|1.||Ramalho-Santos, João: 1 article (11/2009)|
|2.||Baptista, Marta: 1 article (11/2009)|
|3.||Geier, David A: 1 article (12/2007)|
|4.||Sykes, Lisa K: 1 article (12/2007)|
|5.||Geier, Mark R: 1 article (12/2007)|
|6.||Trifonova, Radiana T: 1 article (11/2007)|
|7.||Chandra, Neelima: 1 article (11/2007)|
|8.||Pasicznyk, Jenna-Malia: 1 article (11/2007)|
|9.||Fichorova, Raina N: 1 article (11/2007)|
|10.||Doncel, Gustavo F: 1 article (11/2007)|
|1.||Sexually Transmitted Diseases (Sexually Transmitted Disease)
05/01/1983 - " It offers a degree of protection against sexually transmitted diseases and in combination with spermicidal agents is almost as effective as the OC or IUD. "
11/30/1990 - "[Sexually transmitted diseases and spermatocidal agents]."
02/01/1992 - "Vaginal spermicides offer protection against pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases to many women throughout the world whose partners refuse to use condoms. "
12/01/1991 - " Although no conclusive data exists on whether spermicides used alone or with condoms effectively protect against STDs, use of vaginal spermicides should be considered a viable alternative for protection against both pregnancy and some STDs, especially among women whose partners refuse to use condoms. "
03/01/2001 - "The use of condoms and vaginal spermicides continues to be recommended for all sexually active adolescents to reduce (not eliminate) the risk for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases. "
07/01/1990 - " For the small number of women reporting use of vaginal spermicides solely (11 cases and 29 controls) for 5 or more years, however, the odds ratio was 0.7 indicating protection against cervical cancer. "
07/01/1992 - "The reported protective effect of vaginal spermicides against cervical cancer is very likely not mediated by direct inactivation of papillomaviruses by the spermicide."
10/01/1987 - "The effectiveness of vaginal spermicides in preventing cervical cancer may be due to their antiviral action."
10/01/1987 - "Case-control studies have frequently demonstrated increased risk of cervical cancer for women using oral contraceptives, while laboratory results have shown that vaginal spermicides inactivate various sexually transmissible agents. "
04/03/1981 - "The difference between these groups was due to an excess of limb-reduction deformities, neoplasms, syndromes associated with chromosomal abnormalities, and hypospadias in the infants whose mothers are presumed to have used vaginal spermicides. "
|3.||Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities (Congenital Disorders)
06/05/1987 - "Vaginal spermicides and congenital disorders: study reassessed, not retracted."
12/12/1986 - "Vaginal spermicides and congenital disorders: the validity of a study."
10/16/1987 - "The relation between vaginal spermicides and congenital disorders."
04/03/1981 - "Vaginal spermicides and congenital disorders."
07/01/1993 - "In England, microbiologists at the University of Sheffield Medical School diluted herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) in Eagle's Basal Medium + 5% fetal calf serum to a final concentration of 1 x 100,000 plaque-forming units/ml and HIV-1 in RPMI 1640 medium to a final concentration of 1 x 100,000 syncytium-forming units/ml. They wanted to study the inhibitory activity of the spermicidal agents nonoxynol-9, nonoxynol-11, benzalkonium chloride, menefegol, and sodium docusate. "
01/01/2000 - " The most important advance in family planning will be the development of vaginal spermicides that also effectively kill the bacteria and viruses that cause infection. "
02/09/1998 - "Relatively little is known about risk factors for this infection including exposure to vaginal spermicides, which increases the risk of UTI caused by Escherichia coli. "
01/01/1993 - "Vaginal spermicides have microbicidal properties that suggest their usefulness in helping to protect against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections. "
08/01/1991 - " Fortunately, condoms and spermicidal agents have been shown to protect against infection. "
11/01/2009 - "Non-ionic surfactants have been proposed as dual action anti-viral and spermicidal agents to tackle viral infections, namely HIV. "
|1.||Nonoxynol (Nonoxynol 9)
|2.||Dioctyl Sulfosuccinic Acid (DOSS)
|3.||Benzalkonium Compounds (Benzalkonium Chloride)
|6.||Serine Proteases (Serine Protease)
|8.||Rho(D) Immune Globulin (RhoGAM)
|10.||Surface-Active Agents (Surfactants)