Retrograde Degeneration

Pathologic changes that occur in the axon and cell body of a neuron proximal to an axonal lesion. The process is characterized by central chromatolysis which features flattening and displacement of the nucleus, loss of Nissl bodies, and cellular edema. Central chromatolysis primarily occurs in lower motor neurons.
Also Known As:
Axonal Reaction; Trans-Synaptic Degeneration; Axon Reactions; Axonal Reactions; Degeneration, Nissl; Degeneration, Retrograde; Degeneration, Trans-Synaptic; Degeneration, Transneuronal Retrograde; Degenerations, Retrograde; Degenerations, Trans-Synaptic; Degenerations, Transneuronal Retrograde; Reaction, Axon; Reaction, Axonal; Reactions, Axon; Reactions, Axonal; Retrograde Degenerations; Retrograde Degenerations, Transneuronal; Trans Synaptic Degeneration; Trans-Synaptic Degenerations; Transneuronal Retrograde Degeneration; Transneuronal Retrograde Degenerations; Axon Reaction; Nissl Degeneration; Retrograde Degeneration, Transneuronal
Networked: 209 relevant articles (4 outcomes, 19 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Wounds and Injuries (Trauma)
2. Multiple Sclerosis
3. Viral Encephalitis
4. Ganglion Cysts (Ganglion)
5. Atrophy


1. Oakley, Jonathan D: 2 articles (02/2012 - 02/2011)
2. Saidha, Shiv: 2 articles (02/2012 - 02/2011)
3. Calabresi, Peter A: 2 articles (02/2012 - 02/2011)
4. Frohman, Elliot M: 2 articles (02/2012 - 02/2011)
5. Syc, Stephanie B: 2 articles (02/2012 - 02/2011)
6. Newsome, Scott D: 2 articles (02/2012 - 02/2011)
7. Ratchford, John N: 2 articles (02/2012 - 02/2011)
8. Durbin, Mary K: 2 articles (02/2012 - 02/2011)
9. Meyer, Scott A: 2 articles (02/2012 - 02/2011)
10. Raisman-Vozari, Rita: 2 articles (07/2007 - 12/2003)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Retrograde Degeneration:
1. Dopamine (Intropin)FDA LinkGeneric
11/06/2001 - "Mechanical transection of the nigrostriatal pathway at the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) results in the delayed retrograde degeneration of the dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and induces protracted expression and phosphorylation of c-Jun. "
05/01/1995 - "This lesion model, the induction of a partial dopamine denervation of the striatum (74% depletion of dopamine striatal tissue content) with a retrograde degeneration of dopamine cell bodies in the substantia nigra, sparing the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway, closely approximates the neuronal degeneration observed in human idiopathic Parkinson's disease. "
08/01/1985 - "The effects of a partial hemitransection at the meso-diencephalic level, with or without chronic ganglioside GMI treatment, have been evaluated on striatal polyamine levels, 7, 14 and 21 days after lesion, as well as on the ability of the polyamine synthesis inhibitor alpha-difluoromethylornithine (alpha-DFMO) to modulate the protective effects of chronic ganglioside GMI treatment against retrograde degeneration of the nigral dopamine (DA) nerve cell bodies (14 day time interval). "
02/01/2004 - "These results suggest that the retrograde degeneration of the mesostriatal dopamine pathways, induced by a striatal injection of 6-OHDA, leads to astroglial and microglial reactions in the VTA. "
07/01/2001 - "These results suggest that the retrograde degeneration induced by a intrastriatal injection of a small dose of the 6-OHDA leads to an astroglial and microglial reaction in the nigrostriatal dopamine pathway. "
2. Messenger RNA (mRNA)IBA
3. ColchicineFDA LinkGeneric
4. Immunotoxins (Immunotoxin)IBA
5. Eflornithine (Ornidyl)FDA Link
6. Retinaldehyde (Retinal)IBA
7. Horseradish PeroxidaseIBA
8. SilverIBA
08/15/1980 - "Three methods (axonal degeneration, retrograde labelling with HRP and Golgi's silver impregnation) were used in the identification of a group of cells located in the ventrolateral part of the reticular formation of the pons, which are postulated to form the lacrimo-muconasal nucleus of the rat."
05/01/1966 - "1. Degeneration that can be shown by the Nauta-Gygax technique in the orbital part of the cat's optic nerve does not begin until 10 days after intracranial transection of the nerve, though after enucleation of the eye it is conspicuous in 4 days.2. We were not able to tell, by any silver-staining technique applied to an optic nerve at any interval after an operation, whether at that operation the nerve had been cut peripherally only or both peripherally and centrally.3. From these and subsidiary observations we conclude that either the cat's optic nerve contains no centrifugal fibres detectable by silver staining and light microscopy, or, if there are such fibres, they are much less susceptible to prograde (Wallerian) degeneration and much more susceptible to retrograde degeneration than most of the centripetal fibres. "
01/01/1980 - "Comparing the results to those of classical studies with silver-impregnation method, following conclusions were obtained: 1. Full-blown macrophages, "amoeboid microglia", "rod cells" in acute viral encephalitis and "true" inflammatory cells in retrograde degeneration are derived from circulating mononuclear leukocytes which enter into brain parenchyma after the injuries. "
07/01/1997 - "The presence of HIV-1 DNA was investigated by nested polymerase chain reaction; axonal abnormalities were detected by beta-amyloid precursor protein, ubiquitin immunohistochemistry, and silver staining. "
9. 1- Methyl- 4- phenyl- 1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)IBA
10. OxygenIBA

Therapies and Procedures

1. Ganglionectomy
2. Axotomy
3. Injections
4. Transplants (Transplant)
5. Traction