|1.||Hostetler, Karl Y: 10 articles (10/2010 - 03/2003)|
|2.||Beadle, James R: 8 articles (12/2009 - 01/2004)|
|3.||Smee, Donald F: 6 articles (01/2013 - 05/2002)|
|4.||Trahan, Julissa: 5 articles (12/2009 - 01/2006)|
|5.||Kern, Earl R: 5 articles (11/2007 - 02/2004)|
|6.||Aldern, Kathy A: 5 articles (07/2007 - 03/2003)|
|7.||De Clercq, Erik: 5 articles (01/2007 - 07/2002)|
|8.||Shchelkunov, S N: 5 articles (03/2005 - 12/2001)|
|9.||Snoeck, Robert: 4 articles (01/2013 - 01/2007)|
|10.||Andrei, Graciela: 4 articles (01/2013 - 01/2007)|
|1.||DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)IBA
10/01/1979 - "The deletion represents 11 to 12% of the red cowpox DNA and includes the terminal repetition which therefore is not required for replication. "
10/01/1979 - "The red cowpox genome contains near terminal, repetitive sequences which have some homology with those of vaccinia virus DNA. "
04/01/2006 - "Samples contained 0 to 40,000,000 DNA copies of lyophilized monkeypox, cowpox, and vaccinia virus per ml. Laboratories achieved a >80% detection chance above 56,234 copies per ml. Global sensitivity was not significantly improved over that of the first study. "
05/10/1998 - "The inserted DNA codes for a cluster of genes that is also found in the vaccinia WR strain and in cowpox virus and includes a highly fragmented gene homologous to the cowpox virus host range gene, providing further evidence that a cowpox-like virus was the ancestor of vaccinia. "
06/01/2002 - "Fowlpox virus DNA was always detected in skin samples with fowlpox lesions while it was not detected in samples of unrelated diseases such as cowpox, Marek's disease or infectious laryngotracheitis. "
|2.||cidofovir (Vistide)FDA Link
05/01/2011 - "Thiosemicarbazone 4 was inhibitory on cowpox and vaccinia virus replication comparable in potency and selectivity to the reference agent cidofovir. "
03/01/2008 - "A promising therapeutic option is cidofovir, but this virostatic drug is not yet approved for the treatment of cowpox."
01/01/2007 - "Efficacy in vitro was assessed by plaque reduction assays against wild-type and cidofovir-resistant strains of cowpox and vaccinia viruses in nine different cell lines. "
11/01/2006 - "Effects of cidofovir treatment on cytokine induction in murine models of cowpox and vaccinia virus infection."
06/01/2002 - "To determine whether even better results could be obtained by delivering the drug directly to the respiratory tract, we administered cidofovir by small-particle aqueous aerosol before or after aerosolized cowpox infection. "
|3.||Interferon-alpha (Interferon Alfa)FDA Link
|4.||Ribavirin (Virazole)FDA LinkGeneric
|5.||Proteins (Proteins, Gene)IBA
01/01/2012 - "These studies clarify mechanistically how CPXV203 coordinates with other cowpox proteins to thwart antigen presentation."
01/01/2011 - "Out of 21 identified proteins 16 were found to be cross-reactive between cowpox and vaccinia virus. "
01/01/2011 - "Here, we first identified 21 immunogenic proteins of cowpox and vaccinia virus by serological screenings of genomic Orthopoxvirus expression libraries. "
01/01/2007 - "Sequence comparisons of the poxviral ATI proteins show that although full-length orthologs are only present in cowpox and ectromelia viruses, an ~ 700 aa truncated ATI protein is conserved in over 90% of sequenced orthopoxviruses. "
10/01/2002 - "The characteristics of the 63-kDa protein were inconsistent with published observations on cowpox or VACV ATI proteins (it appears to be essential). "
04/01/2014 - "OPV antibodies (most likely cowpox) were more common but restricted geographically to southeastern Finland. "
11/01/2000 - "Further useful diagnostic tools are the identification of the cowpox/catpox virus by PCR or in cell culture as well as serological tests to detect virus specific antibodies. "
06/01/2000 - "Trapping was carried out at 4-weekly intervals over 3 years and each animal caught was uniquely identified, blood sampled and tested for antibodies to cowpox. "
06/01/1963 - "[POSTVACCINAL ANTIBODIES IN ANTI-COWPOX PROTECTION]."
10/01/2009 - "In addition, one of these antibodies also stained viral factories produced by cowpox and ectromelia, two closely related viruses. "
07/01/1979 - "Variation of the parent cowpox and monkeypox viruses to white variants was always accompanied by the loss of the antigen-inducing capacity."
06/01/1972 - " between results of cross-neutralization tests and immunodiffusion tests on the absorbed sera indicated that antibody to a number of antigens, including the classical LS, and the cowpox-specific d antigen play no part in the process of poxvirus neutralization."
02/01/1955 - "Analysis of pox-virus antigens by means of double diffusion: a method for direct serological differentiation of cowpox."
12/05/2009 - "Membrane and non-membrane antigens were identified that partially protect C57BL/6 mice against cowpox and vaccinia challenges without adjuvant or regimen optimization, whereas the 4-pox vaccine did not. "
01/01/1981 - "The cross-reactive, but inefficient, recognition of anti-vaccinia CTL for cowpox-infected cells suggested a slight difference in the target antigens of the two viruses. "
|8.||Smallpox VaccineFDA Link
10/10/2005 - "In this study, defective vaccinia virus (dVV) lacking a gene essential for replication (derived from the Lister vaccine in a complementing cell line) was compared with the Wyeth smallpox vaccine strain and with MVA in mouse animal models using cowpox and ectromelia virus challenge. "
01/01/1996 - "The active principle of smallpox vaccine is vaccinia virus, which in many respects, differs from that of natural cowpox; the term "cowpox" has been used for more than a century and a half to designate the vaccine; it appears itself to be a misnomer, because it is most probably by a virus of rodents, which only occasionally infects bovines or other species, especially cats. "
04/01/2015 - "Public health officials are also concerned about the spread of related zoonotic orthopoxviruses such as monkeypox and cowpox, against which smallpox vaccine provides protection. "
01/01/1997 - "Human cowpox is a rare but relatively severe infection of interest because of its links with Edward Jenner and the introduction of smallpox vaccine and, more recently, because of re-evaluation of the epidemiology of the infection. "
06/01/1994 - "In Baluchistan (Iran), infants were encouraged to play with and touch the teats of cows affected with cowpox, in order to immunise the children against smallpox, and this was centuries before the discovery of smallpox vaccine by Edward Jenner. "
|9.||cidofovir hexadecyloxypropyl esterIBA
07/01/2007 - "Hexadecyloxypropyl-CDV (HDP-CDV) has been shown to be 40-100 times more active than CDV in vitro in cells infected with herpes group viruses, variola, cowpox, vaccinia or ectromelia viruses. "
10/01/2010 - "HDP-CDV is a highly effective agent against a variety of orthopoxvirus infections in animal models of disease including vaccinia, cowpox, rabbitpox and ectromelia. "
03/01/2007 - "Hexadecyloxypropyl-cidofovir (HDP-CDV) has been shown to be orally active against lethal infection with orthopoxviruses including, mousepox, cowpox, vaccinia and rabbitpox. "
03/01/2003 - "Previous studies showed that the CDV and cyclic cidofovir (cCDV) analogs 1-O-hexa-decyloxypropyl-CDV (HDP-CDV) and 1-O-hexadecyloxypropyl-cCDV (HDP-cCDV), show >100-fold increases in antiviral activity versus the unmodified nucleosides against cells infected with orthopoxviruses, cowpox, and vaccinia virus. "
|10.||Antiviral Agents (Antivirals)IBA
01/01/2013 - "Emergence of cowpox: study of the virulence of clinical strains and evaluation of antivirals."
04/01/2008 - "The ownership of wild and exotic animal pets is becoming more popular, and the range of recognized wild and domestic animal hosts is expanding, Cowpox as a human emerging zoonotic hazard raises public health concerns as well as a question about the production of effective vaccine and antiviral agents."
09/01/2004 - "Several nucleoside and nucleotide analogues have been identified as potent antiviral agents with convincing activity against poxviruses (including variola, vaccinia, monkeypox, cowpox, molluscum contagiosum, orf). "
|1.||Blood Transfusion (Blood Transfusions)