|1.||Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
|3.||Sexually Transmitted Diseases (Sexually Transmitted Disease)
|1.||Deeks, Steven G: 38 articles (01/2016 - 08/2003)|
|2.||De Clercq, Erik: 35 articles (07/2015 - 01/2002)|
|3.||Lederman, Michael M: 32 articles (06/2015 - 04/2002)|
|4.||Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): 31 articles (05/2015 - 03/2000)|
|5.||Cooper, David A: 27 articles (07/2015 - 01/2002)|
|6.||Soriano, Vincent: 27 articles (01/2015 - 10/2002)|
|7.||Klausner, Jeffrey D: 26 articles (10/2015 - 06/2005)|
|8.||Douglas, Steven D: 26 articles (08/2015 - 01/2002)|
|9.||Walker, Bruce D: 25 articles (11/2014 - 01/2003)|
|10.||Nath, Avindra: 24 articles (03/2014 - 04/2003)|
|1.||Zidovudine (Retrovir)FDA LinkGeneric
07/10/1996 - "Assuming demonstrable efficacy of short-course zidovudine prevention of perinatal HIV, a national perinatal HIV prevention program with zidovudine in most sub-Saharan African country settings would reduce the incidence of infant HIV infection and, in some settings, provide societal savings; however, substantial initial investment in such programs will be required. "
07/01/1996 - "The termination of the perinatal HIV transmission trial, ACTG 076, by the Data Safety and Monitoring Board in February 1994 because of the efficacy of zidovudine (ZDV) in substantially reducing maternal-infant HIV transmission has created a considerable need for efficacious patient education approaches and materials for women with and at risk of HIV infection. "
01/01/1991 - "Our results show that zidovudine treatment in the asymptomatic phase of HIV infection did not result in a sustained improvement in T-cell function. "
01/01/2003 - "3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) is the first clinically effective drug for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. "
02/01/1996 - "Zidovudine (ZDV, AZT) is the first clinically effective drug licensed for use in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. "
|2.||Protease Inhibitors (Protease Inhibitor)IBA
08/01/2007 - "Protease inhibitors were a major therapeutic breakthrough in the mid-1990s for the treatment of HIV infection, which resulted in improved life expectancy for patients who had failed previous therapies. "
05/12/1999 - "Combination antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors (combo+PI) is effective in suppressing systemic viral load in HIV infection, but its impact on HIV-associated cognitive impairment is unclear. "
06/01/2010 - "[Long-term efficacy of second-line treatment of HIV infection after class change following virological failure on protease inhibitor-based therapy]."
03/01/2003 - "Having changed the landscape in the treatment of HIV infection, the functional efficacy of current protease inhibitors (PIs) remains limited by their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. "
02/01/1999 - "The advent of improved medical therapy with multidrug HIV medicines including protease inhibitors has prolonged life expectation of patients with HIV infection. "
03/01/2012 - "Topical tenofovir gel has proven effective in the prevention of HIV infection in women in South Africa. "
07/01/2013 - "Tenofovir (TFV) is a widely used and effective treatment for HIV infection. "
01/01/2012 - "Tenofovir is widely used as first-line treatment of HIV infection, although its use is sometimes complicated by a reversible proximal renal tubulopathy.We"
07/01/2015 - "Genital Tenofovir Concentrations Correlate With Protection Against HIV Infection in the CAPRISA 004 Trial: Importance of Adherence for Microbicide Effectiveness."
04/24/2015 - "In this HIV PrEP trial among people who inject drugs, improved adherence to daily tenofovir was associated with a lower risk of HIV infection. "
04/01/2008 - "The PRISM HIV antigen-antibody combination assay demonstrated a significant reduction of the window period for diagnosis of HIV infection. "
01/01/1993 - "So the laboratory screening of blood should be improved by using more sensitive and specific antibody kits, including the use of HIV antigen testing, which have been reported to be useful in the diagnosis of patients with the early HIV infection."
04/01/1987 - "The assay for HIV antigen in the CSF may be of value in determining the prognosis of children with HIV infection and for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic agents against this retrovirus."
09/01/1994 - "In an attempt to compare the protective effect of vaccination with two forms of envelope antigens, and to define immunological correlates of protection against HIV infection, chimpanzees were vaccinated with either recombinant gp160 or gp120. "
11/01/1988 - "Measurement of antigen-specific T cell function may be useful for assessing the efficacy of antiviral therapy in HIV infection before onset of symptoms."
11/01/2013 - "As the efficacy of immune therapy and therapeutic vaccines against HIV infection has been modest in the best of cases, it has been hypothesized that ex vivo generated DC therapeutic vaccines aimed to induce effective specific HIV immune responses might overcome some of these problems. "
07/01/2011 - "These data provide valuable information on a detailed evaluation of the pathogenesis of HIV infection in different tissues of Chinese HIV-infected patients, and our findings would be helpful for the design of vaccines and therapy strategies."
01/01/2010 - "Many Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) candidate vaccines have been tested in clinical trials, but none was sufficiently effective in the prevention of HIV infection. "
03/01/2012 - "Although great efforts have been put forth in developing therapeutic drugs and effective vaccines for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection, these efforts are not correlated to the reported case of cured HIV infection. "
09/01/1998 - "An understanding of the different immune mechanisms capable of inhibiting HIV infection may be of benefit in the eventual design of vaccines effective against HIV-1 variants. "
08/01/2015 - "The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent findings with regard to the molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for antibody-mediated clearance of HIV infection, and to discuss how this may help to improve HIV therapy via optimizing Fcγ-receptor-dependent activities of HIV-specific antibodies. "
07/01/2011 - "Diagnosis of HIV infection in infants is difficult due to the presence of maternal antibodies; only nucleic acid assays are very helpful in early detection. "
05/01/1996 - "Results from vaccine trials in animal models suggest that these antibodies may contribute to protection against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. "
01/01/2013 - "While neutralizing activity appears to be central in sterile protection against HIV infection, the entity of inhibitory mechanisms via HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific antibodies remains elusive. "
05/01/2003 - "an 83-year-old heterosexual man with malaise tested positive for HIV infection antibodies and has responded well to triple antiretroviral therapy. "
|7.||Ritonavir (Norvir)FDA Link
10/01/1996 - "In a large placebo-controlled trial in patients with advanced HIV infection, the addition of ritonavir to existing therapy reduced the risk of mortality by 43% and clinical progression by 56% after 6.1 months. "
05/01/2011 - "Effects of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy with ritonavir on induction of osteoclast-like cells in postmenopausal women."
03/01/2004 - "The initial virus strains from as many as 12% of individuals with primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have a 50% inhibitory concentration </=0.4-fold that of HIV type 1(NL4-3) (HIV-1(NL4-3)) to ritonavir (hypersusceptibility [HS]). "
08/01/2000 - "Relationship between efficacy, tolerance, and plasma drug concentration of ritonavir in children with advanced HIV infection."
03/01/1999 - "Preliminary experiences with ritonavir in children with advanced HIV infection."
|8.||Thalidomide (Thalomid)FDA Link
02/01/1995 - "Several previous reports have suggested that thalidomide therapy is beneficial for patients with aphthous ulceration related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. "
05/22/1997 - "Thalidomide is an effective treatment for aphthous ulceration of the mouth and oropharynx in patients with HIV infection."
09/11/1993 - "[Efficacy of thalidomide against esophageal ulceration in HIV infection]."
10/01/2001 - "Use of thalidomide in HIV infection."
09/01/2000 - "This finding offers a potential explanation for the positive effect of thalidomide in patients with mycobacterial and HIV infections."
|9.||RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)IBA
10/01/2001 - "The use of potent combination therapy for the treatment of HIV infections has certainly improved the "quality of life" for patients, decreasing the viral load in the plasma (HIV RNA). "
01/01/2014 - "We found that the addition of HIV RNA screening to routine HIV antibody testing significantly improved the detection of HIV infection among FSWs from low-grade venues in Guangxi. "
09/01/1997 - "An improved understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV infection coupled with the availability of assays to measure HIV-1 RNA and the approval of new antiretroviral drugs has led to the development of new approaches to the management of HIV infection. "
01/01/2003 - "A nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assay that detects HIV RNA may be helpful in excluding perinatal HIV infection. "
02/01/2001 - "[Determination of HIV RNA concentration for evaluation of the efficacy of combined therapy of HIV infection]."
|10.||Biological Markers (Surrogate Marker)IBA
05/01/2003 - "Despite some limitations (distribution assumption, ignorance of missingness process), such a model appeared to be very useful to correctly describe the current evolution of important biomarkers in HIV infection."
09/15/1997 - "Twenty-four weeks later, the mean values of all measures of viral burden and surrogate markers of HIV infection were either unchanged or improved, but none of the changes was statistically significant. "
01/01/1995 - "The CD4+ cell count is a surrogate marker used for evaluating the efficacy of therapies for HIV infection and for estimating the prognosis of patients with HIV infection. "
01/01/2015 - "Recent studies highlighting the effects of VET on biomarkers of HIV persistence in perinatal HIV infection are reviewed as well as implications and challenges for cure research in pediatric populations."
12/01/2013 - "Applications and limitations of inflammatory biomarkers for studies on neurocognitive impairment in HIV infection."
|1.||Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)
11/01/2012 - "The use of a potent combination of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, so-called highly active ARV therapy (HAART), has dramatically improved the quality of life and overall survival of children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. "
12/01/2010 - "The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically improved clinical outcomes in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. "
07/01/2010 - "After the advent of HAART, the clinical course of HIV infection has dramatically improved. "
03/01/2010 - "The life expectancy of people living with HIV infection has improved dramatically since the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). "
06/01/2007 - "Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) has revolutionized the HIV treatment, leading to a significantly decreased morbidity, prolonged survival, and an overall better outcome of HIV infection. "
03/01/2014 - "Consistent condom use was found to be most protective against HIV infection. "
10/01/2006 - "If all components of the intervention reach target coverage (that is, PPT, STI treatment and condom use), the intervention is expected to prevent 22-35% of all new HIV infections in FSW and in the total population over 5 years in a low transmission setting like Mysore, and to be half as effective in high transmission settings such as Bagalkot. "
01/01/2003 - "Mean age was 41 years, 82.5% were male and 75.5% benefited from high school education; 75.75% had a good level of knowledge on HIV infection, 58% CI [51-65] stated having changed their sexual behavior into abstinence, fidelity to their partner (52.5%) and use of condom (46.5%). "
09/01/1997 - "While 29% perceived recapping needles as involving no risk, activities involving casual contact with patients and condom use for protection against HIV infection were associated with a high perceived risk of HIV transmission, particularly among nurses. "
07/01/1995 - "A targeted distribution of condoms to populations with a high demonstrated risk may be more effective in preventing new HIV infection."
|3.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
06/01/2013 - "In this rare but severe complication of HIV infection the use of intensive chemotherapy does not appear to be beneficial for response, with increased toxicity."
01/01/1996 - "However, there may be a subpopulation of HIV-infected patients with Burkitt's-type NHL and well preserved immune status who may benefit from high-dose chemotherapy programs that are effective for BL patients without HIV infection."
04/25/2005 - "Drug therapy of HIV infection has become more effective in the last years. "
09/01/1998 - "Improved management of the underlying HIV infection, more effective infusional chemotherapy regimens, moderately effective second line regimens, and new investigational approaches all offer promising hope that improvements will soon be seen for the treatment of HIV-related systemic NHL. "
02/01/1992 - "This will permit a polychemotherapeutic approach against HIV infection that, as in the case of anticancer chemotherapy, has conceivably better chances to be effective in patients with HIV-related disease."
01/01/2010 - "Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced morbidity and mortality among people with HIV infection; however, mortality after the start of ART is high in resource-limited settings. "
10/01/2005 - "Survival in HIV infection has improved dramatically in the last decade due to antiretroviral therapy (ART). "
07/01/2015 - "Availability of potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in markedly improved survival for people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, as well as an aging HIV population. "
09/01/2008 - "Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has proven to be effective in treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. "
01/01/2005 - "The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of structured treatment interruptions (STI) of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the management of chronic suppressed HIV infection, using all available high-quality studies. "
|5.||Male Circumcision (Circumcision)
12/01/2010 - "The study concludes that male circumcision provides a strong protection against acquisition of HIV infection. "
01/01/2006 - "A landmark randomised trial of male circumcision (MC) in Orange Farm, South Africa recently showed a large and significant reduction in risk of HIV infection, reporting MC effectiveness of 61% (95% CI: 34%-77%). "
11/01/2005 - "Male circumcision provides a degree of protection against acquiring HIV infection, equivalent to what a vaccine of high efficacy would have achieved. "
11/01/2011 - "Men who were aware that circumcision offers protection against HIV (relative risk [RR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06-1.32, P < 0.01), endorsed risk compensation related to male circumcision (RR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.11-1.12, P < 0.01) and perceived lower risk of HIV infection when circumcised (RR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.12, P < 0.01) were more likely to report unprotected vaginal sex acts. "
03/01/2007 - "Male circumcision has been demonstrated effective in reducing risk for HIV infection in three separate trials from South Africa, Kenya, and Uganda. "