|1.||Substance-Related Disorders (Drug Abuse)
|2.||Cocaine-Related Disorders (Cocaine Addiction)
|3.||Substance Withdrawal Syndrome (Withdrawal Symptoms)
|4.||Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)
|5.||Schizophrenia (Dementia Praecox)
|1.||Li, Ming D: 34 articles (02/2015 - 05/2005)|
|2.||Lerman, Caryn: 34 articles (02/2015 - 09/2003)|
|3.||Tyndale, Rachel F: 27 articles (01/2016 - 02/2002)|
|4.||Ma, Jennie Z: 27 articles (01/2015 - 05/2005)|
|5.||Payne, Thomas J: 25 articles (01/2015 - 10/2003)|
|6.||Ebbert, Jon O: 23 articles (12/2015 - 08/2002)|
|7.||Markou, Athina: 22 articles (11/2015 - 07/2003)|
|8.||Bierut, Laura J: 21 articles (10/2015 - 01/2006)|
|9.||Benowitz, Neal L: 20 articles (10/2015 - 07/2006)|
|10.||Saccone, Nancy L: 19 articles (10/2015 - 01/2007)|
01/01/2009 - "The Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) test proved to be the most useful for the group of teenagers whereas for adults the CAGE questionnaire, the Four C test, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and Heaviness of Smoking Index (HIS) gave the best results. "
12/01/2005 - "Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are an effective treatment for tobacco dependence, yet most smokers do not quit or remain abstinent. "
01/01/2005 - "The effect of active NRT treatment did not differ significantly by smoking rate or nicotine dependence, with the exception that the nicotine patch was significantly more effective than placebo in highly dependent smokers. "
03/01/1996 - "Nicotine transdermal patches were most effective for smokers with moderate nicotine dependence and for younger smokers. "
01/01/2014 - "In a multivariate analysis, only the average nicotine addiction level according to the Tobacco Dependence Screener test was associated with a clinically significant improvement in the SGRQ (OR 1.35 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.59)). "
|2.||Bupropion (Wellbutrin)FDA LinkGeneric
02/01/2004 - "Bupropion SR has been shown to be effective for the treatment of nicotine dependence in adults. "
01/01/2002 - "Bupropion SR has also been found to be a useful treatment of tobacco dependence in various special populations of smokers who often experience difficulty in overcoming tobacco addiction. "
08/01/2015 - "Preclinical studies with bupropion in rodent models of nicotine dependence have generated equivocal findings with regard to translating the clinical efficacy of the antidepressant as a smoking cessation agent. "
01/01/2004 - "The aim of the study was a one year evaluation of the efficacy of bupropion SR supported by an educational program in the treatment of nicotine dependence and analysis of the reasons of relapses. "
01/28/2009 - "Ongoing studies continue to explore the behavioural and pharmacological effects of bupropion in smoking cessation studies and animal models of nicotine dependence. "
|3.||varenicline (Chantix)FDA Link
05/01/2006 - "Phase II and III trials have yielded promising results suggesting that varenicline could be an important advance in the treatment of nicotine dependence."
09/01/2009 - "Varenicline, an alpha4beta2-nicotinic partial agonist, is effective for nicotine dependence. "
12/01/2012 - "We explored the relationship between the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and smoking abstinence rates in 10 randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled Phase 2-4 varenicline studies. "
12/01/2011 - "Tobacco dependence treatment for hospitalized smokers: a randomized, controlled, pilot trial using varenicline."
03/01/2011 - "This study evaluated abstinence and psychiatric outcomes of various tobacco dependence medications, including varenicline. "
|4.||Nicotinic Receptors (Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor)IBA
06/05/2009 - "Our analysis reveals significant evidence for at least four distinct loci in the nicotinic receptor subunit genes that each influence the transition from smoking to nicotine dependence and may inform the development of improved smoking cessation treatments and prevention initiatives."
11/01/2015 - "Genetic and functional studies have revealed that both common and rare variants of several nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits are associated with nicotine dependence (ND). "
09/01/2015 - "This brain area is particularly enriched in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits α5, α3 and β4 encoded by the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster, which has been associated with vulnerability to tobacco dependence in human genetics studies. "
12/01/2014 - "8 SNPs were selected based on findings from recent studies on smoking and nicotine dependence, all located in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster. "
05/01/2014 - "Studies have shown association between common variants in the α6-β3 nicotinic receptor subunit gene cluster and nicotine dependence in European ancestry populations. "
09/01/2011 - "Further studies and interventions should explore the efficacy of tobacco treatment interventions in a larger segment of the population, notably in the subpopulations of people with nicotine dependence who smoke fewer than 10 cigarettes per day or who have comorbid depression."
01/01/1992 - "Demographic characteristics (age, sex, site of employment) and smoking variables (number of years smoked, pretreatment number of cigarettes smoked per day, and nicotine dependence) failed to predict compliance, but complaint participants reported significantly greater confidence at their ability to not smoke in various challenging situations as measured by the Smoking Self Efficacy Questionnaire. "
06/01/2005 - "Smokers treated for nicotine dependence who stop smoking for a year report more improvement in-quality-of-life compared with those who continue to smoke."
04/01/2014 - "They are not helped by exemptions in smoke-free policies for mental health services, staff smoking, negative staff attitudes to becoming smoke free, poor knowledge of nicotine dependence, smoking-related harm and comorbidities, and poor knowledge and skills regarding cessation-support options. "
11/01/2012 - "After stopping, the patient is not cured but still a patient with tobacco dependence who does not smoke. "
|6.||Clonidine (ST 155)FDA LinkGeneric
05/20/1988 - "These findings, highly suggestive of an important role of clonidine in smoking cessation, warrant further studies to establish the long-term (greater than or equal to 12 months) efficacy of this drug and to replicate the association between nicotine dependence and depression."
12/01/1993 - "This study examines the efficacy of clonidine in smoking cessation and the influence of gender, history of major depression, and measures of nicotine dependence. "
10/01/1993 - "After describing currently available pharmacotherapies, the article also describes several unexpected findings that need to be taken into consideration by clinicians: (a) transdermal nicotine is effective when given without psychological therapy, (b) transdermal nicotine and nicotine gum do not consistently decrease postcessation weight gain, (c) high level of nicotine dependence does not consistently predict better response to transdermal nicotine, and (d) clonidine is effective in women but not in men. "
02/01/1995 - "Clonidine, antidepressants, and buspirone require further study to determine what role, if any, they should play in the treatment of nicotine dependence. "
|7.||Naltrexone (ReVia)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/1999 - "These results provide, at best, mild promise for naltrexone as a smoking cessation drug and provide another instance of a differential response to nicotine dependence treatment according to gender and depression history."
10/01/2012 - "In sum, naltrexone showed acute efficacy in treating nicotine dependence, but after the medication was discontinued, the effect on quit rate was not maintained. "
06/01/2009 - "There is mixed support for the efficacy of the opioid antagonist naltrexone in the treatment of nicotine dependence. "
05/01/2013 - "Weight was examined at baseline and 6- and 12-month follow-up in the two largest randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of naltrexone in nicotine dependence. "
05/01/2010 - "Although further studies are needed to examine mechanisms underlying these responses, both results may have clinical implications for the use of naltrexone as a treatment for nicotine dependence."
08/01/2009 - "The authors conclude that, while current treatments may potentially be effective for co-morbid ADHD and nicotine dependence, further research is needed to parse the complex associations between these disorders and prospectively study combined treatments."
06/30/2013 - "Similarly, the current study suggests clinicians pay particular attention to concurrent factors relevant to relapse in PD/PDA that may also be clinically addressed (e.g., co-morbid MDD/GAD and nicotine dependence)."
04/01/2013 - "Early smoking onset and risk for subsequent nicotine dependence: a monozygotic co-twin control study."
10/01/2010 - "The study demonstrates exhaled carbon monoxide as a useful marker of smoking status but not of nicotine dependence."
04/01/2005 - "Study variables were age, sex, nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test), carbon monoxide in expired air, adherence to therapy, and smoking abstinence at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months (end of treatment), and 6 months. "
|9.||Cocaine (Cocaine HCl)IBA
01/01/1996 - "Clinical trials selected were those conducted for efficacy of acupuncture treatment with opiate, alcohol, cocaine and nicotine dependence."
01/01/2014 - "Investigations of this drug in the treatment of cocaine and nicotine dependence in addition to disorders of executive function are also underway. "
10/01/2013 - "A systematic assessment of delay discounting in relation to cocaine and nicotine dependence."
05/01/2013 - "After performing a median split, those cocaine users with High LSC scores had significantly higher Beck Depression Inventory-II scores, total ASI-Lite scores, and Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence scores when compared to those individuals with Low LSC scores. "
07/01/2011 - "Treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (ALCs, n = 29; 14 male), illicit-stimulant-dependent (predominantly cocaine; STIMs, n = 25; 15 male), and alcohol- and illicit-stimulant-dependent (ALC/STIMs, n = 50; 35 male) participants with comorbid nicotine dependence were studied. "
|10.||Dopamine (Intropin)FDA LinkGeneric
06/01/2014 - "This paper provides a review for recent advance in studies on dopamine system related genetic polymorphisms associated with nicotine dependence. "
06/01/2014 - "[Advance in studies on dopamine system related genetic polymorphisms associated with nicotine dependence]."
08/01/2011 - "Several studies have provided evidence for associations of polymorphisms located in and near dopamine-related genes and nicotine dependence and other smoking-related phenotypes, including pharmacogenetic interactions. "
09/30/2010 - "The aim of this study was to determine whether standard treatments for Tobacco Dependence affect smoking-induced changes in intrasynaptic dopamine (DA) concentration. "
01/01/2015 - "The role of mesoaccumbens dopamine in nicotine dependence."
|1.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
08/01/2015 - "While pharmacotherapies are recommended as a first-line treatment for nicotine dependence, the few studies that have investigated their effectiveness in this population have shown dramatically poorer outcomes compared to the general population. "
06/01/2013 - "Recommendations for future research include examining underlying factors that contribute to persistent smoking and barriers to abstinence, identifying ways to increase motivation for quit attempts, increasing the number of multicentered 2-arm tobacco dependence treatment trials, and using highly efficacious first-line pharmacotherapy in tobacco dependence treatment intervention studies. "
01/01/2014 - "Despite the proven efficacy of current pharmacotherapies for tobacco dependence, relapse rates continue to be high, indicating that novel medications are needed. "
04/16/2010 - "Seven first-line pharmacotherapies are currently available and recommended by the United States Public Health Service (USPHS) clinical practice guideline for treating tobacco dependence, all of which have been proven to be effective for increasing tobacco abstinence rates when used as monotherapy. "
09/01/2009 - "The effective treatment of tobacco dependence frequently requires tailoring, and often intensifying, interventions (both counseling and pharmacotherapy) to meet the needs of the individual patient."
|2.||Self Administration (Administration, Self)
08/01/2010 - "Refining the tobacco dependence phenotype using the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives: II. Evidence from a laboratory self-administration assay."
01/01/2015 - "However, recent studies have shown that limited access nicotine self-administration does not exhibit key features of nicotine dependence such as motivational withdrawal and increased motivation for nicotine after deprivation. "
09/01/2003 - "Thus, animal models of nicotine dependence may need to be employed in conjunction with self-administration procedures in order to duplicate the effects of mecamylamine observed in studies of human smokers."
10/01/2000 - "The Flinders rats could be used as a model for nicotine self-administration studies to evaluate the susceptibilities of FSL and FRL rats to nicotine dependence."
03/01/1997 - "Animal models allow for analysis of anatomical and physiological mechanisms underlying nicotine self-administration; human studies validate the relevance to tobacco dependence and smoking cessation treatment."
|3.||Oral Hygiene (Dental Hygiene)
01/01/2012 - "ADPIE shows promise for integrating tobacco dependence treatment more fully into the clinical training of dental hygiene students. "
08/01/2013 - "The aim of this study was to assess the level of tobacco dependence education offered by Italian dental hygiene programs. "
01/01/2012 - "The purpose of this study was to understand how dental hygiene programs make decisions about and provide training for tobacco dependence counseling to help them graduate more fully competent hygienists. "
01/01/2012 - "A qualitative study of tobacco dependence treatment in 19 US dental hygiene programs."
06/01/2015 - "Dental hygiene students' perceptions of a cultural competence component in a tobacco dependence education curriculum: a pilot study."
12/01/2013 - "The current study examined the role of nicotine-dependence severity and the efficacy of multiple visits of neurofeedback from a single region of interest (ROI) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on craving reduction. "
07/01/2013 - "Further research is needed to determine the optimal parameters of neurofeedback rtfMRI, and whether it might eventually become a therapeutic tool for nicotine dependence."
01/01/2014 - "Guided by a multi-level, conceptual framework that emphasizes changes in provider beliefs and organizational characteristics as drivers of improvement in tobacco treatment delivery, the current protocol will use a cluster, randomized design and multiple data sources (patient exit interviews, provider surveys, site observations, chart audits, and semi-structured provider interviews) to study the process of implementing clinical practice guidelines for treating tobacco dependence in 18 public dental care clinics in New York City. "
01/01/2014 - "Dentists United to Extinguish Tobacco (DUET): a study protocol for a cluster randomized, controlled trial for enhancing implementation of clinical practice guidelines for treating tobacco dependence in dental care settings."