|2.||Typhoid Fever (Typhoid)
|3.||Salmonella Infections (Salmonellosis)
|5.||Bacillary Dysentery (Shigellosis)
|1.||Baker, Stephen: 20 articles (11/2015 - 01/2010)|
|2.||Clemens, John D: 20 articles (11/2015 - 12/2002)|
|3.||Parry, Christopher M: 19 articles (10/2015 - 03/2004)|
|4.||Farrar, Jeremy J: 17 articles (05/2015 - 07/2002)|
|5.||Ochiai, R Leon: 15 articles (05/2014 - 09/2004)|
|6.||Levine, Myron M: 14 articles (08/2015 - 01/2003)|
|7.||Basnyat, Buddha: 14 articles (05/2015 - 01/2004)|
|8.||Wain, John: 14 articles (01/2014 - 07/2002)|
|9.||Acosta, Camilo J: 12 articles (05/2014 - 09/2004)|
|10.||Ali, Mohammad: 11 articles (11/2015 - 04/2003)|
|1.||Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin)FDA Link
01/01/1993 - "Hence chloramphenicol still remains the drug of first choice in enteric fever as a majority (68.4%--26 out of 38) of our bacteriologically proven enteric fever patients were cured by the drug. "
01/01/1982 - "Chloramphenicol is still very effective for acute enteric fever. "
03/01/1992 - "Plasma trough and peak chloramphenicol concentrations were measured by HPLC analysis after 42 hrs. The 50 mg/kg/day dosage schedule was terminated midway through the study, as blood levels were consistently low and two patients with typhoid relapsed, children with typhoid had significantly lower clearance of CS in comparison with those with non-typhoidal illness (0.29 +/- 0.1 versus 0.5 +/- 0.37 1/kg/hr, P 0.05). "
12/01/1995 - "Chloramphenicol has remained clinically an effective treatment for enteric fever, despite the high prevalence of in vitro resistance, and should remain the drug of choice. "
04/01/2004 - "Chloramphenicol is still effective for typhoid fever. "
07/01/1988 - "Attenuated strains of Salmonella have been used effectively as vaccines against typhoid fever. "
10/01/2010 - "New vaccines, offering protection against both agents of enteric fever, are urgently needed; however, none of the current vaccine candidates is likely to be available for several years."
01/01/2014 - "Vaccines should be prioritized for control of typhoid in conjunction with improved water and sanitation conditions in Nepal and in endemic countries of Asia and Africa. "
01/01/2010 - "Licensed vaccines, such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi capsular Vi, did not confer protection against typhoid fever for this age group. "
01/10/1998 - "Neither the age of vaccine recipient nor the incidence of typhoid fever in the control group (varying from 6 to 810 cases per 100,000 person years) affected the efficacy of the whole cell or Ty21a vaccines. "
|3.||Ofloxacin (Levofloxacin)FDA LinkGeneric
04/01/1995 - "A 3-day course of ofloxacin proved to be safe and highly effective in the treatment of uncomplicated, multidrug-resistant typhoid fever."
09/01/1994 - "Ofloxacin was found to be well tolerated and effective in treating typhoid fever."
01/01/1990 - "Ofloxacin was well tolerated and appears to be an effective agent in the treatment of typhoid fever."
01/01/1988 - "Ofloxacin was particularly effective in the treatment of enteric fever in 35 patients; eradication was achieved in all of them; 34 patients were clinically cured within 4 days, however, one patient with bacteraemia due to Salmonella paratyphi A subsequently died, due to his underlying disorder. "
01/01/1986 - "Ofloxacin was also effective in the treatment of enteric fever, in which eradication was achieved in all seven patients. "
|4.||Ciprofloxacin (Cipro)FDA LinkGeneric
10/01/2006 - "Typhi strain which demonstrated high-level ciprofloxacin resistance with a MIC of 16 mug/ml. A knowledge of the seasonal distribution and antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella in a particular geographical region is helpful in the delineation of appropriate control measures required for prevention of enteric fever."
01/01/1992 - "There were no significant adverse effects indicating that ciprofloxacin is safe and effective drug for resistant and nonresistant cases of typhoid fever."
05/01/1989 - "Ciprofloxacin is an effective agent for the treatment of enteric fever."
01/01/1993 - "Ciprofloxacin proved to be a safe and effective drug for the treatment of multidrug resistant enteric fever."
03/01/2011 - "Mucoadhesive nanosuspension of ciprofloxacin was designed in order to improve the solubility, bioavailability and efficacy for the treatment of typhoid fever. "
|5.||Ceftriaxone (Ceftriaxon)FDA LinkGeneric
12/01/1996 - "Although a 14-day course of ceftriaxone can be used successfully to treat most children hospitalized with MDR typhoid, there is a need to evaluate the role of short-course therapy or alternative therapeutic agents."
04/01/2015 - "Blood culture confirmed the diagnosis of typhoid and the patient was treated successfully with ceftriaxone. "
04/01/2003 - "Although the efficacy of ceftriaxone in typhoid fever is well documented, the precise duration of ceftriaxone therapy in children with typhoid fever is not established and varies from 3 to 14 days in the literature. "
05/01/2012 - "The blood culture reports, however, were reported to grow colonies of Salmonella paratyphi A; thus the diagnosis of the patient was changed to enteric fever, and the patient improved on the subsequently started therapy of ceftriaxone 2,000 mg bid. "
02/01/1995 - "These results extend previous observations on the efficacy of ceftriaxone in short courses for both adults and children with typhoid fever."
|6.||Azithromycin (Zithromax)FDA LinkGeneric
10/01/2015 - "Azithromycin is effective for the management of uncomplicated typhoid fever and may serve as an alternative oral drug in areas where fluoroquinolone resistance is common. "
04/01/2004 - "A 5-day course of azithromycin was found to be an effective treatment for uncomplicated typhoid fever in children and adolescents."
11/01/2000 - "Oral azithromycin administered once daily appears to be effective for the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever in children. "
01/01/2014 - "Limited information is available regarding the clinical efficacy of azithromycin for the treatment of enteric fever due to fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi among travelers returning to their home countries. "
04/01/2012 - "A meta-analysis comparing the safety and efficacy of azithromycin over the alternate drugs used for treatment of uncomplicated enteric fever."
|7.||Ampicillin (Omnipen)FDA LinkGeneric
10/01/1991 - "The role of ampicillin as a first line treatment for acute typhoid fever may need further re-evaluation."
07/17/1965 - "CLINICAL TRIALS WITH AMPICILLIN IN TYPHOID FEVER AND PARATYPHOID A."
04/01/2006 - "Antimicrobial susceptibility data and MIC distribution favour use of ampicillin as a drug of choice for the treatment of enteric fever. "
01/01/2000 - "Typhoid fever was treated with ampicillin. "
10/01/1976 - "[Effectiveness of ampicillin in pullorosis-typhoid of chickens]."
|8.||Salmonella capsular polysaccharideIBA
08/03/2012 - "Vaccination strategies are important for prevention, and the Vi capsular polysaccharide (ViCPS) vaccine has been shown to be effective in reducing the burden of typhoid fever. "
12/01/2005 - "Efficacy of a locally produced, Chinese Vi polysaccharide typhoid fever vaccine during six years of follow-up."
09/29/2014 - "In this study it was shown that conjugation of PspA to Vi enhanced the anti-PspA response and that PspA was a suitable carrier protein as demonstrated by the characteristics of a T-cell dependent response to the Vi. We propose that a bivalent vaccine consisting of PspA from families 1 and 2 bound to Vi polysaccharide would protect against typhoid fever and has the potential to also protect against pneumococcal disease and should be considered for use in developing countries. "
01/01/2014 - "Vi polysaccharide vaccine (injection, one dose) A single dose of Vi polysaccharide vaccine prevents around two-thirds of typhoid cases in the first year after vaccination (Year 1: 69%, 95% CI 63% to 74%; three trials, 99,979 participants; high quality evidence). "
01/01/2007 - "Trial participation and vaccine desirability for Vi polysaccharide typhoid fever vaccine in Hue City, Viet Nam."
06/08/2004 - "Immunization studies with five particularly attractive candidates revealed two highly protective antigens that might permit the development of an improved typhoid fever vaccine. "
09/01/1972 - "[Study on chimpanzees on the efficacy of an oral typhoid immunization with an inactivated antigen]."
01/01/2012 - "Here, we tested 37 broadly conserved Salmonella antigens in a mouse typhoid fever model, and identified antigen candidates that conferred partial protection against lethal disease. "
04/01/2011 - "Studies on the structure of this antigen are important to elucidate its function, which will in turn increase the efficiency of the development and improvement of the typhoid detection test. "
03/01/2000 - "This phase 2 study supports the further development of CVD 908-htrA as a single-dose vaccine against typhoid fever and as a possible live vector for oral delivery of other vaccine antigens."
|10.||Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines (Typhoid Vaccines)FDA Link
01/01/2014 - "A major obstacle in the development of improved typhoid, as well as paratyphoid vaccines is the lack of known immunological correlates of protection in humans. "
02/01/1990 - "Typhoid vaccine efficacy for tourists was calculated and showed an overall protective rate of 90% against enteric fever in general, 95% protection against S typhi, and 72% to 75% protection against S paratyphi A. "
01/01/2014 - "25 years after Vi typhoid vaccine efficacy study, typhoid affects significant number of population in Nepal."
04/01/2012 - "We analysed the data from the control group in a typhoid vaccine trial in Karachi to assess the differences in individual-, household- and cluster-level characteristics for developing typhoid fever. "
12/01/2009 - "We conducted a study on 1,000 individuals resident in an area at high-risk for typhoid; vaccinated them with the typhoid vaccine, measured their antibody response to the vaccine, assayed >2,000 curated SNPs chosen from 283 genes that are known to participate in immune-response; and analyzed these data using a strategy to (a) minimize the statistical problems associated with testing of multiple hypotheses, and (b) internally cross-validate inferences, using a half-sample design, with little loss of statistical power. "
04/01/2014 - "The incidence of complications including faecal fistula was 2.6% in group I (free omental sheet graft group) versus 32.89% in group II. The mortality rate of 2.6% was also lower in group I versus 19.7% in group II. This study concludes that the use of free omental sheet graft on typhoid enteric perforation site is effective in lowering the repair leak rate and thereby decreases the morbidity and mortality associated with these procedures. "
04/01/2014 - "The study was divided in two groups; group I includes 38 cases in which a free omental sheet graft was used in typhoid enteritis with perforation and group II includes 76 cases in which other surgical procedures for enteric perforation repair were used. "
04/01/2014 - "The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a free omental sheet graft in perforated typhoid enteritis, in comparison to other methods of enteric perforation repair in terms of decreased morbidity, mortality and cost-effectiveness. "
01/01/1988 - "Non-typhoid salmonellosis in renal transplant patients. "
02/15/2001 - "Non-typhoid Salmonella septicemia and visceral leishmaniasis in a renal transplant patient."
03/01/2008 - "This study was undertaken to establish whether the Onderstepoort Biological Products Fowl Typhoid (OBPft) vaccine registered as an injectable vaccine was effective and safe when administered orally to commercial layers. "
11/01/2004 - "A vaccine for typhoid is now available in either oral or injectable versions. "
06/01/2012 - "For polio, typhoid and influenza, in which the pathogens reach the blood stream, there is also an injectable vaccine alternative. "
07/01/2011 - "In this study, levofloxacin was found to be the most effective drug in both oral and injectable form in one-week treatment of uncomplicated typhoid."
01/01/1971 - "The number of injections in primary immunization and postvaccination immunity from the results of controlled field trials with typhoid and paratyphoid B vaccines."
06/01/2010 - "The purpose of this report is to evaluate the efficacy of primary ileostomy for treatment of typhoid-related ileal perforation based on our experience. "
06/01/2010 - "In our department, primary ileostomy for typhoid-related ileal perforation reduced mortality despite high morbidity."
06/01/2010 - "Primary ileostomy was used for treatment of typhoid-related ileal perforation in 78.5% of cases. "
06/01/2010 - "This retrospective study included all cases of typhoid-related ileal perforation treated by primary ileostomy in the Visceral Surgery Department of the Yalgado Ouedraogo Teaching Hospital in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from January 2006 to June 2008. "
06/01/2010 - "[Primary ileostomy for typhoid-related ileal perforation: a 62-case series in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso]."
12/01/2000 - "Children under 6 years of age diagnosed as typhoid fever on the basis of a positive Widal test were recruited in the outpatient department of a paediatric teaching hospital after treatment had been initiated. "
07/01/1976 - "Relapse of typhoid fever, as documented by positive blood culture, occurred in one patient 11 days after treatment course was completed. "
08/08/1970 - "A convalescent typhoid excretor also remained clear of infection after treatment as well as two other salmonella carriers, one of whom has been a chronic carrier for 24 years."
02/15/2001 - "Nearly 2 years after the transplantation, the patient developed recurrent attacks of fever, which were initially diagnosed as non-typhoid salmonellosis and improved after treatment. "
04/01/1967 - "[Prevalence of typhoid carriers after treatment with chloramphenicol]."