|3.||Status Epilepticus (Complex Partial Status Epilepticus)
|4.||Partial Epilepsies (Epilepsy, Partial)
|5.||Absence Epilepsy (Absence Seizure)
|1.||Luszczki, Jarogniew J: 85 articles (02/2016 - 04/2003)|
|2.||Czuczwar, Stanisław J: 84 articles (07/2015 - 01/2002)|
|3.||Löscher, Wolfgang: 72 articles (12/2015 - 01/2002)|
|4.||Holmes, Gregory L: 70 articles (06/2015 - 01/2002)|
|5.||Czuczwar, Stanislaw J: 60 articles (01/2015 - 06/2002)|
|6.||Dehpour, Ahmad Reza: 55 articles (12/2015 - 01/2002)|
|7.||White, H Steve: 52 articles (08/2015 - 02/2002)|
|8.||Henshall, David C: 51 articles (11/2015 - 07/2002)|
|9.||Devinsky, Orrin: 47 articles (10/2015 - 01/2002)|
|10.||Vezzani, Annamaria: 46 articles (10/2015 - 01/2002)|
|1.||Anticonvulsants (Antiepileptic Drugs)IBA
10/01/2011 - "Although surgical resection of the hippocampus bestows improved seizure regulation in most cases of intractable TLE, this choice can cause lasting cognitive deficiency and reliance on antiepileptic drugs. "
11/01/2010 - "Improved understanding of the mechanisms of action of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may help the clinician to make a rational choice of the AED based on the knowledge of which drug is most effective against each type of seizure. "
12/01/2006 - "Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) suppress seizures but appear to have little effect on long-term remission, and the choice of AED is for the most part arbitrary with most AEDs having a similar success rate when used as the first drug. "
09/01/1999 - "With antiepileptic drugs, almost all had control of clinical seizures, and most improved in mental status. "
09/01/1998 - "The treatment, consisting of 43 SCP training sessions and 22 behavioral control sessions, yielded a highly significant reduction of seizure frequency to about 7.5/week; such a decrease had never been observed after administration of new anticonvulsant drugs, nor after the callosotomy. "
07/01/2000 - "Most of the compounds provided significant protection against maximal electroshock-induced seizures (MES) at 100 mg/kg after 0.5 h and at 300 mg/kg after 4 h in both MES and pentetrazole-induced (PTZ) seizures. "
04/01/1987 - "Most pyrazolines (100 mg/kg) provided 20-80% protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions in mice. "
01/01/1990 - "2-Ethylcyclohexanone was very effective against pentylenetetrazol seizures but did not prevent maximal electroshock seizures. "
03/01/1983 - "Compared with PB, PEMA was 16 times less potent against electroshock and Metrazol seizures but only 8 times less toxic. "
03/01/2011 - "Pretreatment with EECN caused significant protection against pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions. "
|3.||Valproic Acid (Valproate, Semisodium)FDA LinkGeneric
10/01/2004 - "Divalproex ER also yielded improved seizure control and greater improvement of psychiatric symptoms, and was greatly preferred by patients over divalproex DR. Although the results of the current analyses must be considered highly tentative due to the open-label nature of the trials included, the findings do suggest broad clinical superiority of the new ER preparation."
03/01/1989 - "Numerous clinical studies have found valproate to be highly effective in controlling generalized seizures, particularly as monotherapy. "
01/25/1988 - "Results of a retrospective study in 30 patients indicate that, contrary to the findings of some earlier studies, valproate monotherapy is highly effective in the treatment of partial seizures, especially those that become secondarily generalized. "
11/01/2011 - "Valproate monotherapy was highly effective as 75% of treated patients achieved seizure remission. "
08/01/2006 - "Prognosis in respect of long term seizure freedom is good with sodium valproate being the most effective medication. "
|4.||Carbamazepine (Tegretol)FDA LinkGeneric
03/01/2013 - "Carbamazepine has been used as AEDs since 1965, and is most effective against partial seizures. "
07/01/2003 - "Carbamazepine is a well-established, effective treatment of complex partial seizures and is well tolerated in most patients. "
01/01/1984 - "Carbamazepine is highly effective in blocking completed amygdala-kindled seizures, but does not block their development in the rat. "
04/01/1979 - "Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant most effective in treating complex partial and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. "
01/01/2014 - "Carbamazepine markedly improved her seizures. "
|5.||Diazepam (Valium)FDA LinkGeneric
05/01/1989 - "Pretreatment with diazepam was found to be highly effective in reducing observed seizures from 90% to 0% and reducing the incidence of death from 85% to 10%. "
03/01/1984 - "Diazepam was administered rectally as a new experimental suppository formulation immediately after a seizure and was highly effective in preventing recurrent fits within a 24 h observation period (p less than 0.001). "
06/01/2013 - "Compounds 3f, 4c, 4f, 5k, 5p and 5w carrying active pharmacophores exhibited complete protection against seizure and their results were comparable with standard drug diazepam. "
05/17/2011 - "Single dose pretreatment with AMFF (25 and 50mg/kg, i.p.) has found to be effective against both MES and PTZ-convulsions, but associated with a marked decrease in locomotor activity and motor activity performance (i.e., neurotoxic effects), similar to that of diazepam treatment. "
11/01/2013 - "The diazepam AI was significantly more effective than placebo AI at delaying the next seizure or rescue. "
|6.||Phenytoin (Dilantin)FDA LinkGeneric
03/11/2004 - "The study identified two PMHs, 14 (ED(MES(2.5)) = 28 +/- 2 mg/kg) and 12 (ED(MES(2.5)) = 39 +/- 4 mg/kg), to be the most active candidates of the series, which are comparable to phenytoin (55, ED(MES(2.5)) = 30 +/- 2 mg/kg) in their protection against seizure. "
05/01/1999 - "Most patients were treated with phenytoin, which was well tolerated and effective in controlling seizures. "
01/01/2015 - "The results showed that in the ICES test, ATV 80mg/kg increased the seizure threshold to hind limb extension (HLE), and a complete protection against HLE was observed when ATV 80mg/kg was combined with a subanticonvulsant dose of phenytoin. "
08/01/2008 - "Pretreatment with phenytoin (5 mg/kg) in combination with SMF had significantly greater effects on seizure latency and severity than either pretreatment alone. "
02/01/2002 - "The intracerebral controlled-release of phenytoin resulted in a statistically significant reduction in seizure activity in the treatment group as evidenced by lower Racine scores. "
|7.||Phenobarbital (Luminal)FDA Link
04/01/1998 - "A marked improvement could be observed for most of the patients treated with phenobarbitone in terms of reduction of seizure frequency although complete seizure control was achieved in only a few."
12/01/2011 - "Our findings demonstrate pronounced cell death in several important regions of the rat limbic system following neonatal administration of phenobarbital, the first-line treatment for neonatal seizures in humans. "
08/01/1977 - "Complete protection against IPS-induced seizures was observed for a period of 6 h after acute phenobarbital administration during which the mean plasma phenobarbital concentrations were between 16.2 +/- 0.91 and 13.6 +/- 1.0 microgram/lm. "
03/01/2015 - "This compound was effective in delaying onset of PTZ-evoked seizures at the dose of 5mg/kg in kindled animals and significantly reduced oxidative stress better than standard drug phenobarbital (PB). "
11/01/2014 - "Available data suggests that phenobarbital is as effective as other first-line drugs for treating tonic-clonic seizures, but side effect reports differ widely between high and low-income settings. "
|8.||etiracetam (levetiracetam)FDA LinkGeneric
06/15/2007 - "Treatment with levetiracetam produced a striking remission of seizures. "
10/01/2004 - "Most patients (68%) reported some improvement in seizure frequency on levetiracetam including 16% who became seizure free. "
04/01/2011 - "Levetiracetam was associated with a greater than 50% seizure reduction in 35% (8 of 23), including seizure termination in 7. Further study is warranted to determine optimal levetiracetam dosing in neonates and to compare efficacy with other antiseizure medications."
01/01/2015 - "Levetiracetam is a broad spectrum antiepileptic drug (AED) with proven efficacy when used as adjunctive therapy against myoclonic seizures. "
11/01/2014 - "Levetiracetam has been proven to be effective in both partial and generalized seizures in children. "
|9.||lamotrigine (Lamictal)FDA LinkGeneric
03/01/1996 - "Efficacy measurements were comparable between the three treatment groups, although the higher lamotrigine dose was possibly most effective, with 60.4% completing seizure free compared with 51.3% (LTG 100) and 54.7% (CBZ 600). "
08/01/2008 - "In this study-the first large prospective investigation of the long-term tolerability and efficacy of an antiepileptic drug in a patient population 2 years and younger-lamotrigine administered for up to approximately 72 weeks was well tolerated and associated with good seizure control."
01/01/2001 - "The overall Peto's Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across all studies for 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency was 2.71 (1.87, 3.91) indicating that lamotrigine is significantly more effective than placebo in reducing seizure frequency. "
01/01/2000 - "The overall Peto's Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across all studies for 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency was 2.71 (1.87, 3.91) indicating that lamotrigine is significantly more effective than placebo in reducing seizure frequency. "
06/01/2012 - "Lamotrigine is effective against a broad spectrum of seizure types and has a favorable metabolic profile, with few but significant drug interactions. "
|10.||topiramate (Topamax)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2005 - "The results confirmed the earlier data received by the authors that topamax was most effective in generalized convulsive, partial and secondary generalized seizures. "
10/01/1997 - "Topiramate is highly effective in the control of previously therapy-resistant partial seizures, with or without secondary generalization. "
01/01/2002 - "The preliminary findings of this study suggest that topiramate is very effective against tonic-clonic seizures in alcohol withdrawal syndrome. "
01/01/2013 - "After the initiation of topiramate therapy both cases responded with marked decrease in myoclonic seizure frequency and improvement of quality of life. "
06/01/2011 - "Prospective studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of topiramate for both seizures and neuroprotection will be important in determining whether it deserves widespread use in clinical practice."
09/01/2001 - "Most reports of the ketogenic diet have focused on its efficacy for generalized seizures. "
10/01/2001 - "Three to 6 years after initiation, the ketogenic diet had proven to be effective in the control of difficult-to-control seizures in children. "
04/01/2000 - "The results of these studies are consistent in showing that some children benefit from the ketogenic diet, demonstrated by a significant reduction in seizure frequency. "
06/01/2014 - "Fifty-two percent of patients had a significant reduction in seizure frequency on the ketogenic diet, including 45% with ≥50% reduction in seizure frequency. "
11/01/1998 - "The ketogenic diet is effective in substantially decreasing difficult-to-control seizures and can successfully be administered in a wide variety of settings."
|2.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
06/01/2000 - "The best independent predictors of remission are absence of organic brain damage, low intensity seizure propensity and good early effect of drug therapy. "
04/01/2002 - "A 12-year-old girl who had been diagnosed with ALL and undergone chemotherapy presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizure while in complete remission. "
06/01/1994 - "About half of the remaining patients can obtain improved seizure control with combination antiepileptic drug therapy, but usually with more adverse effects. "
05/01/2001 - "The provision of safe and effective drug therapy to elderly patients requires an understanding of the unique age-related changes' in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of AEDs as well as an appreciation of common seizure types and the drugs that are effective for the specific types seen in the elderly."
09/01/2011 - "In this respect, the issues to be considered include the impact of concomittant pharmacotherapy on the seizure parameters of the ECT as well as the efficacy of the combined treatment relative to ECT or pharmacotherapy administered alone. "
08/01/2006 - "Hemispherectomy/hemispherotomy is the most effective treatment to control seizure, and it also seems to provide good results on the psychomotor development when performed early, as demonstrated by the literature review and by the reported personal series reported here (20 children). "
12/01/2011 - "Functional hemispherectomy is effective in carefully selected patients, resulting in a reduction of seizure burden up to complete resolution, improvement of intellectual development, and developmental benefit despite possible additional neurological deficit. "
06/01/2010 - "Eight and seven patients underwent focal cortical resection and functional hemispherectomy, leading to significant improvement in 5 of the 8 patients and excellent seizure control in all 7 patients, respectively. "
11/01/1989 - "Hemispherectomy was performed in two children with sudden and complete recovery from seizures and improvement in psychomotor development. "
09/01/2013 - "Hemispherectomy presented good seizure control and improvement in QOL and IQ, and impairment on motor and speech function were mild. "
|4.||Vagus Nerve Stimulation
01/01/2010 - "Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) devices result in a significant reduction of seizure frequency in many patients, but patients rarely become completely seizure-free as a result of VNS device implantation. "
01/01/2014 - "Palliative techniques such as partial corpus callosotomy (CC) and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may be effective for adequate control of seizures in pharmacoresistant patients who are not candidates for resective surgery. "
02/01/2008 - "Vagus nerve stimulation effective for focal motor seizures and focal interictal parkinsonian symptoms. "
11/01/2006 - "Vagus nerve stimulation was effective in children with generalized, mixed, and partial medically refractory seizures."
09/24/2002 - "One such treatment, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy, appears to be particularly effective among pediatric patients with refractory seizures. "
07/01/2010 - "Noninvasive electrical stimulation does not require the risks of implantation, and the electrodes can be moved easily as needed to determine where they may be the most effective in reducing seizure activity. "
08/01/1996 - "We have found intracerebral electrode placement to be as safe as subdural strip electrode placement and have found combined depth and strip electrode monitoring to be highly effective in localizing the onset zones of complex partial seizures. "
02/01/2011 - "Patients with extratemporal, nonlesional seizures are viable candidates for invasive monitoring with grid/strip electrodes, and good outcomes can be obtained with resective surgery. "
02/01/2007 - "Implantation of electrodes in the ANT and subsequent stimulation is associated with a significant reduction in seizure frequency. "
08/01/1998 - "However, in patients with CD, the presence of balloon cells was associated with significantly greater seizure frequency (p=0.009), and a significantly greater number of electrodes recording continuous frequent spiking (p=0.03). "