|2.||Cerebral Palsy (Spastic Diplegia)
|3.||Parkinson Disease (Parkinson's Disease)
|4.||Nervous System Diseases (Neurological Disorders)
|5.||Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's Disease)
|1.||Jongerius, Peter H: 10 articles (03/2012 - 01/2003)|
|2.||Rotteveel, Jan J: 9 articles (03/2012 - 01/2003)|
|3.||Praharaj, Samir Kumar: 7 articles (06/2014 - 07/2005)|
|4.||van Hulst, Karen: 6 articles (03/2012 - 09/2004)|
|5.||van den Hoogen, Frank J A: 6 articles (03/2012 - 09/2004)|
|6.||Steffen, A: 5 articles (06/2015 - 01/2011)|
|7.||Riva, A: 5 articles (11/2014 - 04/2003)|
|8.||Jankovic, Joseph: 5 articles (06/2013 - 03/2005)|
|9.||van Limbeek, Jacques: 5 articles (03/2012 - 09/2004)|
|10.||Melo, Ailton: 5 articles (06/2009 - 02/2007)|
|1.||Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum Toxin)IBA
11/01/2011 - "To evaluate the efficacy of treatment of drooling by ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injection of the salivary glands and to determine the optimal modalities of this procedure. "
07/01/2002 - "This preliminary study demonstrates that botulinum toxin A is a relatively effective treatment for some children with significant drooling without serious side effects."
01/01/2016 - "Sialorrhea is problematic for neurologically impaired children, and botulinum toxin A salivary gland injection has been reported as effective in reducing sialorrhea. "
01/11/2000 - "The authors conclude that botulinum toxin A promises to be a simple and effective treatment for the common problem of drooling saliva in chronic neurologic disease."
01/01/2016 - "The protocol used for ultrasound-guided injection of botulinum toxin A proved to be safe and effective in children suffering from sialorrhea. "
|2.||Glycopyrrolate (Glycopyrronium Bromide)FDA LinkGeneric
05/01/2011 - "Glycopyrrolate, however, demonstrated significant reduction of hypersalivation in a randomized controlled trial. "
08/01/1998 - "Glycopyrrolate was used by 37 of 41 respondents, with significant improvement in drooling noted in the vast majority (95%) of cases as indicated by a five-point rating scale. "
08/01/2014 - "CIS continued in the patient described in case 4 despite treatment with glycopyrrolate, with only mild improvement in the severity and frequency of drooling. "
08/01/2014 - "Glycopyrrolate was effective in alleviating CIS in cases 1-3. Two patients (cases 1 and 4) exhibited severe drooling, which caused their clothing, hands, and objects to consistently become wet. "
04/01/2012 - "In a parallel study of 36 patients (age range, 3-16 years), 14 of 20 patients randomized to receive glycopyrrolate solution showed improvement in the mean modified Teacher's Drooling Scale score compared with only 3 patients receiving placebo (-3.5 vs -0.1, respectively). "
|3.||Scopolamine (Hyoscine)FDA Link
06/01/1994 - "Over half of the patients had a statistically significant reduction in drooling, and one-third had cessation of drooling, while wearing the scopolamine patch. "
01/01/2014 - "The primary objective of the study is to identify whether glycopyrronium or hyoscine is more effective in treating drooling in children with non-progressive neurodisability. "
08/01/1991 - "In the case study described, transdermal scopolamine patches were found to be effective for controlling drooling in a traumatic brain-injured patient for whom more conservative methods failed. "
01/01/2008 - "Transdermal scopolamine has been shown to be very useful in the management of drooling, particularly in patients with neurological or neuropsychiatric disturbances or severe developmental disorders. "
01/01/2014 - "The drooling reduction intervention trial (DRI): a single blind trial comparing the efficacy of glycopyrronium and hyoscine on drooling in children with neurodisability."
|4.||Clozapine (Clozaril)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2013 - "Three studies were excluded because they involved people with clozapine-induced hypersalivation - a topic covered in another Cochrane review. "
05/01/2011 - "A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study will be conducted to test the therapeutic effects of SQP and WLP in relieving hypersalivation in patients taking clozapine. "
01/01/2008 - "We included randomised controlled trials comparing pharmacological interventions, at any dose and by any route of administration, for clozapine-induced hypersalivation. "
05/01/2000 - "An evaluation of studies and case reports focusing on management of clozapine-induced hypersalivation was conducted. "
10/01/2015 - "Clozapine-induced sialorrhea (CIS) affects about one-third of patients treated with clozapine, at times can be stigmatizing, socially embarrassing, disabling, affect quality-of-life, cause poor compliance and can be potentially life-threatening adverse effect. "
|5.||Type A Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum A Toxin)FDA Link
10/01/2015 - "Intraglandular injection of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A) is an effective treatment for sialorrhea. "
07/01/2011 - "In this randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled pilot trial, the authors aim to determine the therapeutic effect of low-dose, ultrasonography-controlled botulinum toxin type A injection to bilateral parotid and submandibular glands on oral health in the management of sialorrhea. "
01/01/2016 - "Ultrasound-Guided Botulinum Toxin Type A Salivary Gland Injection in Children for Refractory Sialorrhea: 10-Year Experience at a Large Tertiary Children's Hospital."
02/01/2013 - "Thus, botulinum toxin type A injection for sialorrhea in children is a useful tool but has safety and efficacy limitations."
02/01/2013 - "A 10-year review (January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010) of 69 children with sialorrhea who had undergone salivary gland injection of botulinum toxin type A. "
03/01/2005 - "Recently, botulinum toxin type B has been shown to be effective in the treatment of drooling. "
01/01/2010 - "Like for PD, botulinum toxin type B represents an effective and safe treatment for neuroleptic-induced sialorrhea with a treatment effect of 8 to 16 weeks."
02/01/2009 - "Twenty ALS patients with sialorrhea refractory to medical therapy were enrolled in this double-blind, randomized study to receive either 2,500 U of botulinum toxin type B (BTxb) or placebo into the bilateral parotid and submandibular glands using electromyographic guidance. "
12/01/2012 - "Comparing the Effect of Botulinum Toxin Type B Injection at Different Dosages for Patient with Drooling due to Brain Lesion."
02/01/2012 - "We conclude that intraglandular injection of botulinum toxin type B was safe, tolerable, and efficacious in treating sialorrhea in PD patients. "
|7.||onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox)FDA Link
11/01/2011 - "This study is a retrospective review of patients treated for drooling by injection of 100 units of Botox(®) into the parotid and submaxillary glands between 2002 and 2008. "
09/01/2011 - "Botox(®) to reduce drooling in a paediatric population with neurological impairments: a Phase I study."
10/01/2015 - "Onabotulinum toxin A (OBTXA) injection is a well-established therapeutic option for the management of drooling. "
08/01/2006 - "Local injection of a small dose of Botox into the parotid glands can control sialorrhea and potentially improve living quality in some patients with bulbar ALS."
08/01/2006 - "We applied three different outcome measures to determine the effect of Botox therapy on sialorrhea. "
09/01/2015 - "Thirty patients with significant sialorrhea were randomly assigned to receive a BoNT-A (Dysport(®)) injection into the submandibular and the parotid glands bilaterally via an ultrasound guidance. "
01/01/2005 - "However, in these terms dysport can not be an alternative to amithryptiline in sialorrhea therapy. "
01/01/2005 - "Reducing of amithryptiline dose, along with prescribing dysport, removed the side-effects in these patients, while sialorrhea did not increase. "
01/01/2005 - "Both amithryptilin and dysport used in mean therapeutic doses decreased sialorrhea with similar effect. "
01/01/2005 - "A comparative trial of amithryptiline and dysport (botulinic toxin type A) in the treatment of sialorrhea in patients with motor neuron disease (MND) was conducted in 10 MND patients with sialorrhea, of whom 5 were treated with subcutaneous injections of Dysport and 5 with Amithriptiline, and 6 controls without salivary dysfunction. "
|9.||Trihexyphenidyl (Artane)FDA LinkGeneric
07/01/1997 - "A reduction of 44% in the reported nocturnal hypersalivation was observed after trihexyphenidyl treatment. "
11/01/1990 - "Drooling was measured before treatment and then repeatedly until an optimal dosage of benzhexol hydrochloride was attained. "
06/01/2015 - "Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction in a child taking trihexyphenidyl for drooling: Prescribers beware."
03/01/2011 - "The majority of patients tolerated trihexyphenidyl well on a schedule of gradual dose increases, and almost all demonstrated improvements in dystonia or sialorrhea or both."
07/01/2001 - "In a retrospective survey of 22 consecutive children with extrapyramidal cerebral palsy, we evaluated trihexyphenidyl on upper extremity and lower extremity function, expressive language, and drooling. "
|10.||Benztropine (Benzatropine)FDA LinkGeneric
06/01/1989 - "This study assessed the efficacy of synthetic anticholinergic benztropine and incidence of side-effects in 20 developmentally-disabled patients with severe drooling. "
06/01/1989 - "Efficacy of benztropine therapy for drooling."
09/01/2011 - "During titration to a dose of 300 mg daily and despite taking concomitant oral benztropine 1 mg twice daily, the patient began to experience mild sialorrhea. "
06/01/1989 - "A significant decrease in drooling during the benztropine condition relative to placebo was demonstrated and conservative response rates (calculated by deleting placebo responders), ranged up to 65 to 70 per cent. "
07/01/2011 - "Adverse effects included hypersalivation and tremor, which were treated with benztropine and propranolol. "
04/01/2008 - "Anatomic guided BTX type B injections seem effective and safe to treat sialorrhea in bulbar-onset ALS."
05/01/2006 - "BoNTX injections are safe and effective treatment for the management of PD-related drooling."
11/01/2006 - "We conclude that percutaneous intrasalivary BTX-A injections into the parotid and submandibular salivary glands can reduce drooling in children with CP and relative sialorrhoea, leading to an improvement in their quality of life."
01/01/2013 - "Conversely, a minority of families reported worsening of eating skills after the injections that was directly related to lack of improvement in drooling. "
01/01/2007 - "A fourth controlled trial found significant reductions from baseline levels of drooling after patients received BTX injections. "
09/15/2011 - "We conclude that unilateral parotid electron radiotherapy provides satisfactory relief from sialorrhea in ALS patients and should be considered as a therapeutic option for patients who are refractory to medical management."
10/15/2001 - "Low dosage external radiotherapy of the salivary glands is effective in reducing drooling satisfactorily in ALS patients, especially in well-hydrated patients."
04/01/2011 - "Electron-based radiotherapy, delivered as five 4Gy fractions to a total dose of 20 Gy, encompassing the whole of the submandibular gland and sparing the upper part of the parotid gland, can be proposed as a safe and effective schedule for the treatment of sialorrhea in patients with ALS."
04/01/2011 - "Radiotherapy for drooling was shown to be safe and effective in ALS patients with duration of effect expected up to 6 months. "
01/01/2011 - "To systematically review evidence on treatment of sialorrhea in MND, including medications, radiotherapy and surgery. "
09/01/2012 - "Four-duct ligation causes marked improvement in drooling and significantly increases the quality of life in drooling children. "
11/01/2004 - "Parotid duct ligation, commonly used for sialorrhea, was employed as a novel treatment and was curative. "
07/01/1999 - "Four-duct ligation: a simple and effective treatment for chronic aspiration from sialorrhea."
09/01/2012 - "The objective of this study is to assess the improvement in drooling in children undergoing 4-duct ligation procedure for excessive drooling and to study its effect on their quality of life. "
10/01/2013 - "Salivary duct ligation for anterior and posterior drooling: our experience in twenty-one children."
|4.||Palliative Care (Palliative Medicine)
01/01/2005 - "The authors concluded that due to high efficacy and low cost of amithryptiline therapy of sialorrhea proved to be a golden standard of palliative care in MDN. "
12/01/2007 - "Single-dose radiotherapy (7.5 Gy) significantly reduces sialorrhea and is an effective and safe palliative treatment in patients with ALS."
09/15/2011 - "Unilateral parotid electron beam radiotherapy as palliative treatment for sialorrhea in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis."
03/01/2004 - "We need further formal clinical trials to evaluate risks and benefits of BoNT/A for palliative treatment in of sialorrhea in Parkinson's disease and in bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. "
10/01/2005 - "Palliative care includes the treatment of symptoms such as pain, nausea, dyspnea, constipation, anorexia, and sialorrhea. "
03/01/1979 - "In this study, the parents of parotid duct transplant patients rated or described particular aspects of their child's drooling or conditions associated with the drooling before and after surgery. "
01/01/2007 - "According to our result, the use of free muscle graft technique can be a good alternative method in patients, who suffer from drooling and gingival show following dysfunctional total lower lip reconstruction."
09/01/2002 - "These preliminary results suggest that the bilateral surgical transposition of Stensen's ducts into the tonsillar pillar using autologous vein grafts together with bilateral submandibular duct rerouting can provide effective control of chronic drooling."
07/01/2000 - "The muscle transplants produced a smile with an average commissure excursion of 1.37 cm. The frequency and severity of drooling and drinking difficulties decreased postoperatively in the seven symptomatic children. "
03/01/2000 - "Surgical transposition of Stensen's duct into the glossopalatal arch with autologous vein or artery graft is a safe technique which may be used in clinical cases of drooling as an alternative to the other techniques described."