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1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (1 Methyl 4 phenylpyridinium)

An active neurotoxic metabolite of 1-METHYL-4-PHENYL-1,2,3,6-TETRAHYDROPYRIDINE. The compound reduces dopamine levels, inhibits the biosynthesis of catecholamines, depletes cardiac norepinephrine and inactivates tyrosine hydroxylase. These and other toxic effects lead to cessation of oxidative phosphorylation, ATP depletion, and cell death. The compound, which is related to PARAQUAT, has also been used as an herbicide.
Also Known As:
1 Methyl 4 phenylpyridinium; 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridine; 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium Chloride; 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium Ion; N-Methyl-4-phenylpyridine; N-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium; 1 Methyl 4 phenylpyridine; 1 Methyl 4 phenylpyridinium Chloride; 1 Methyl 4 phenylpyridinium Ion; N Methyl 4 phenylpyridine; Cyperquat; Pyridinium, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-
Networked: 254 relevant articles (13 outcomes, 50 trials/studies)

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Bio-Agent Context: Research Results

Experts

1. Soliman, Karam F A: 6 articles (06/2010 - 01/2003)
2. Bähr, Mathias: 4 articles (11/2012 - 07/2004)
3. Lingor, Paul: 4 articles (11/2012 - 07/2004)
4. Choi, Dong-Kug: 3 articles (01/2013 - 01/2011)
5. Weishaupt, Jochen H: 3 articles (11/2012 - 05/2006)
6. Soliman, K F A: 3 articles (10/2012 - 02/2003)
7. Mazzio, E: 3 articles (10/2012 - 02/2003)
8. Mazzio, Elizabeth A: 3 articles (06/2010 - 03/2004)
9. Hillard, Cecilia J: 3 articles (10/2005 - 04/2003)
10. Kalyanaraman, B: 3 articles (10/2005 - 04/2003)

Related Diseases

1. Neuroblastoma
2. Parkinson Disease (Parkinson's Disease)
3. Pheochromocytoma
4. Parkinsonian Disorders (Parkinsonism)
5. Necrosis

Related Drugs and Biologics

1. 1- Methyl- 4- phenyl- 1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)
2. Dopamine (Intropin)
3. Oxidopamine (6 Hydroxydopamine)
4. Hydrogen Peroxide (Hydroperoxide)
5. Neurotoxins
6. Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)
7. Amyloid (Amyloid Fibrils)
8. Smoke
9. Protein Kinases (Protein Kinase)
10. acetamide

Related Therapies and Procedures

1. Oral Administration