|1.||Sexually Transmitted Diseases (Sexually Transmitted Disease)
|2.||Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
|3.||HIV Infections (HIV Infection)
|1.||Wingood, Gina M: 16 articles (05/2014 - 01/2002)|
|2.||DiClemente, Ralph J: 16 articles (08/2010 - 01/2002)|
|3.||Crosby, Richard A: 15 articles (08/2014 - 01/2002)|
|4.||Hook, Edward W: 15 articles (04/2010 - 01/2002)|
|5.||Klausner, Jeffrey D: 12 articles (02/2015 - 07/2002)|
|6.||Yarber, William L: 9 articles (08/2014 - 04/2002)|
|7.||Macaluso, Maurizio: 8 articles (08/2015 - 02/2002)|
|8.||Li, Xiaoming: 8 articles (01/2015 - 01/2005)|
|9.||Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): 8 articles (08/2012 - 05/2002)|
|10.||Ellen, Jonathan M: 7 articles (08/2014 - 12/2002)|
|1.||Contraceptive Agents (Contraceptives)IBA
12/01/1993 - "Most hormonal non-barrier contraceptives, although providing excellent protection against unwanted pregnancies, provide little protection against STDs. "
06/01/2013 - "The use of dual (for pregnancy and disease prevention) or two methods of contraceptives is recommended for the prevention of unwanted pregnancies and protection against sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV. "
03/01/2006 - "It is recognized that barrier contraceptives provide considerable protection against STDs, but they are not regarded as 100% protective. "
07/01/2009 - "There is an urgent need to develop safe, effective, dual-purpose contraceptive agents that combine the prevention of pregnancy with protection against sexually transmitted diseases. "
01/01/1993 - "Improved and safe contraceptives and pharmaceuticals which will protect against sexually transmitted diseases should be developed, with renewed emphasis placed on new contraceptives for men. "
|2.||Nonoxynol (Nonoxynol 9)FDA Link
11/18/1988 - " Nonoxynol-9, the most common spermicide used in the US, is a chemical surfactant that destroys the cell walls of sperm and offers some protection against sexually transmitted diseases. "
08/20/1999 - "Although no statistically significant differences in adverse outcomes were detected, clinically there appeared to be an increase in minor lesions and self-reported side-effects with nonoxynol-9 and less protection against sexually transmitted diseases with the placebo. "
12/01/1990 - " Spermicides, such as nonoxynol 9, are effective against STDs. "
12/01/2011 - "Several studies have shown that users of vaginal preparations containing nonoxynol-9 (N-9) are at a high risk for sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. "
08/20/1998 - "A controlled trial of nonoxynol 9 film to reduce male-to-female transmission of sexually transmitted diseases."
|3.||Anti-Infective Agents (Microbicides)IBA
07/01/1999 - "There is considerable interest in developing topical microbicides; products to be used intravaginally by women for protection against sexually transmitted diseases. "
05/01/1999 - "Safe and effective vaginally applied microbicides could help to control the continuing spread of sexually transmitted diseases. "
01/01/2010 - "Topical microbicides are now considered to be the last ray of hope, as they would ideally provide protection against unwanted pregnancy, proper lubrication during sexual activity, and preclude the vaginal/rectal transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. "
10/01/2008 - "The development of topical microbicides represents a new and exciting field in the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, and it is especially important that candidate products undergo rigorous preclinical safety and efficacy testing before advancing to clinical trials. "
07/01/1985 - " In 1981 100 females who had received no antimicrobial agents in the month prior to examination and who were detained for more than 24 hours and available for comprehensive examinations were selected for this study of the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in females in a juvenile detention center. "
03/01/1992 - "As health care personnel contact with latex products increases because of new guidelines for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, more adverse reactions in this subpopulation will occur."
04/01/1989 - "However, since condoms can be damaged after manufacturing inspection and prior to use, latex condoms alone should not be perceived as absolute protection against STDs. "
11/01/2004 - "Although public health programs invest heavily in the male latex condom, its efficacy in preventing pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease has been based primarily on in vitro and retrospective studies. "
02/01/2003 - "Prevention of STDs during travel can be achieved by complete abstinence from sexual exposure or adopting safe sexual practices such as consistently and correctly using a latex condom during sexual contact."
09/01/1999 - "Male latex condoms are considered to be the most effective method in reducing the risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD) and HIV transmission if properly used during sexual intercourse. "
|5.||Anti-Bacterial Agents (Antibiotics)IBA
07/01/1986 - "In this era of sexually transmitted diseases that are not readily cured by antibiotics, use of effective preventive measures should be strongly encouraged."
03/01/1996 - "Not all STDs are readily cured by antibiotics, and because many adolescents are asymptomatic, many STDs initially go undetected and untreated. "
06/01/2011 - "Results of this study help to understand male reproductive tract innate immune defense mechanisms and to design novel peptide antibiotics to prevent sexually transmitted diseases."
03/01/2001 - "PSPs in the intervention arm of the trial, who had attended meetings dealing with the syndromic management of STDs, referred to syndromes 82% of the time compared with 12% in the control arms, a mean difference of 70% (p < 0.001); stocked locally appropriate antibiotics 76% of the time compared with 52%, a mean difference of 24% (p < 0.001); and are more likely to prescribe appropriate drugs 82% of the time compared with 27%, a mean difference of 55% (p < 0.001). "
12/01/2013 - "Clinical isolates, predominantly from unselected patients attending sexually transmitted diseases clinics, are tested against a panel of antibiotics. "
01/01/1987 - " Although oral contraceptives are popular among teenagers and are very effective in preventing pregnancy, they have little effect on the prevention of STDs. "
03/01/1997 - "Future studies need to fully characterize the risks and benefits of oral contraceptives in relation to sexually transmitted diseases."
05/01/2001 - "Legalization of oral contraceptives in Japan has led to an urgent need to educate both men and women on the inability of the pill to protect against STDs, including HIV Policymakers and providers need to recognize the importance of encouraging dual method use in Japan."
07/01/1995 - "Variables studied were human papillomavirus status, viral load, viral types, sexual behavior, sexually transmitted diseases, reproductive patterns, oral contraceptives, and smoking. "
06/01/1993 - "To avoid sexually transmitted disease, barrier protection should be used along with oral contraceptives until mutually monogamous, stable relationships are established. "
11/01/2007 - "It is also anticipated that widespread use of vaccines that offer protection against HPV-6 and -11 could potentially reduce the workload at STD clinics by approximately 10% without a substantial impact on the diagnosis and treatment of other STDs. "
01/01/1998 - "We evaluated the willingness of clients at a large urban sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in the southeastern United States to participate in future trials of preventive vaccines for HIV type 1 (HIV-1). "
12/01/2014 - "Intranasal (i.n.) vaccines against sexually transmitted diseases that are caused by viruses such as herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) have long been in development, but no vaccine candidate is currently available. "
03/20/2014 - "Several barriers limit the development of vaccines against sexually transmitted diseases (STIs). "
02/01/2014 - "Perceived likelihood of unaccompanied minors receiving vaccines when seen for confidential services in primary care, sexually transmitted disease, and Title X/family planning clinics varied significantly by vaccine type and clinical setting. "
|8.||Levonorgestrel (Plan B)FDA LinkGeneric
06/01/1994 - "Possible risks from Norplant use include changes in carbohydrate, liver, and lipid metabolism but they tend to be clinically insignificant and no protection against STDs/HIV. "
03/01/1999 - " IUDs, like both sterilization and Norplant, provide no protection against sexually transmitted diseases."
03/01/1999 - "IUDs, like both sterilization and Norplant, provide no protection against sexually transmitted disease. "
05/01/1995 - " Noted was the difficulty balancing the effectiveness of Norplant in preventing adolescent pregnancy against unknown long-term health effects and an inability to protect against sexually transmitted diseases. "
05/01/1995 - " Although these findings indicate that Norplant use does not increase the risk of poor compliance with reproductive health care, they indicate a need to convince teenagers of the benefits of such care, especially for the detection of sexually transmitted diseases."
|9.||Ofloxacin (Levofloxacin)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/1986 - "gonorrhoeae, ofloxacin, with its unique mechanism of action, and its broad spectrum activity against pathogens, may prove useful in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases."
09/01/1993 - "Of 5,667 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated from the Government Social Hygiene (sexually transmitted disease) Clinics in Hong Kong from 1990 to 1992, there was a trend toward an increase in the percentage of strains resistant in vitro to 0.01 and 0.1 microgram of ofloxacin per ml, with 54.3 and 5.5% resistant strains, respectively, in January 1990, rising to 95.3 and 41.5%, respectively, in December 1992. "
05/01/1991 - "The clinical experience with ofloxacin in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases."
12/29/1989 - "Efficacy and safety of ofloxacin in the treatment of nongonococcal sexually transmitted disease."
01/01/1986 - "Experience with ofloxacin in the United States in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases is reviewed. "
05/01/1983 - " It offers a degree of protection against sexually transmitted diseases and in combination with spermicidal agents is almost as effective as the OC or IUD. "
11/30/1990 - "[Sexually transmitted diseases and spermatocidal agents]."
02/01/1992 - "Vaginal spermicides offer protection against pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases to many women throughout the world whose partners refuse to use condoms. "
12/01/1991 - " Although no conclusive data exists on whether spermicides used alone or with condoms effectively protect against STDs, use of vaginal spermicides should be considered a viable alternative for protection against both pregnancy and some STDs, especially among women whose partners refuse to use condoms. "
03/01/2001 - "The use of condoms and vaginal spermicides continues to be recommended for all sexually active adolescents to reduce (not eliminate) the risk for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases. "
01/01/2008 - "To date, the condom is the most effective method available for males for protection against STDs. "
11/01/2005 - "Male condoms are undoubtedly the best protection against sexually transmitted diseases. "
01/01/2004 - "Although male condoms are the best form of protection against HIV/STDs, they are not the most effective method for preventing unintended pregnancy. "
03/01/1996 - "Condoms are one of the oldest form of contraceptive and the best recognized form of protection against sexually transmitted diseases. "
01/01/1996 - "Among a nationally representative sample of 932 sexually experienced unmarried women aged 17-44, 41% reported using condoms for protection against sexually transmitted diseases, and 30% said they used condoms for this reason every time or most times they had intercourse. "
|2.||Contraception (Birth Control)
10/01/1997 - "Increased educational efforts should emphasize safe sexual practices (barrier methods) to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and highly efficacious methods of contraception (hormonal contraception) to avoid unintended pregnancy."
08/01/1991 - "There is a renewed interest in these techniques both as a major form of birth control and also as our best protection against the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, many of which are now occurring in epidemic form. "
01/01/1984 - "Two studies carried out with juvenile detainees from a large urban center confirmed that sexual activity among delinquent adolescents is significantly greater than that of the general adolescent population, and that the delinquents have little or no knowledge of birth control methods or venereal disease (Deisher, 1980; Schroeder, 1981). "
03/01/1992 - "The need for contraceptive methods that provide effective protection against both pregnancy and STDs has been intensified by the HIV epidemic, but progress has been slowed by the lack of integration between the STD and family planning fields. "
01/01/1992 - "The results from this study indicate that the majority of adolescents who use contraception do this for protection against unintended pregnancy and not for protection against STDs. "
|3.||Female Condoms (Female Condom)
04/01/1999 - "Clinical trials suggest that the female condom is highly effective in preventing the transmission of HIV/STDs if used properly. "
02/01/2000 - " Results from international studies on the efficacy of female condoms include: 1) ability to prevent unwanted pregnancies; 2) ability to prevent transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV; 3) expansion of choice in increasing protection; 4) acceptability of the female condom to a wide range of men and women; 4) safety of the product; 5) easier use through constant practice; 6) provision of additional emotional comfort, sense of security and control; 7) cost-effectiveness as a prevention program; and 8) the need for a more strategic introduction in other countries. "
04/01/1995 - " Also recommended for use by adolescents is the new female condom--the only female-controlled method that confers protection against both pregnancy and STDs. "
11/01/1997 - " The female condom has been demonstrated to be effective in vitro against transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases, but evidence of efficacy in vivo remains limited. "
05/01/1993 - "The female condom is the first barrier device under the woman's control that may be effective in the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. "
|4.||Male Circumcision (Circumcision)
01/01/2010 - "As demonstrated, male circumcision (MC) confers protection against HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STD). "
01/01/2012 - "Recent trials in Africa evaluating male circumcision for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases have, however, revived the circumcision controversy."
01/01/2011 - "A comprehensive study to assess the association between circumcision and different types of STDs is recommended."
12/01/2010 - "A comprehensive study to assess the association between circumcision and different types STDs is recommended."
02/01/2002 - "If results from this study are valid for other areas of sub-Saharan Africa, acceptability of male circumcision as a means to reduce STDs and HIV is higher than previously suspected. "
|5.||Postcoital Contraception (Emergency Contraception)
02/18/1991 - " These guidelines include: high efficacy, protection against STDs, postcoital contraception in case of omission, regular annual medical checkups, taking no chances with unprotected sex and considering sterilization when family size has been completed."
01/27/1997 - " Nurses are in an ideal position to answer women's questions about the safety and efficacy of emergency contraception, counsel them on their options, and make referrals for routine gynecologic care and sexually transmitted disease screening. "
01/01/1998 - "This study was undertaken to 1) identify the characteristics of emergency postcoital contraception clients, their acceptance of sexual health screening, and the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases in this group and 2) to determine the effect of the introduction of a consultation proforma on the quality of information obtained from the client. "
01/01/2012 - " analyses will be conducted on publically available health data relevant to STDs in Troms and Finnmark, like the absolute number of chlamydia tests, the amount of emergency contraception medication sold, and the number of abortions. "
08/01/2011 - "Therefore, emergency contraception and prophylaxis for sexually transmitted diseases should be available and provided to these women. "