|3.||Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
|4.||Chronic Hepatitis B
|5.||Chronic Hepatitis C
|1.||Overbaugh, Julie: 6 articles (07/2015 - 11/2007)|
|2.||Little, Susan J: 5 articles (12/2013 - 05/2003)|
|3.||Richman, Douglas D: 5 articles (12/2013 - 05/2003)|
|4.||Smith, Davey M: 5 articles (12/2013 - 05/2003)|
|5.||Heller, Knut J: 4 articles (10/2015 - 06/2006)|
|6.||Neve, Horst: 4 articles (10/2015 - 06/2006)|
|7.||McClelland, R Scott: 4 articles (07/2015 - 01/2012)|
|8.||Liaw, Yun-Fan: 4 articles (01/2010 - 01/2002)|
|9.||Petropoulos, Christos J: 4 articles (06/2006 - 05/2003)|
|10.||Dény, Paul: 3 articles (04/2015 - 09/2006)|
|1.||Anti-Bacterial Agents (Antibiotics)IBA
02/01/2012 - "Three patients developed a bacterial superinfection treated with systemic antibiotics with good results. "
01/01/1985 - "Studies were conducted on the effects of antibiotics on intestinal bacterial flora and symptomatic changes associated with possible superinfection following antibiotic treatment. "
05/01/1957 - "[Studies on the mechanism of appearance of superinfection and its relation to application of antibiotics]."
10/01/2014 - "Secondary outcomes included mortality at 90 days, occurrence of organ failure, number of superinfections, and number of days with antibiotics during the ICU stay. "
02/01/2014 - "Two patients required placement of additional drains and prolonged antibiotics for superinfection following biloma drainage. "
|2.||Hepatitis B Surface Antigens (HBsAg)FDA Link
08/01/1990 - "Clinical, virological, and histological findings in four HBsAg chronic carriers who cleared HBV markers from both serum and liver following HDV superinfection are described. "
06/01/1988 - "All three children with HDV coinfection cleared HBsAg and seroconverted to anti-HBs, whereas one with superinfection finally had normal liver function without clearance of HBsAg. "
02/01/1989 - "[HBV carriers and HDV superinfection--studies on the cases of HBsAg clearance]."
09/01/2014 - "This case report describes an asymptomatic HEV superinfection followed by a flare in HBV replication in an HBsAg carrier without signs of HBV replication for eight years. "
04/01/2013 - "Superinfection with HDV was seen in 20.9% (N = 24) of HBsAg carriers. "
|3.||RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)IBA
02/01/2010 - "In this study we examined superinfection exclusion of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a positive-sense RNA closterovirus. "
01/01/2013 - "This process, termed superinfection exclusion, does not involve downregulation of surface viral receptors but instead occurs inside the cell at the level of RNA replication. "
05/01/2012 - "Recently, it was demonstrated that superinfection exclusion of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a positive-sense RNA closterovirus, occurs only between isolates of the same strain, but not between isolates of different strains of the virus. "
02/20/2011 - "Detecting HIV-1 superinfection by pol gene population sequencing among untreated HIV-1-infected men who experience sudden rises in plasma HIV-1 RNA load."
11/01/2009 - "Mode-of-action analysis indicates that the exclusion of WNV superinfection occurs at the step of RNA synthesis. "
02/01/2006 - "This protection was not due to contact with L3 antigens because a significant reduction of worm burdens deriving of a superinfection was also observed after subcutaneous implantation of a single female worm (P < 0.05, 40.2% and 64.9% protection). "
04/10/1999 - "The aim of this study was to determine (1) the breadth of the protection after repeated challenges of monkeys with SIV homologous strains of different pathogenicity, (2) the genotypic stability of the live virus vaccine, (3) whether the protection might depend on cellular resistance to superinfection, and (4) whether immunogenic stimuli such as recall antigens could reactivate the replication of the C8 virus. "
09/01/1984 - "[Studies on the synthesis of Epstein-Barr virus-related antigens induced by superinfection]."
06/01/1973 - "The assay has been used to study the effect of chemical induction and superinfection by mammalian C-type viruses on the expression of avian gs antigen in mammalian cells nonproductively transformed by avian sarcoma viruses."
03/01/2009 - "This modification is sufficient to block PhiV10 superinfection, indicating that the O157 antigen is most likely the PhiV10 receptor."
12/01/2013 - "We hypothesized that the potency of the neutralizing antibody (NAb) response to autologous viruses would modulate viral dynamics in env following superinfection in a limited set of superinfection cases. "
12/01/2013 - "Dynamics of viral evolution and neutralizing antibody response after HIV-1 superinfection."
01/01/2012 - "HIV-1 subtype C superinfected individuals mount low autologous neutralizing antibody responses prior to intrasubtype superinfection."
01/01/2012 - "Superinfection by discordant subtypes of HIV-1 does not enhance the neutralizing antibody response against autologous virus."
01/01/2012 - "HIV-1 superinfection in women broadens and strengthens the neutralizing antibody response."
06/01/2015 - "The clinically tested infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) superinfection therapy promises an innovative, interferon-free solution to this great unmet need, provided that a consistent manufacturing process preventing mutations or reversions to virulent strains is obtained. "
03/01/1991 - "The chronically infected cells produced interferon as judged by their resistance to superinfections with heterologous viruses. "
11/01/1988 - "The hypothesis that the different effects of HDV coinfection and superinfection on HBV replication may stem from variability in the capacity of the host to produce and respond to interferon is discussed."
10/01/1985 - "Although persistently and latently infected RN2-2 cells display resistance to superinfection by a heterologous agent VSV, these cells do not release detectable soluble mediators (e.g., interferon) of the antiviral state. "
05/01/1985 - "These produced increased amounts (100 to 1000 times) of infectious and DI particles in the presence of anti-interferon antibody, becoming susceptible to superinfection with VSV but remaining resistant to the original rabies virus. "
01/01/2012 - "The potential role of antibodies in protection against intra-subtype HIV-1 superinfection remains to be understood. "
04/01/2011 - "Our results suggest that an antibody library must be cultured for a short duration before helper phage superinfection, and that the Ex12 helper phage helped to alleviate the detrimental effect of clonal variation, at least in part, by preferentially increasing functional phage antibodies during phage amplification."
09/01/1992 - "The MOMP1 culture is immune to superinfection with MV and is not cured by anti-MV antibodies. "
01/01/2012 - "These studies suggest that while superinfection by discordant subtypes induces antibodies with enhanced neutralizing breadth and potency against heterologous viruses, the potency to neutralize their autologous viruses is not better than those seen in singly infected patients."
12/01/1994 - "In contrast, one of three cats had neither VN antibodies to the second virus nor PCR signal of the second virus in its PBLs, BM, and lymph node throughout the 30 weeks of study and it appeared to be resistant to superinfection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)"
08/09/1985 - "Some problem areas persist in these studies: the interpretation of comparative studies in which a large number of cases were eliminated because of "unevaluability," superinfections due to gram-positive organisms that may require or necessitate addition of agents like vancomycin, and the emergence of resistance as seen in three groups of organisms--Pseudomonas, Serratia, and Enterobacter species. "
01/01/2004 - "There was no significant difference between the two treatment groups with respect to age, underlying diseases, acute physical and chronic health evaluation score, intensive care unit admission, presence of sepsis, community or hospital acquisition, causative organism, duration of therapy, death, cure or improvement in infection, adverse events, superinfections, presence of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) and resistance to therapy. "
03/01/1991 - "Superinfection was observed in five patients treated with vancomycin and two patients treated with teicoplanin. "
01/01/1991 - "Compared to cefazolin, initial peritonitis therapy with vancomycin improved the peritonitis resolution rate [67% vs 81%; p = 0.008], reduced the incidence of hospital admissions [68% vs 48%; p = 0.001], and decreased the risk of superinfection [4% vs 0%; p = 0.039]. "
08/01/1996 - "The overall frequency of superinfections was similar with both regimens, but Clostridium difficile colitis occurred significantly more often in patients receiving imipenem plus vancomycin (5 vs. 0, p = 0.02). "
|9.||Penicillins (Penicillin)FDA Link
12/14/1963 - "THE EFFICACY OF PENICILLIN REGIMENS, WITH OBSERVATIONS ON THE FREQUENCY OF SUPERINFECTION."
02/01/1970 - "Penicillin-induced spheroplasts of Salmonella typhimurium strain LT2 lysogenic for bacteriophage P22, appear to lose immunity to superinfection by homologous phage."
11/01/1981 - "A critical survey of the results leads to the suggestion that four changes should be made in the approach to antibiotic therapy: 1) elimination of the practice of "preventive" therapy in the form of "initial cover"; 2) withdrawals on admission for bacteriological determinations; 3) abstention or administration of a low-toxicity antibiotic (one of the penicillins) in the case of "minor" infection; 4) employment of potent bactericides of the aminoglycoside group or the polymixines only in cases of superinfection with evidence of septicaemia supported by an antibiogram. "
04/25/1954 - "[Cyclic penicillin therapy of scarlet fever as a prophylaxis against complications due to superinfection]."
01/01/1958 - " most serious problems are anaphylactic sensitivity phenomena and superinfection or cross-infection with penicillin-resistant organisms, and the reactions involved range in intensity from the mildest to the fatal; the incidence of the latter is estimated at 0.1-0.3 per million injections. "
|10.||Immunoglobulin M (IgM)IBA
01/01/1998 - "The aim of the present study was to re-evaluate the correlation of total anti-HDV and IgM anti-HDV with HDV viraemia based on RT-PCR and to assess the clinical significance of these markers in acute and chronic HDV superinfection. "
01/01/1998 - "In summary, IgM and a high titre total of anti-HDV are not good markers of HDV viraemia, but an anti-HDV titre of > or = 100 appears to be an excellent marker for the differentiation of acute from chronic HDV superinfection."
11/01/1990 - "Low molecular weight (7-8S) IgM anti-HBc was observed more frequently in HDV superinfection (5/9) and was related to a low mortality (1/9). "
03/01/1988 - "All HDV-positive patients with available serum had superinfection with the delta agent as confirmed by a negative anti-HBc IgM assay. "
12/01/1986 - "Following superinfection with HDV either stationary or fluctuating levels of IgM antibody were demonstrated. "
|1.||Transplantation (Transplant Recipients)
01/01/1988 - "After transplantation, the frequency of reactivation (or superinfection) by CMV is high. "
11/01/1987 - "Reports in human transplantation indicate that superinfection of a seropositive recipient does occur, however the frequency is unknown. "
05/27/2005 - "Liver-transplant recipients with CMV infection, including high-risk R-/D+ patients, when followed using the preemptive therapy approach had no significant difference in meaningful outcomes such as opportunistic superinfections, HCV recurrence rates, rejection, and survival when compared with the patients in whom CMV infection never developed and who did not receive antiviral prophylaxis for CMV."
01/01/1993 - "Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most frequent infectious complication observed in renal-transplant recipients and induces a significant morbidity in these patients due to CMV disease itself and to associated renal dysfunction or opportunistic superinfection. "
09/01/1991 - "The mortality of primary CMV infection was 54% and this was associated with a significantly higher rate of pulmonary superinfections in the first year after transplantation. "
05/01/2010 - "Hepatitis C virus superinfection of liver grafts: a detailed analysis of early exclusion of non-dominant virus strains."
02/27/1999 - "Long-term impact of superinfection by hepatitis G virus in hepatitis C virus-positive renal transplant patients."
01/01/1996 - "[Alveolar lavage cytological data in lung transplants free of bronchial superinfection. "
01/01/1991 - "CMV is associated with superinfection with opportunistic organisms, graft failure and increased mortality. "
11/01/1987 - "In a murine transplant model, superinfection of a seropositive recipient with a second strain is unusual. "
01/01/2013 - "Superinfection occurred in participants of both groups (5/66 in the oral group versus 4/58 in the parenteral group; RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.33 to 3.60; three trials, 124 participants).Single trials with few participants found no statistical significant differences for remission or adverse events for the following four comparisons: oral only versus parenteral plus oral administration; parenteral plus oral versus parenteral only administration; two different parenteral antibiotic regimens; and two different oral antibiotic regimens. "
06/01/1985 - "Two superinfections of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt due to Enterobacteriaceae have been cured. "
02/26/1981 - "Among these 12 patients, 4 infants (aged 3 to 28 days) had neonatal meningitis (due to Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli); one infant (2 months old) had meningitis due to Salmonella panama; 5 children (aged 5 to 11 months) had meningitis due to Haemophilus; and 2 children had belated superinfection caused by a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt due to Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. "
|5.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
01/01/1989 - "These features may explain low reported rates of superinfections and adverse side-effects, including resistance arising on chemotherapy. "
01/01/1985 - "The recent literature was reviewed with regard to the risks of superinfection following beta-lactam chemotherapy. "
01/01/1985 - "Gram-positive superinfections following beta-lactam chemotherapy: the significance of the enterococcus."
01/01/1985 - "With respect to the obtained results it is necessary to increase the volume of the representative sample of cultures in bacteriological diagnosis of open processes, to protect them reliably from superinfection, to follow up dynamically changes in the composition of causative agents and to provide for suitable correction of chemotherapy."
03/01/1983 - "Empiric therapy should be designed for treatment of the most likely etiologic organisms while minimizing the potential adverse effects of "shotgun" therapy: drug toxicity, superinfection, and excessive cost. "