "
01/01/2008 - "Improved cerebral vasoreactivity following percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting of high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis."
02/01/1995 - "Nine months later, he developed a symptomatic cervical carotid stenosis of the contralateral carotid artery, which also was treated successfully with angioplasty, resulting in a good clinical outcome. "
01/01/2009 - "Carotid angioplasty and stenting seems to be more effective in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis combined with contralateral carotid artery occlusion than in individuals with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis alone."
07/01/2011 - "Carotid artery angioplasty with stenting is an effective treatment for carotid artery stenosis, but is frequently associated with acute transient hemodynamic changes. "
06/06/2014 - "To investigate cognitive function improvement in diabetic and non-diabetic patients after the implantation of Carotid Artery Stent (CAS), 128 patients suffering severe carotid stenosis were successfully enrolled in this study. "
02/01/2008 - "This study confirms that stent procedures are beneficial for symptomatic carotid stenosis in patients not eligible for surgery."
08/01/2013 - "This preliminary experience demonstrated that CAS is a reasonable, safe, and effective treatment for patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis who were recently treated with coronary stents requiring uninterrupted dual antiplatelet therapy."
11/01/2007 - "Although limited to a small number of patients, compared with PTA, CBA seems to be a safe and effective procedure for the predilatation of tight fibrocalcified carotid stenoses before stent placement and may decrease the need for postdilatation in this patient population."
11/01/2015 - "The aim of present study was to assess safety and efficacy of early carotid artery stent (CAS) in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis compared with delayed CAS. "
07/01/2012 - "CEA is the gold standard for treatment of significant carotid stenosis, although endovascular technique is emerging as a less invasive alternative. "
06/01/2010 - "We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to compare the safety and efficacy of endovascular techniques with surgery for carotid stenosis. "
04/01/2005 - "To evaluate the safety and efficacy of endovascular techniques, we conducted a systematic review of randomized studies that compared endovascular treatment with surgery for carotid stenosis. "
05/01/2013 - "Endovascular procedures are a less invasive revascularization strategies than endoarterectomy for carotid stenosis, but to date Guidelines recommend surgery for a major periprocedural safety. "
01/01/2013 - "We compared 30-day and long term morbidity and mortality, as well as restenosis rates, of non diabetic and diabetic patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis treated with endovascular techniques. "