|2.||Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)
|1.||Arlt, Wiebke: 5 articles (07/2010 - 08/2004)|
|2.||New, Maria I: 5 articles (03/2009 - 04/2004)|
|3.||Flück, Christa E: 4 articles (06/2014 - 01/2008)|
|4.||Lin, Lin: 4 articles (07/2012 - 08/2006)|
|5.||Achermann, John C: 4 articles (07/2012 - 08/2006)|
|6.||Hiort, O: 4 articles (01/2012 - 08/2000)|
|7.||Holterhus, P-M: 4 articles (01/2012 - 09/2002)|
|8.||Nordenström, Anna: 4 articles (08/2010 - 01/2007)|
|9.||Renfree, Marilyn B: 4 articles (05/2006 - 01/2002)|
|10.||Shaw, Geoffrey: 4 articles (05/2006 - 01/2002)|
|1.||Testosterone (Sustanon)FDA Link
10/01/1999 - "Adult transgenic mice chronically overexpressing MIS exhibit severe gonadal abnormalities and, in males, dramatically reduced levels of testosterone, which might lead to the incomplete virilization observed in some of the males. "
08/01/1978 - "As a consequence, it was found that testosterone was the most effective for virilization."
02/01/1981 - "Virilization was shown to result from increased secretion rather than decreased clearance of gonadal testosterone. "
12/01/2013 - "In this study, we determined the consequences of developmental androgenization in male mice exposed to neonatal testosterone (NTM). "
11/01/2013 - "High levels of testosterone during early development have been hypothesized to be a risk factor for ASDs, supported by several studies showing fetal testosterone levels, as well as indirect measures of prenatal androgenization, to be associated with ASDs and autistic-like traits (ALTs). "
|2.||Dexamethasone (Maxidex)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2006 - "The expected outcome at birth in a female fetus with CAH who has been treated with adequate amounts of dexamethasone is normal-appearing genitalia or at least a significant reduction in virilization for which genitoplasty is unlikely to be required. "
03/05/2009 - "Appropriate prenatal treatment by dexamethasone administration to the at-risk pregnant mother is effective in reducing genital virilization in the fetus, thus avoiding unnecessary genitoplasty in affected females. "
05/01/2007 - "Appropriate dexamethasone administration to the at-risk pregnant mother is effective in reducing genital virilization in the fetus, and thus avoids unnecessary genitoplasty in affected females. "
12/01/2001 - "Dexamethasone administered at or before 9 wk gestation (in proper doses) was effective in reducing virilization. "
04/01/1999 - "Dexamethasone administered at or before 10 weeks of gestation (23 affected female fetuses) was effective in reducing virilization. "
12/01/2001 - "The main effects of androgens are a virilization of females by imposex development and a marked decrease of the fecundity. "
01/01/2012 - "Following surgical treatment the plasma androgens dropped to normal levels, and signs and symptoms of virilization improved. "
03/01/2014 - "Androgens are considered the main culprit of PCOS, and therefore, androgenization of animals is the most frequently used approach to induce symptoms that resemble PCOS. "
02/01/2014 - "In case of female karyotype, the prenatal surplus of androgens causes virilization of the external genitalia. "
12/01/2013 - "High levels of androgens in women may cause virilization of the larynx and a masculine voice. "
12/27/1974 - "In male pseudohermaphrodites born with ambiguity of the external genitalia but with marked virilization at puberty, biochemical evaluation reveals a marked decrease in plasma dihydrotestosterone secondary to a decrease in steroid 5alpha-reductase activity. "
09/01/2012 - "This study presents an in-depth reproductive analysis of a murine model of prenatal androgenization (PNA) in which females are exposed to a low dose of dihydrotestosterone during late prenatal development on embryonic d 16.5-18.5. "
03/01/1997 - "This study examines the role of dihydrotestosterone in virilization of the developing male tammar. "
09/01/2012 - "To assess the importance of the window of androgen exposure, dihydrotestosterone was administered to a separate cohort of female mice on postnatal d 21-23 [prepubertal androgenization (PPA)]. "
01/01/2007 - "In fetuses with 21-OHD, a proportion of increased 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone may be converted to dihydrotestosterone through the backdoor pathway and contribute to the virilization of female fetuses. "
09/01/1983 - "Whether or not the behavioral benefits reported by these men represented a direct or synergistic effect of gonadotropin in the expression of erotosexual behavior or an indirect effect of improved virilization can not be answered by these data."
04/01/1999 - "We treated 37 hypogonadal adolescents with gonadotropins (hCG/hMG), to obtain complete virilization during the first two years of treatment, to avoid psychological sequellae and to allow normal sexual development. "
02/01/1998 - "Postmenopausal virilization in a woman with gonadotropin dependent ovarian hyperthecosis."
04/01/1988 - "We conclude that neonatal androgenization defeminizes the neuroendocrine mechanisms controlling gonadotropin release."
09/01/1983 - "These data suggest that complete virilization in these men was partially gonadotropin dependent. "
|6.||Steroid 21-Hydroxylase (21 Hydroxylase)IBA
06/01/2015 - "Nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency (NC21OHD) manifests with various degrees of post natal virilization. "
01/01/2015 - "The most common type is associated with mutations in the CYP21A2 gene, encoding 21-hydroxylase enzyme and has different clinical forms: Classical (in which there are two types: salt wasting and simple virilization) and non-classical, characterized by less severe symptoms and late onset. "
01/01/2013 - "Prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) treatment of the female fetus with 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) may prevent genital virilization and androgen effects on the brain, but prenatal GC therapy is controversial because of possible adverse effects on fetal programming, the cardiovascular system and the brain. "
05/01/2012 - "Postnatal virilization in sick premature girls may occur, and investigations may suggest 21-hydroxylase deficiency. "
05/01/2012 - "Postnatal virilization mimicking 21-hydroxylase deficiency in 3 very premature infants."
|7.||Hydrocortisone (Cortisol)FDA LinkGeneric
06/01/2006 - "The association of sensitizing the GR variant with impaired cortisol production in CAH might be compensatory in mild NC-CAH and may prevent severe intrauterine virilization in classical form. "
12/01/2000 - "Hydrocortisone substitution was considered at the age of 6 months, when virilization became obvious. "
05/01/1990 - "Patients with Cushing's syndrome had increased levels of cortisol metabolites and those with virilism had raised excretion of androgen metabolites. "
11/01/2002 - "These data raise the possibility of de novo cortisol biosynthesis during the first trimester of human development and are relevant to the pathophysiology of 46,XX virilization in CYP21 deficiency."
10/26/1999 - "Owing to the blocked enzymatic step, cortisol precursors accumulate in excess and are converted to potent androgens, which are secreted and cause in utero virilization of the affected female fetus genitalia in the classical form of CAH. "
|8.||Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH)FDA Link
09/01/2012 - "These results show that males can be responsive to prenatal androgenization and suggest that treatment transiently alters the amplitude of LH pulses probably as the result of defects in the pituitary responsiveness pattern or in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release pattern."
07/01/2006 - "All regimens include an androgen to maintain virilization, while in many the suppression of gonadotrophins/spermatogenesis is augmented by the addition of another anti-gonadotrophic agent (progestin, GnRH antagonist). "
12/01/1997 - "Neonatal androgenization of the hypothalamus may decrease the hypophyseal response to GnRH by an alteration in receptor concentration and signal transduction during the infantile period. "
04/01/1996 - "Use of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in the evaluation of postmenopausal virilization due to ovarian hyperthecosis. "
01/01/1992 - "Since the size of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area of the hypothalamus (SDN-POA) and the degree of pituitary sensitivity to GnRH are neuroendocrine markers of neonatal androgenization, we compared these to AGD in castrated adult male and female rats. "
|9.||17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone (17 Hydroxyprogesterone)IBA
11/01/1999 - "We describe a newborn female that, despite severe virilization, only had a borderline elevation in 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) on newborn screening, as well as on initial confirmatory testing in our clinical laboratory. "
01/01/1992 - "Besides the conventional metabolites of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OH-PO(5 beta), PT and 11-O-PT), no 17OH-PO(5 alpha) was detected in the urines of 14 patients with precocious pubarche, in 14 patients with virilization of unknown origin and in 94 healthy children of comparable age. "
09/10/1989 - "Measurement of blood-spot 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) concentration was used to identify cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) among patients with inappropriate virilization and/or salt wasting. "
09/01/1956 - "17-Alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and the virilism of the adrenogenital syndrome associated with congenital adrenocortical hyperplasia; a review."
01/01/2005 - "Degree of female genital virilization, 17-hydroxyprogesterone level at diagnosis, and fludrocortisone requirement during the 1st year of treatment correlated with the genotype, although Asian Null patients required more fludrocortisone than their white counterparts (p = 0.055). "
12/01/2004 - "The purpose of the present report was to study the possible relationship between ovarian functionality and the immune response during cystogenesis induced by androgenization with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). "
01/01/1991 - "[Inhibition by dehydroepiandrosterone of aggression responses of spayed female mice towards lactating intruders is potentiated by neonatal androgenization]."
08/01/1970 - "Virilization of the external genitalia of the female rat fetus by dehydroepiandrosterone."
01/01/1979 - "Following removal of the adenoma, T returned to normal levels but DHEA-S was still above normal at 4100 ng/ml. The patient became eumenorrheic with marked improvement at her hirsutism and virilization."
01/01/2005 - "The absence of virilization at the second episode was due to the relatively low serum level of testosterone compared with that of DHEA-S. "
01/01/2009 - "These sex differences were eliminated by neonatal castration in males or by neonatal androgenization in females. "
03/01/1990 - "The purpose of the paper is to study sex differences in the level of monoamines in the nuclei of the preoptic area and in the mediobasal hypothalamus during pubescence of rats, and the influence of female neonatal androgenization and castration of male animals on the monoaminergic cerebral system. "
01/01/2001 - "androgenization of female and castration of male rats, were only able to induce a partial reversal of the original sex-dependent growth pattern. "
09/28/2000 - "Possible functional changes over the estrus cycle and the potential effects of castration and androgenization are assessed. "
10/01/1993 - "We advocate early castration because of the high incidence of germ cell neoplasia and the possibility of virilization in case of incomplete androgenic resistance. "
12/01/1988 - "Early postnatal (Day 1 after birth) orchidectomy in males, and androgenization in females, eliminated and reversed these differences. "
01/01/1991 - "The purpose of the present study was to identify the existence of sexual dimorphism in the dendritic field of accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells in rats and to investigate the effects of male orchidectomy and female androgenization on the day of birth upon this dendritic field. "
01/01/2013 - "Although existing data are limited, early orchiectomy is likely to result in retention of female gender identity, avoiding the complications related to virilization in adolescence. "
01/01/1991 - "Orchidectomy of males, as well as androgenization of females, on the day of birth inverted these differences."
01/01/1991 - "In contrast, in Experiment 3 female androgenization and male orchidectomy on day one after birth reversed the direction of sex differences found between control rats in the extinction period. "
08/01/1989 - "This study shows that weekly injections of hCG are effective in achieving virilization in hypogonadotropic hypogonadic males, leading to a greater testicular growth than T preparations. "
05/18/1981 - "The androgenization of a more belonging to a social group where it held a stable hierarchic rank, or a mare recently admitted to this group, increases their status in the hierarchic order and the position acquired is subsequently maintained; in some cases, they continue to rise in the hierarchic order long after the injections of male hormones has been stopped. "
01/01/2013 - "A dramatic regression of virilization features occurred after adrenalectomy."
04/01/1948 - "Adrenal virilism (group I) bilateral partial adrenalectomy."
06/17/1939 - "Paranoid Psychosis: Adrenogenital Virilism: Adrenalectomy."
12/01/2007 - "Two cases were managed with adrenalectomy because of increasing adrenal tumor size and virilization. "
11/01/2005 - "Soon after our experience with this patient, a girl with known NF-1 presented with virilization; adrenalectomy disclosed an ACC and systemic metastases were found within months. "