|2.||Nonvital Tooth (Endodontically-Treated Teeth)
|1.||Tay, Franklin R: 17 articles (06/2010 - 01/2002)|
|2.||Pashley, David H: 16 articles (08/2015 - 01/2002)|
|3.||Sampaio, José Eduardo Cezar: 10 articles (01/2015 - 10/2003)|
|4.||Matsumoto, Koukichi: 9 articles (02/2008 - 06/2002)|
|5.||Rahimi, Saeed: 7 articles (01/2015 - 03/2007)|
|6.||Mello, Isabel: 7 articles (08/2014 - 01/2004)|
|7.||Lotfi, Mehrdad: 7 articles (01/2014 - 07/2010)|
|8.||Tagami, Junji: 6 articles (03/2014 - 06/2010)|
|9.||Zand, Vahid: 6 articles (01/2014 - 03/2007)|
|10.||Saghiri, Mohammad Ali: 6 articles (01/2014 - 01/2009)|
|1.||Edetic Acid (EDTA)FDA Link
12/01/2013 - "Smear layer removal by EDTA was the most effective in all regions. "
10/01/2009 - "EDTA removed the smear layer extremely effectively and, as a result, improved the bond strength at each region (apical, middle, and coronal) of the roots. "
01/01/2009 - "The SEM analysis showed the best results for 1% NaOCl + 17% EDTA on smear layer removal. "
08/01/2008 - "Significantly greater smear layer removal was found in the 1-minute EDTA irrigation group than the 30-second or 15-second groups."
02/01/2007 - "Mean duration of bacterial penetration in groups 2 and 3 was significantly greater than in group 1, but there was no significant difference between groups 2 and 3. According to our findings, it takes longer for bacteria to penetrate when either EDTA or MTAD is used for smear layer removal. "
|2.||Citric Acid (Citrate)FDA LinkGeneric
10/01/2010 - "The results of the present study clearly indicate the superior efficacy of 6% citric acid than the other tested irrigants on removing the smear layer in primary teeth root canals."
09/01/1990 - "3. Conditioning with citric acid is more effective than the application of LIV CENERA Liquid in removing the smear layer, but LIV CENERA Liquid in contrast to citric acid application, did not enlarge the dentinal tubules."
09/01/2003 - "The efficacy of various concentrations of citric acid at different pH values for the removal of the superficial smear layer from dentinal surfaces was examined through the use of scanning electron microscopy. "
09/01/2003 - "Efficacy of various concentrations of citric acid at different pH values for smear layer removal."
03/01/2013 - "According to the present study, TTC-HCL could remove debris and smear layer but citric acid and MTAD had better debris and smear layer removal efficacy and demineralization effect in comparison with TTC-HCL."
|3.||Tetracycline (Achromycin)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2008 - " of this study suggest that tetracycline is the best current tetracycline form for root surface conditioning as measured by its ability to affect both dentin smear layer removal and tubule exposure."
08/01/1997 - "Results of this study suggest that tetracycline HCl is the best current tetracycline form for root surface conditioning as measured by its ability to affect both dentin smear layer removal and dentin tubule exposure."
04/01/2014 - "It can be concluded that tetracycline hydrochloride at concentration 100 mg/ml effectively removes the smear layer and enlarges the dentinal tubules."
04/01/2014 - "Tetracycline hydrochloride solution showed statistically highly significant removal of smear layer at 100 mg/ml solution (p < 0.001) and enlargement of dentinal tubule diameter (1.46 microm). "
07/01/2005 - "The antibacterial and anticollagenolytic properties of tetracycline (TCN) are valuable in periodontal therapy, and TCN treatment can remove the smear layer following root instrumentation. "
|4.||Sodium Hypochlorite (Clorox)IBA
10/01/2012 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of MTAD as final rinse on removal of the smear layer subsequent to primary irrigation with 1.3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) during 10-minute instrumentation periods. "
07/01/2010 - "The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the root canal cleanliness and smear layer removal effectiveness of Aquatine Endodontic Cleanser (Aquatine EC) when used as an endodontic irrigating solution in comparison with 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). "
08/01/2013 - "Effectiveness of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), MTAD and sodium hypochlorite irrigants on smear layer."
03/01/2012 - "Comparison of the effect of four decalcifying agents combined with 60°C 3% sodium hypochlorite on smear layer removal."
01/01/2012 - "The use of 1.3% sodium hypochlorite for 5 and 10 minutes in the MTAD protocol removes the smear layer in the coronal and middle thirds but does not induce erosion."
01/01/2008 - "The concentrations of 50 mg/mL and 75 mg/mL applied by burnishing were the most effective in smear layer removal and collagen fiber exposure. "
01/01/2014 - "Upon statistical analysis the root conditioning agents used in this study were found to be effective in removing the smear layer, uncovering and widening the dentin tubules and unmasking the dentin collagen matrix. "
08/01/2010 - "The principle for this procedure is that removing the smear layer from the root surfaces exposes collagen fibers, which leads to improved healing. "
06/01/2010 - "The principle for this procedure is that removing the smear layer from the root surfaces exposes collagen fibers, which leads to improved healing. "
01/01/2003 - "The rationale for this procedure is that removing the smear layer from the root surfaces exposes collagen fibers, which leads to improved healing. "
07/01/2014 - "The thermafil systems have a very good quality of compression and fluency that permit to gain a good seal of endodontic space; furthermore it allows the penetration of gutta-percha with the formation of numerous of gutta-percha tags inside the dentinal tubules above all when smear layer is reduced or eliminated."
06/01/2008 - "Scanning electron microscopy showed that all the post-space treatments tested were effective in removal of the smear layer of debris, or sealer/gutta-percha remnants, on the root canal. "
11/01/1993 - "In the absence of smear layer, the adaptation of gutta-percha was improved in all groups. "
06/01/2009 - "The aim of this study was to compare the apical leakage of roots obturated with gutta-percha using either an epoxy resin sealer (AH26) or a dual cure dentin binding agent (Excite DSC) as sealer in the presence or absence of smear layer with fluid filtration method. "
05/01/2009 - "Smear layer removal under the conditions tested in this study did not affect the obturation of root canal ramifications when lateral condensation of gutta-percha was the technique used for root canal filling."
|7.||phosphoric acid (orthophosphoric acid)FDA Link
07/01/1996 - "This study was conducted to investigate the influence of phosphoric acid (H3PO44) demineralization of dentin during smear layer removal prior to dentin bonding. "
08/01/1993 - "The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that phosphoric acid etchant, used to remove the smear layer, may have on dentin demineralization inhibition. "
03/01/2015 - "Phosphoric acid has been suggested as an irrigant due to its effectiveness in removing the smear layer. "
07/01/2014 - "Application of 35% orthophosphoric acid gel for 15 seconds on retrocavities prepared with ultrasonic retro-tips is the most effective means for removal of smear layer."
11/01/2013 - "Liquid phosphoric acid applied with an endodontic needle yielded better canal wall smear layer removal and higher bond strength values when an etch-and-rinse system was used."
12/01/2005 - "Water appeared to remove the smear layer only, but all detergents exceeded the predicted smear layer thickness. "
12/01/1998 - "The effects of the liquid phases and detergents appear limited to the removal of the smear layer. "
03/01/1995 - "The results obtained with in vitro tests showed that many detergents, liners and cleansers are able to maintain almost unaltered the smear layer, causing small modifications for the diameter and the number of dentinal tubules which are partially exposed. "
04/01/2015 - "Comparative evaluation of a new endodontic irrigant - mixture of a tetracycline isomer, an Acid, and a detergent to remove the intracanal smear layer: a scanning electron microscopic study."
09/01/2005 - "A scanning electron microscopy study of root surface smear layer removal after topical application of EDTA plus a detergent."
|9.||Acetic Acid (Vinegar)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2004 - "However, balsamic vinegar was associated with less removal of smear layer after both methods of application."
01/01/2004 - "We can conclude that the contact of vinegar may remove smear layer and expose dentinal tubules, regardless of the type of application. "
11/01/2011 - "Apple vinegar associated or not with EDTA was effective in removing smear layer when used as an endodontic irrigant."
11/01/2011 - "In the apical third, the apple vinegar/EDTA group showed the greatest removal of smear layer (p=0.0373). "
08/01/2008 - "Effect of shortened irrigation times with 17% ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid on smear layer removal after rotary canal instrumentation."
|10.||CMW cement (Dentsply)IBA
05/01/2015 - "The aim of the study is to compare the efficacy of different irrigation systems comparing irrigation with syringe and needle (Dispo Van), Max-I-Probe needle (Dentsply Maillefer), EndoActivator (Dentsply Maillefer), and EndoVac (Sybron Endo) in removing the smear layer generated at apical third. "
03/01/2014 - "The aim of this study was to compare by scanning electron microscopy the presence of smear layer and debris on root canal walls after preparation with the single-file system WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) versus the rotary ProTaper system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) under 2 final irrigant regimens. "
11/01/2013 - "The EndoActivator System (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) was significantly more efficient than PUI and the control groups in removing the smear layer at 3, 5, and 8 mm from the apex. "
01/01/2011 - "Biopure® MTAD (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, USA) has been developed as a final irrigant following root canal shaping to remove intracanal smear layer. "
03/01/2015 - "The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the Nd:YAG laser, ultrasound, the ProTaper Universal system (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), and the CanalBrush (Coltene Whaledent, Langenau, Germany) methods for the removal of the smear layer from the apical third of root canals. "
07/01/2010 - "When the two Er:YAG laser groups were compared, the fluency of G6 was statistically more effective in smear layer removal than the one used in G5 (Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.01). "
10/01/2005 - "The results show that the use of the Er:YAG laser is effective in removing the smear layer from root canal walls. "
08/01/1998 - "These results show Er:YAG laser is effective in removing debris and smear layer from root canal walls."
12/01/1998 - "The purposes of the study were to observe the morphological changes on root canal walls after instrumentation and irrigation, and assess the efficacy of conventional cleansing procedures and the effectiveness of Er:YAG laser in removing debris and smear layer from the root canal walls. "
08/01/1998 - "The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Er:YAG laser irradiation in removing debris and smear layer from prepared root canal walls. "
01/01/2007 - "Laser radiation after removing smear layer could successfully occlude dentinal tubules and the best results was achieved at the apical part of the canal."
04/01/2005 - "The results showed that great improvement in the cleanliness of the walls was found using the laser technique as compared with the control technique; a significant decrease in smear layer or debris was also recognized in laser-prepared canals (p < 0.01). "
11/01/2011 - "Use of a laser with a plain fiber tip, which produces cavitation in the irrigant, has potential as an improved alternative method for removing of the smear layer from the apical region of a straight root canal."
11/01/2011 - "The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of laser-driven irrigation in removing the smear layer and debriding the apical region of the root canal (the root tip) with that of ultrasonic irrigation. "
12/01/2008 - "Laser activation of endodontic irrigants with improved conical laser fiber tips for removing smear layer in the apical third of the root canal."
01/01/2007 - "Effect of 808nm diode laser irradiation on root canal walls after smear layer removal: A scanning electron microscope study."
11/01/2015 - "Diode laser treatment with solutions decreased the amount of smear layer, without significance."
03/01/2015 - "Irrigation activated/delivered techniques except diode laser have a positive effect on removing of smear layer."
03/01/2015 - "Smear layer scores obtained with PIPS technique were statistically significant different from those of obtained with control, CSI and diode laser groups (P < 0.05). "
02/01/2010 - "The samples irradiated with Er:YAG exhibited roughness on the dentinal surface, no smear layer, and open dentinal tubules; those irradiated with diode laser exhibited a smooth surface, more smear layer, and closed dentinal tubules; and the control group showed high amount of smear layer and closed dentin tubules. "
|4.||Root Canal Preparation
09/01/1989 - "This investigation with scanning electron microscopy examines the efficacy of two methods of root canal preparation and the effectiveness of different chemicals on smear layer removal. "
01/01/2011 - "The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the degree of smear layer removal after root canal preparation with TF(®) instruments, combined with two different irrigating solutions.For"
07/01/2009 - "The purpose of this study was to compare root canal preparation in curved canals in molar teeth with the rotary NiTi Mtwo and ProTaper systems in terms of canal shape and smear layer. "
08/01/1985 - "[Smear layer after root canal preparation (SEM studies)]."
07/01/2014 - "Root canal preparation may produce a large quantity of smear layer that covers canal walls. "
01/01/2015 - "The smear layer created by scaling and root planing is physiologically eliminated in a biphasic process."
07/01/2012 - "The smear layer formed during root planing inhibits cell migration and attachment leading to impaired marginal periodontal healing. "
08/01/2007 - "The regular periodontal practice of scaling and root planing produces a smear layer on the root surface that is detrimental to the readhesion of tissues during subsequent regeneration therapy. "
04/01/1999 - "Under SEM the root surface after root planing showed the presence of smear layer whereas after Sofscale application root surface appeared devoid of smear layer. "
12/01/1997 - "The manual instruments permit good root planing with minimum ablation from the root surface and only a thin smear layer (a compound of grinding dust, dentinal fluid, and water). "