Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (Temporomandibular Joint Disorder)

A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)
Also Known As:
Temporomandibular Joint Disorder; Temporomandibular Joint Disease; TMJ Disorders; TMJ Diseases; Temporomandibular Disorders; Temporomandibular Joint Diseases; Disease, TMJ; Disease, Temporomandibular Joint; Diseases, TMJ; Diseases, Temporomandibular Joint; Disorder, TMJ; Disorder, Temporomandibular; Disorder, Temporomandibular Joint; Disorders, TMJ; Disorders, Temporomandibular; Disorders, Temporomandibular Joint; Joint Disease, Temporomandibular; Joint Diseases, Temporomandibular; Joint Disorder, Temporomandibular; Joint Disorders, Temporomandibular; TMJ Disease; TMJ Disorder; Temporomandibular Disorder
Networked: 806 relevant articles (55 outcomes, 193 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Pain (Aches)
2. Bruxism
3. Headache (Headaches)
4. Torticollis (Wryneck)
5. Hypertrophy


1. Svensson, Peter: 12 articles (01/2015 - 01/2006)
2. Manfredini, Daniele: 12 articles (10/2014 - 02/2005)
3. Segami, Natsuki: 12 articles (05/2010 - 10/2002)
4. Kaneyama, Keiseki: 11 articles (05/2010 - 10/2002)
5. Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida: 10 articles (04/2015 - 01/2013)
6. Guarda-Nardini, Luca: 10 articles (10/2014 - 06/2007)
7. Politti, Fabiano: 9 articles (04/2015 - 04/2012)
8. Sato, Jun: 9 articles (08/2007 - 09/2003)
9. Ernberg, Malin: 8 articles (01/2015 - 01/2008)
10. Cairns, Brian E: 8 articles (01/2014 - 01/2005)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Temporomandibular Joint Disorders:
1. Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum Toxin)IBA
2. Hyaluronic Acid (Hyaluronan)IBA
3. onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox)FDA Link
4. Matrix MetalloproteinasesIBA
5. Protons (Proton)IBA
6. Histamine (Histamine Dihydrochloride)FDA Link
7. OzoneIBA
8. GadoliniumIBA
9. Diazepam (Valium)FDA LinkGeneric
10. Local AnestheticsIBA

Therapies and Procedures

1. Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT)
2. Occlusal Splints
01/01/2013 - "The fourth part of this literature review on the clinical relevance of surface electromyography (EMG) of the masticatory muscles summarizes the results of clinical studies in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD), preferably randomized controlled trials, examining the impact of changes to the dynamic occlusion or the effects of occlusal splints and other treatment measures on electromyographic activity. "
07/01/2012 - "The purpose of this study was to apply Functional Anatomy Research Center (FARC) Protocol of TMD treatment, which includes the use of a specific type of mandibular occlusal splint, adjusted based on the electromyographic index, in a group of 15 patients with disc displacement, classified according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) and then analyzing the results compared with the control group. "
01/01/2011 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of occlusal splint treatment on the temperature of masseter (inferior, intermediate and superior), anterior temporal, digastric and trapezius muscles in patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). "
08/01/2002 - "In clinical practice, it is commonly assumed that occlusal splints have therapeutic value in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders CTMD), but the evidence based on randomized controlled trials is scarce. "
04/01/2002 - "The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy with occlusal splints in patients with temporomandibular disorders by the computerized electromyography. "
3. Splints
4. Laser Therapy (Surgery, Laser)
5. Psychology Biofeedback (Biofeedback)