Turner Syndrome (Turner's Syndrome)

A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.
Also Known As:
Turner's Syndrome; Bonnevie Ullrich Syndrome; Status Bonnevie-Ullrich; Status Bonnevie Ullrich; Turners Syndrome; XO Gonadal Dysgenesis; Bonnevie-Ullrich Syndrome; Gonadal Dysgenesis, 45,X; Gonadal Dysgenesis, XO
Networked: 1389 relevant articles (27 outcomes, 165 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Edema
2. Aortic Coarctation
3. Down Syndrome (Down's Syndrome)
4. Klinefelter Syndrome (Klinefelter's Syndrome)
5. Trisomy (Trisomies)


1. Nicolaides, K H: 16 articles (06/2013 - 05/2000)
2. Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg: 15 articles (07/2015 - 01/2002)
3. Ross, Judith L: 15 articles (01/2015 - 06/2002)
4. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M P F: 14 articles (10/2014 - 03/2003)
5. Ranke, Michael B: 13 articles (06/2015 - 01/2004)
6. Bondy, Carolyn A: 13 articles (01/2015 - 09/2003)
7. Christiansen, Jens Sandahl: 11 articles (07/2015 - 06/2002)
8. Quigley, Charmian A: 11 articles (01/2015 - 05/2002)
9. Sas, Theo C J: 11 articles (10/2014 - 12/2002)
10. Bakalov, Vladimir K: 11 articles (10/2012 - 09/2003)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Turner Syndrome:
1. Growth Hormone (Somatotropin)IBA
2. Oxandrolone (Anavar)FDA LinkGeneric
3. Human Growth Hormone (Saizen)FDA LinkGeneric
4. Glucose (Dextrose)FDA LinkGeneric
5. Estrogens (Estrogen)FDA Link
6. somatrem (Protropin)FDA Link
7. familial Nuchal blebIBA
8. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)IBA
9. HormonesIBA
10. Estradiol (Estrace)FDA LinkGeneric

Therapies and Procedures

1. Estrogen Replacement Therapy
2. Stents
3. Hormone Replacement Therapy (Therapy, Hormone Replacement)
4. Injections
5. Ovariectomy (Oophorectomy)
11/01/2014 - "Oophorectomy versus salpingo-oophorectomy in Turner syndrome patients with Y-chromosome material: clinical experience and current practice patterns assessment."
06/01/2006 - "Twenty women with POF: six had Turner syndrome (group A); eight had iatrogenic POF either secondary to bilateral oophorectomy or treatment of malignancy (group B); and six had idiopathic POF (group C). "
06/01/1998 - "They include Turner's syndrome, anorexia nervosa, ovarian dysfunction, oophorectomy, GnRH agonist therapy, and osteoporosis associated with pregnancy. "
03/01/2002 - "Testosterone deficiency in women may result from a variety of conditions, including oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, adrenal disease, pituitary disease, HIV infection, premature ovarian failure, Turner's syndrome, and the use of high-dose corticosteroids and some estrogen preparations. "
06/01/1998 - "Several studies have found osteoporosis to be a common complication of Turner's syndrome and hormone replacement therapy has been used as a possible management; in anorexic patient, low body weight, prolonged amenorrhea, early onset of anorexia nervosa, and hypercortisolism have been reported to be risks for bone demineralization; since oophorectomy which is a common intervention in gynecology leads osteoporosis, it is important to prevent osteoporosis caused by surgery as well as postmenopausal osteoporosis; GnRH agonist, which induces estrogen deficient state and affect bone mass, is commonly used as a management for endometriosis and leiomyoma of uterus; associated with pregnancy, post-pregnancy spinal osteoporosis and transient osteoporosis of the hip are clinically considered to be important and heparin therapy and magnesium sulfate therapy are commonly employed during pregnancy, affecting calcium homeostasis."