|1.||Aozasa, Katsuyuki: 8 articles (07/2007 - 01/2002)|
|2.||Takakuwa, Tetsuya: 6 articles (07/2007 - 01/2002)|
|3.||Hofmann, Hans-Stefan: 5 articles (08/2015 - 01/2011)|
|4.||Szöke, Tamas: 5 articles (08/2015 - 01/2011)|
|5.||Grosser, Christian: 5 articles (08/2015 - 01/2011)|
|6.||Sziklavari, Zsolt: 5 articles (08/2015 - 01/2011)|
|7.||Schemm, Rudolf: 5 articles (08/2015 - 01/2011)|
|8.||Neu, Reiner: 4 articles (08/2015 - 01/2011)|
|9.||Iuchi, Keiji: 4 articles (11/2005 - 01/2002)|
|10.||Bouros, Demosthenes: 3 articles (01/2010 - 04/2004)|
01/01/1994 - "The authors obtained higher efficacy of conservative therapy for pyothorax when they used a specially designed technique of intrapleural administration of streptokinase-activated fresh frozen plasma of the same group. "
09/01/1994 - "Intrapleural administration of streptokinase has been shown in a few small series to be effective treatment for complicated parapneumonic effusions and pleural empyemas, but techniques of instillation of streptokinase differ. "
02/01/1997 - "Controlled trial of intrapleural streptokinase in the treatment of pleural empyema and complicated parapneumonic effusions."
09/01/2004 - "Fibrinolytic treatment of complicated pediatric thoracic empyemas with intrapleural streptokinase."
09/01/2003 - "The clinical utility of intrapleural streptokinase in a patient with bilateral pleural empyema."
|2.||Anti-Bacterial Agents (Antibiotics)IBA
07/01/1991 - "Antibiotics and pleural drainage with continuous suction is effective in treatment of childhood pleural empyema. "
10/01/2004 - "The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of anaerobic bacteria in 198 patients with pleural empyema and the susceptibility of isolates to eight antibacterial agents. "
02/01/2011 - "In spite of the development and widespread avail-ability of modern antibiotics, pleural empyema still represents a serious intrathoracic disease -associated with significant morbidity and mortality. "
11/01/2009 - "We report the case of a 24 year old man who was hospitalized for pleural empyema and treated with antibiotics for six weeks in addition to pleural evacuation and physiotherapy. "
08/01/2007 - "Since antibiotics can provide cure in 80-90% of cases, surgical procedures are limited to severe complications, such as pleural empyema. "
|3.||Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator (Urokinase)FDA Link
09/01/2010 - "Intrapleural instillation of urokinase according to a specific pediatric protocol results in a high success rate when applied as a primary treatment in children with pleural empyema. "
09/01/2010 - "Evaluation of a pediatric protocol of intrapleural urokinase for pleural empyema: a prospective study."
01/01/2003 - "Use of urokinase in childhood pleural empyema."
11/01/1993 - "The use of urokinase for loculated thoracic empyema in children: a case report and review of the literature."
01/01/2003 - "Urokinase is an enzyme with a fibrinolytic effect that facilitates pleural empyema drainage through a chest tube. "
|4.||Cefmetazole (Cefmetazole Sodium)FDA Link
01/01/1979 - "2. Of 13 cases including 8 cases of bronchopneumonia, 2 cases of urinary tract infections, a case each of suppuration in the neck, lymphadenitis and pyothorax, CS-1170 was found to be effective in 10 cases (83.3%), while effectiveness of the drug was undeterminable in one case. "
01/01/1984 - "[Clinical trials of cefmetazole for pneumonia and pyothorax caused by Staphylococcus aureus resistant to cefazolin]."
|5.||Gentamicins (Gentamicin)FDA LinkGeneric
07/01/1987 - "The pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of gentamicin were investigated in an experimental pleural empyema rabbit model. "
07/01/1987 - "Pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of gentamicin in an experimental pleural empyema rabbit model."
01/01/1969 - "[Use of gentamicin in the surgical treatment of pleural empyema due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa]."
01/01/1969 - "[Treatment of chronic pleural empyema with gentamicin]."
10/01/1968 - "[Use of gentamicin in the surgical treatment of pleural empyema caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa]."
|6.||Metronidazole (Metric)FDA LinkGeneric
12/01/1998 - "Treatment with metronidazole successfully eliminated the protozoa and cured the pyothorax."
08/01/1979 - "Using metronidazole in oral dosages of 1.5 to 2 g daily, we treated 13 adults who had anaerobic pleuropulmonary infections, including 11 with lung abscess, one with necrotizing pneumonia, and one with thoracic empyema. "
|7.||Ribosomal DNA (rDNA)IBA
01/01/2015 - "Molecular assay based on 16S rDNA is helpful in detecting causative organisms of thoracic empyema. "
01/01/2015 - "Thoracic empyema caused by Prevotella spp. diagnosed using 16S rDNA sequence analysis."
04/15/2006 - "Broad-range 16S rDNA PCR has value in detecting bacterial agents responsible for culture-negative pleural empyema."
04/15/2006 - "Of the 78 cases of pleural empyema, 60 (77%) were microbiologically documented by culture or 16S rDNA PCR. "
|9.||Volatile Fatty AcidsIBA
|10.||Doxycycline (Vibramycin)FDA LinkGeneric
|1.||Chest Tubes (Chest Tube)
04/01/2002 - "Children with pleural empyema can be successfully treated with appropriate antimicrobial therapy and adequate closed chest tube drainage. "
01/01/2009 - "It seems that for large, loculated pleural empyemas VATS is superior to chest tube drainage in terms of duration of chest tubes in situ and length of hospital stay. "
04/01/2008 - "Early thoracoscopy yields a better clinical outcome for pediatric patients with pleural empyema, with apparent decreased morbidity and mortality, earlier chest tube removal, earlier hospital discharge and improved response to antibiotic therapy."
01/01/2005 - "It seems that for large, loculated pleural empyemas VATS is superior to chest tube drainage in terms of duration of chest tubes in situ and length of hospital stay. "
02/01/1999 - "Our purpose was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in the management of nontuberculous fibrinopurulent pleural empyema after chest tube drainage treatment had failed to achieve the proper results. "
10/01/2007 - "Treatment of open window thoracostomy in combination with TNP is a safe and adequate therapeutic option for thoracic empyema resulting in improved quality of life and overall shorter hospital stay. "
01/01/1991 - "[Thoracopleuromyoplasty as definitive cure for chronic pleural empyemas, after preparation by open thoracostomy]."
12/01/2014 - "Use of the greater omentum that was laparoscopically mobilized and transpositioned into the pleural cavity allows simultaneous management of the pleural empyema cavity and thoracostomy. "
06/01/2012 - "Management of pyothorax cases in companion animals often involves thoracostomy tube placement with recurrent drainage of the pleural cavity, intensive supportive care, and monitoring. "
07/01/2010 - "Open window thoracostomy for thoracic empyema: Open window thoracostomy is a simple, certain and final drainage procedure for thoracic empyema. "
|3.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
10/01/2000 - "Surgical option was undergone only for one patient with chronic pleural empyema which was not cured by repeated chemotherapy. "
09/01/2012 - "Early diagnosis, appropriate antimicrobial drug therapy, and aggressive drainage are necessary to improve the outcome of patients with pyopneumothorax or thoracic empyema due to Salmonella choleraesuis."
06/15/1968 - "[Current chemotherapy of pleural empyema]."
11/01/1956 - "[Special local chemotherapy in surgical treatment of pleural empyema]."
04/01/2014 - "Pyothorax-associated lymphoma: complete remission achieved by chemotherapy alone."
02/01/1995 - "Early thoracoscopic debridement and drainage is a safe and effective alternative to open treatment of patients with pleural empyema in the fibrinopurulent or early organising phase."
11/01/2015 - "On the third hospital day, debridement for pyothorax was performed because her condition had not improved. "
08/01/2007 - "In this study, we evaluated the results of a balloon-aided single-port thoracoscopic debridement of late-stage thoracic empyema in children. "
08/01/2011 - "In the first-stage surgery, the thoracic empyema cavity is opened widely, and sufficient drainage and debridement are performed within the thoracic empyema cavity. "
01/01/2008 - "As treatment strategy for this stage, fibrinopurulent pleural empyema entails thorough debridement of multiloculated collections from the pleural cavity by video-assisted thoracic surgery. "
01/01/2002 - "Our study suggests that intrapleural fibrinolytic treatment is an effective and safe adjunctive therapy in children with thoracic empyema and can obviate a thoracotomy in most cases."
04/01/2014 - "All patients underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), and 2 patients underwent mini-thoracotomy because of adhesion and pyothorax. "
03/01/2013 - "One re-thoracotomy was mandatory because of pleural empyema. "
12/01/2011 - " Key words: pleural empyema, thoracotomy with decortication, lung volume analysis."
12/01/2011 - "The fibrinopurulent phase of pleural empyema has very often been treated with thoracotomy and decortications. "