|3.||Leprosy (Hansen's Disease)
|4.||Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
|5.||HIV Infections (HIV Infection)
|1.||Kaufmann, Stefan H E: 78 articles (11/2015 - 12/2002)|
|2.||Jacobs, William R: 75 articles (07/2015 - 03/2002)|
|3.||Wilkinson, Robert J: 69 articles (08/2015 - 03/2002)|
|4.||Bishai, William R: 66 articles (12/2015 - 06/2002)|
|5.||Andersen, Peter: 64 articles (11/2015 - 02/2002)|
|6.||Besra, Gurdyal S: 64 articles (10/2015 - 04/2002)|
|7.||Zumla, Alimuddin: 60 articles (10/2015 - 10/2003)|
|8.||Zhang, Ying: 59 articles (09/2015 - 01/2002)|
|9.||Ottenhoff, Tom H M: 56 articles (11/2015 - 05/2002)|
|10.||Orme, Ian M: 56 articles (03/2015 - 02/2002)|
|1.||Isoniazid (Ftivazide)FDA LinkGeneric
04/16/2015 - "Isoniazid is reported to be the most reliable and cost-effective remedy for tuberculosis treatment and prophylaxis among first line anti-tuberculosis drugs. "
01/01/1991 - "The parenteral administration of isoniazid in combination with other drugs was shown to be highly beneficial in disseminated form of tuberculosis in children."
05/01/1952 - "[Remarkable efficacy of isonicotinic acid hydrazide in a case of lingual tuberculosis and a case of ano-rectal tuberculosis]."
04/01/2005 - "The optimal duration of preventive therapy with single drug isoniazid, daily or twice weekly, should be greater than six months to provide the maximum degree of protection against tuberculosis. "
01/23/2014 - "Analysis of the direct effect of isoniazid in 10,909 miners showed a reduced incidence of tuberculosis during treatment (1.10 cases per 100 person-years among miners receiving isoniazid vs. 2.91 cases per 100 person-years among controls; adjusted rate ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.88; P=0.03), but there was a subsequent rapid loss of protection. "
02/15/2013 - "Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin, the only vaccine available against tuberculosis (TB), induces highly variable protection against TB, and better TB vaccines are urgently needed. "
05/01/2005 - "Technologic advancement in genome manipulation enables the construction of recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains, which can be employed as highly immunogenic vaccines against tuberculosis with improved safety profile."
06/01/1999 - "New vaccines against tuberculosis are urgently required because of the impressive incidence of this disease worldwide and the highly variable protective efficacy of the current vaccine. "
10/13/2011 - "The development of effective anti-Tuberculosis (TB) vaccines is an important step towards improved control of TB in high burden countries. "
03/01/2010 - "Thus, these data indicate that the experimental model is important in evaluating the protective efficacy of new vaccines and therapies against tuberculosis."
|3.||Rifampin (Rifampicin)FDA LinkGeneric
08/01/2011 - "The GeneXpert assay was highly effective for tuberculosis diagnosis and identification of rifampin-resistant strains in smear-negative samples."
11/01/2005 - "Rifampicin is one of the oldest and most effective chemotherapeutic agents available for the treatment of tuberculosis but exhibits variable bioavailability from separate and fixed dose combination formulations, which has been identified as a major bottleneck in the effective treatment of tuberculosis. "
01/01/2015 - "Although high-dose rifampicin holds promise for improving tuberculosis control by potentially shortening treatment duration, these effects attributed to eradication of persistent bacteria are unclear. "
07/01/2013 - "If tuberculosis (TB) is to be eliminated as a global health problem in the foreseeable future, improved detection of patients, earlier diagnosis and timely identification of rifampicin resistance will be critical. "
05/15/2013 - "Optimization of the rifampin dosage to improve the therapeutic efficacy in tuberculosis treatment using a murine model."
09/23/2013 - "The identification of these highly immunogenic TB antigens and antigen combinations should allow for improved immunization strategies against tuberculosis."
01/01/2013 - "Thus, how CD8(+) T cells contribute to overall immunity to tuberculosis and whether antigens recognized by CD8(+) T cells would enhance the efficacy of vaccine strategies continue to be important questions."
10/01/2003 - "Our observations suggest that the 38 kDa antigen may hold excellent promise in the rBCG approach for the development of a vaccine against tuberculosis."
01/01/2015 - "tuberculosis antigens shows promise for the rapid and quantitative serological detection of pulmonary TB."
09/01/2014 - "tuberculosis antigen 85B significantly enhanced r30ML-specific immune responses, substantially more so than boosting BCG, and significantly augmented protection against M. "
02/01/2005 - "tuberculosis in most tuberculin skin-test-negative adults at week 8, suggesting the immunological efficacy of vaccination."
09/01/2003 - "Monetary incentives are highly effective in increasing adherence to referral for screening CXRs to exclude active tuberculosis after syringe exchange-based tuberculin skin testing. "
08/01/1999 - "There is now strong evidence from several randomized controlled trials for the efficacy of preventive therapy in the prevention of tuberculosis in tuberculin skin test positive persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). "
07/01/2007 - "Until recently the tuberculin skin test was the only available method for diagnosing tuberculosis, however it suffers several methodological weaknesses: high rate of false positive results in vaccinated populations, the subjectivity of the evaluation and the booster effect. "
09/01/2006 - "The gold standard screening tool used to detect tuberculosis is the tuberculin test, which owes its popularity to its ease of administration and high sensitivity. "
|6.||BCG VaccineFDA Link
08/01/2015 - "The protective efficacy of bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) in adults is highly controversial even though the BCG vaccine has been available for more than 90 years. "
12/01/2014 - "The Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is the only vaccine proved to be effective against tuberculosis and it remains the most commonly used vaccine worldwide. "
08/01/2011 - "The efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in preventing adult tuberculosis (TB) is highly variable. "
10/01/2007 - "The vaccine provided remarkable protective efficacy in mouse compared to BCG vaccine, and improved the histopathological tuberculosis lesions. "
03/01/2015 - "BCG vaccine is not providing complete protection against tuberculosis. "
|7.||DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)IBA
02/01/1999 - "Our most recent studies indicate that DNA vaccination is an effective way to establish long-lasting cytotoxic T cell memory and protection against tuberculosis."
01/01/2004 - "The detection of MBT DNA in the blood by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a highly sensitive four-primed diagnostic kit established that 80 patients with tuberculosis had positive results and their decrease as the patient had a course of tuberculostatic therapy. "
12/08/2003 - "To determine the best method of hsp65 introduction for vaccination efficacy against tuberculosis (TB), we evaluated the immunogenicity and protection of DNA-hsp65 administered by gene gun bombardment or intramuscular (i.m.) injection of naked DNA. "
01/01/2003 - "PCR used to determine blood and urine MBT DNA is a highly specific test as positive results were in 79% of the children with tuberculosis."
06/01/2003 - "Despite the efficiency of complete DNA extraction for the rapid diagnosis by PCR of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the false-positive results challenge our understanding of PCR results."
|8.||butyl 3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)oxanilate (MTB)IBA
02/01/2014 - "Thus, exploring the molecular characteristics of MTB is helpful for understanding and controlling the spread of strains in areas with a high incidence of tuberculosis. "
01/01/2015 - "Thus, this novel method is shown to improve the detection limit and specificity of MTB from the sputum samples, and to reduce the testing time for accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis, which needs further confirmation of more clinical samples."
07/01/2014 - "This review summarizes the intricate network of TLR2-mediated signaling and Mycobacteria effectors involved in MTB-host interaction with an aim to find better target for improved tuberculosis control, especially the host-derived therapy targets. "
10/01/2007 - "Comparison between the two HIV groups also suggested better S-Mtb responses in those cured from tuberculosis. "
12/01/2015 - "Currently available tuberculosis (TB) drugs while effective in killing actively growing MTB, is largely ineffective in killing persistent or latent MTB. "
|9.||Anti-Bacterial Agents (Antibiotics)IBA
09/01/1995 - "Since the late 1960s, tuberculosis has been successfully cured with antibiotics. "
02/01/1997 - "Tuberculosis has been declining in developed countries for a long time, as a result of the intrinsic epidemiological characteristics of this disease, combined with improvement in the standard of living and more recently the use of antibiotics. "
10/01/2015 - "In addition, despite an effective treatment of drug sensitive tuberculosis with antibiotics, there are still indications for surgery in the treatment of tuberculosis. "
01/01/2015 - "Treatment for tuberculosis is effective with the use of proper antibiotics, but the number of drug-resistant cases is increasing. "
01/01/1994 - "Despite intensive treatment with new antibiotics against Mycobacteria Other Than Tuberculosis (MOTT) in 4 patients, the mycobacteria were not eradicated. "
05/01/2004 - "Pyrazinamide is unique amongst anti-tuberculosis drugs in having no genomic site of action and having greater bactericidal activity as bacillary metabolism slows down; it is remarkably effective in human disease. "
06/01/1991 - "Efficacy of intermittent pyrazinamide in experimental murine tuberculosis."
01/01/1968 - "[A comparative study of the chemotherapeutic efficacy of pyrazinamide and morphozinamide in experimental tuberculosis]."
02/01/2012 - "In a study performed in Cambodia, a higher number of tuberculosis (TB) strains with mutations in the pncA gene associated with pyrazinamide resistance (PZA-R) was found in fluoroquinolone-resistant (FQ-R) multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains (93%), compared with 47% in MDR and 3% in non-MDR strains. "
04/01/2011 - "Clinical studies are warranted to investigate the sterilizing activity and tolerability of higher doses of pyrazinamide in combination tuberculosis regimens."
|1.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
04/01/2005 - "Tuberculosis chemotherapy using standard short-course regimens is highly effective in both groups, and treatment follows the same principles. "
01/01/2003 - "Short-course chemotherapy is highly efficacious in treating tuberculosis (TB). "
05/01/2000 - "Improved case finding and diagnosis, coupled with best-practice short-course chemotherapy, could quickly and dramatically cut the number of years of healthy life lost due to tuberculosis, especially by preventing death."
04/01/1990 - "Standard antituberculous drug therapy is extremely effective in treating tuberculosis in this setting."
01/01/1980 - "Chemotherapy is then highly effective for ulcerative perianal tuberculosis."
03/01/1986 - "Chemoprophylaxis may be beneficial in patients from these ethnic groups or in any uremic patient with evidence of old tuberculosis. "
08/01/2013 - "Although greater interest in expatriate health issues has led to improved characterization of illness in this population, expatriate-specific risk mitigation strategies-including modifications to chemoprophylaxis recommendations, limiting tuberculosis exposure, and prevention of occupational or sexual blood-borne virus transmission-are poorly described. "
01/01/2009 - "Outpatient chemoprophylaxis reduces the severity of the disease, but is not always effective in preventing tuberculosis."
02/01/1998 - "Anti-tuberculosis chemoprophylaxis proved effective in this population."
01/01/1996 - "[Detection of tuberculosis in children of new risk groups and efficacy of chemoprophylaxis]."
|3.||Directly Observed Therapy
01/01/2012 - "Our findings highlight the need to develop and implement specific tuberculosis control strategies for urban migrants, such as more exhaustive case finding, improved case management and follow-up, and use of directly observed therapy (DOT)."
05/15/2006 - "The main challenges for future research are highlighted and in conclusion it is emphasized that the infrastructure provided by the directly observed therapy, short-course strategy, combined with well-targeted interventions, slightly improved resources, and greatly improved political commitment, may lead to a dramatic reduction in tuberculosis-related morbidity and mortality among children."
04/01/1997 - "Cost to both health service and patient can be substantially reduced by using community-based directly observed therapy for tuberculosis, a strategy that is cheap and cost-effective in Hlabisa. "
01/01/2010 - "The directly observed therapy-short course (DOTS) strategy was introduced in Shaanxi province, China to improve tuberculosis (TB) control by means of improved case detection (target: > = 70%) and treatment success rates (target: > = 85%) in new smear positive (SS+) TB patients. "
04/01/2012 - "Increasing directly observed therapy related to improved tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Taiwan."
07/01/2008 - "As a result the patient has been successfully treated with anti-tuberculosis combination therapy together with surgical debridement."
04/01/1992 - "Experiences of 882 cases with tuberculosis of lumbar spine treated by focal debridement during 1956-1986 all patients survived the operation and 661 patients were cured in our department were reported. "
01/01/2013 - "To evaluate the clinical study efficacy and feasibility of 11 children with tuberculosis of the upper cervical spine treated by one-stage posterior debridement, short-segment fusion, and posterior instrumentation. "
12/01/2012 - "To evaluate the clinical study efficacy and feasibility of 17 aged patients with lumbo-sacral tuberculosis treated by one-stage posterior transforaminal lumbar debridement, interbody fusion, and posterior instrumentation. "
10/01/2012 - "Fifteen over 60-year-old patients with thoracic tuberculosis treated by posterior transpedicular debridement with instrumentation and fusion between August 2006 and November 2010, seven males and eight females in this study were reviewed, retrospectively. "
06/01/1998 - "Adjunctive immunotherapy may be particularly useful in the management of difficult-to-treat tuberculosis or tuberculosis in the immunodeficient host."
11/01/2004 - "Controlled trials have failed to show an effect of Mycobacterium vaccae immunotherapy on treatment outcome and mortality in patients with tuberculosis (TB); however, several studies have suggested improvement in radiographic clearing and resolution of cavitary disease. "
01/01/2015 - "Immunogenicity without Efficacy of an Adenoviral Tuberculosis Vaccine in a Stringent Mouse Model for Immunotherapy during Treatment."
03/01/2011 - "Immune protection against tuberculosis--when is immunotherapy preferable to vaccination?"
01/01/2011 - "Phase IIb randomized trial of adjunct immunotherapy in patients with first-diagnosed tuberculosis, relapsed and multi-drug-resistant (MDR) TB."