Ocular Motility Disorders (Convergence Insufficiency)

Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)
Also Known As:
Convergence Insufficiency; Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia; Eye Motility Disorders; Parinaud's Syndrome; Convergence Excess; Opsoclonus; Cyclophoria; Eye Movement Disorders; Parinaud Syndrome; Brown's Tendon Sheath Syndrome; Deficiency, Smooth Pursuit; Paroxysmal Ocular Dyskinesia; Pseudoophthalmoplegia; Spasm of Conjugate Gaze; Syndrome, Brown's Tendon Sheath; Tendon Sheath Syndrome of Brown; Conjugate Gaze Spasm; Conjugate Gaze Spasms; Convergence Excesses; Convergence Insufficiencies; Cyclophorias; Deficiencies, Smooth Pursuit; Deviation, Skew; Deviations, Skew; Dyskinesia, Paroxysmal Ocular; Dyskinesias, Paroxysmal Ocular; Excess, Convergence; Eye Motility Disorder; Eye Movement Disorder; Gaze Spasms, Conjugate; Insufficiencies, Convergence; Insufficiency, Convergence; Internuclear Ophthalmoplegias; Ocular Dyskinesia, Paroxysmal; Ocular Dyskinesias, Paroxysmal; Ocular Motility Disorder; Ophthalmoplegia, Internuclear; Ophthalmoplegias, Internuclear; Parinauds Syndrome; Paroxysmal Ocular Dyskinesias; Pseudoophthalmoplegias; Pursuit Deficiencies, Smooth; Pursuit Deficiency, Smooth; Skew Deviations; Smooth Pursuit Deficiencies; Syndrome, Parinaud; Syndrome, Parinaud's; Brown Tendon Sheath Syndrome; Ocular Torticollis; Skew Deviation; Smooth Pursuit Deficiency
Networked: 243 relevant articles (15 outcomes, 9 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Neoplasms (Cancer)
2. Myoclonus (Nocturnal Myoclonus)
3. Exotropia (Exophoria)
4. Diplopia (Double Vision)
5. Deafness (Deaf Mutism)


1. Scheiman, Mitchell: 8 articles (10/2012 - 01/2005)
2. Mitchell, G Lynn: 6 articles (10/2012 - 01/2005)
3. Cotter, Susan: 5 articles (11/2011 - 01/2005)
4. Cooper, Jeffrey: 5 articles (11/2011 - 01/2005)
5. Kulp, Marjean Taylor: 4 articles (11/2011 - 07/2005)
6. Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial Study Group: 4 articles (11/2011 - 01/2005)
7. Dalmau, Josep: 3 articles (05/2014 - 02/2004)
8. Dawson, Emma: 3 articles (12/2011 - 10/2007)
9. Lee, John: 3 articles (12/2011 - 10/2007)
10. Borsting, Eric: 3 articles (04/2008 - 01/2005)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Ocular Motility Disorders:
1. AntibodiesIBA
2. Immunoglobulins (Immunoglobulin)IBA
3. Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum Toxin)IBA
4. Clonazepam (Rivotril)FDA LinkGeneric
5. Adrenal Cortex Hormones (Corticosteroids)IBA
6. Reserpine (Serpasil)FDA Link
7. Propranolol (Inderal)FDA LinkGeneric
8. Prednisolone (Predate)FDA LinkGeneric
9. Dexamethasone (Maxidex)FDA LinkGeneric
10. BaclofenFDA LinkGeneric

Therapies and Procedures

1. Orthoptics (Orthoptic)
2. Sutures (Suture)
3. Transplants (Transplant)
4. Tenotomy
5. Ventriculostomy