Pupil Disorders (Marcus Gunn Pupil)

Conditions which affect the structure or function of the pupil of the eye, including disorders of innervation to the pupillary constrictor or dilator muscles, and disorders of pupillary reflexes.
Also Known As:
Marcus Gunn Pupil; Ectopic Pupils; Afferent Pupillary Defects; Pupil, Marcus-Gunn; Afferent Pupillary Defect; Deformed Pupil; Ectopic Pupil; Fixed Pupils; Keyhole Pupil; Non-Syphilitic Argyll-Robertson Pupil; Occluded Pupils; Pupil Malformations; Pupillary Anomaly; Pupillary Disorders; Pupillary Occlusion; Pupillary Paralysis; Pupillary Sector Paralysis; Pupillary Sphincter Rupture; Sector Pupil Palsy; Wernicke Hemianopic Pupil; Wernicke's Hemianopic Pupil; Abnormal Pupillary Function; Abnormal Pupillary Functions; Anomalies, Pupillary; Anomaly, Pupillary; Argyll-Robertson Pupil, Non-Syphilitic; Deformed Pupils; Efferent Pupillary Defects; Fixed Pupil; Hemianopic Pupil, Wernicke; Hemianopic Pupil, Wernicke's; Keyhole Pupils; Malformation, Pupil; Malformations, Pupil; Non Syphilitic Argyll Robertson Pupil; Occluded Pupil; Occlusion, Pupillary; Occlusions, Pupillary; Paralyses, Pupillary; Paralyses, Pupillary Sector; Paralysis, Pupillary; Paralysis, Pupillary Sector; Pupil Disorder; Pupil Malformation; Pupil, Deformed; Pupil, Ectopic; Pupil, Fixed; Pupil, Keyhole; Pupil, Non-Syphilitic Argyll-Robertson; Pupil, Occluded; Pupil, Wernicke Hemianopic; Pupil, Wernicke's Hemianopic; Pupillary Anomalies; Pupillary Defect, Afferent; Pupillary Defect, Efferent; Pupillary Defects, Afferent; Pupillary Defects, Efferent; Pupillary Disorder; Pupillary Function, Abnormal; Pupillary Occlusions; Pupillary Paralyses; Pupillary Sector Paralyses; Pupillary Sphincter Ruptures; Pupils, Deformed; Pupils, Ectopic; Pupils, Fixed; Pupils, Keyhole; Pupils, Occluded; Reaction Absent, Pupil; Reaction Absents, Pupil; Rupture, Pupillary Sphincter; Ruptures, Pupillary Sphincter; Sector Paralyses, Pupillary; Sector Paralysis, Pupillary; Sphincter Rupture, Pupillary; Sphincter Ruptures, Pupillary; Wernickes Hemianopic Pupil; Efferent Pupillary Defect; Marcus-Gunn Pupil; Pupil Reaction Absent; Pupillary Functions, Abnormal
Networked: 111 relevant articles (2 outcomes, 6 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Atrophy
2. Retinal Detachment (Retinal Detachments)
3. Rupture
4. Endophthalmitis (Ophthalmia)
5. Glaucoma


1. Uysal, Yusuf: 2 articles (12/2008 - 04/2006)
2. Sobaci, Güngör: 2 articles (12/2008 - 04/2006)
3. Nakanishi, Yoriko: 2 articles (05/2007 - 11/2006)
4. Nakamura, Makoto: 2 articles (05/2007 - 11/2006)
5. Tatsumi, Yasuko: 2 articles (05/2007 - 11/2006)
6. Negi, Akira: 2 articles (05/2007 - 11/2006)
7. Kuhli-Hattenbach, Claudia: 1 article (11/2015)
8. Fronius, Maria: 1 article (11/2015)
9. Koss, Michael Janusz: 1 article (11/2015)
10. Kohnen, Thomas: 1 article (11/2015)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Pupil Disorders:
1. Adrenal Cortex Hormones (Corticosteroids)IBA
2. pamidronate (APD)FDA LinkGeneric
3. 2-toluenesulfonamide (OTS)IBA
4. Retinaldehyde (Retinal)IBA
11/01/2015 - "Best-corrected visual acuity, cycloplegic refraction, dilated fundus examination, optic disc morphology and macular thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT), retinal visual acuity, color perception, and the presence of a relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) were assessed. "
01/01/2015 - "Patients typically present with acute, painless, unilateral loss of vision associated with a variable visual field defect, a relative afferent pupillary defect, a swollen, hyperaemic optic disc, and one or more flame-shaped peripapillary retinal haemorrhages. "
01/01/2015 - "This combined with the complete recovery of vision and resolution of the relative afferent pupillary defect underscores a lack of comprehensive understanding of retinal vaso-occlusive disease."
03/01/2014 - "The following examinations were carried out at the initial visit (month 0) and at months 2, 4 and 6: entire (90°) visual field examination with automated static white-on-white perimetry, quantified by mean defect (MD); peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFT) measurement with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT); assessment of distant best correct visual acuity (D-BCVA) and a quantification of the relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) using the swinging flashlight test with neutral density filters. "
03/01/2013 - "Inter-ocular differences in latency rose to about 20-25 ms when the pupil diameter of the non-dominant eye was reduced to 1.5 mm. The measurements with fixed pupil and varying luminance suggested that the observed effects were explicable in terms of the changes in retinal illuminance produced by the restrictions in pupil area. "
5. iridalIBA
6. PapillitisIBA
7. Fluorescein (Funduscein)FDA LinkGeneric
06/01/1996 - "All patients at presentation, had full ophthalmological examination, fluorescein angiography, relative afferent pupillary defect test and electroretinography to distinguish between ischaemic and non-ischaemic occlusions. "
02/01/1996 - "A healthy young white female presented with acute, unilateral loss of visual field and an afferent pupillary defect, but normal visual acuity, color vision, fundus examination, and fluorescein angiogram. "
01/01/1992 - "In addition, relative afferent pupillary defect, enlargement of the blind spot, a decrease in the critical fusion frequency, staining of the optic disc on fluorescein angiography and prolonged latency of the P100 component with decreased amplitude in pattern-reversal visual evoked cortical potential strongly suggested dysfunction of the optic nerve in this patient."
01/01/1990 - "There were four functional tests [visual acuity, visual fields, relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD), electroretinography (ERG)] and two morphologic tests (ophthalmoscopy and fluorescein fundus angiography). "
09/01/1995 - "All eyes with relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) < or = 0.6 log units with edge light pupil cycle time (ELPCT) of 925 +/- 94 ms, visual acuity > or = 6/60 with minimal field defects proved to be of nonischemic CRVO, while eyes with RAPD > or = 0.9 log units with ELPCT of 4005 +/- 712 ms, visual acuity 3/60 with marked field defects proved to be of ischemic CRVO with evidence of retinal ischemia on fluorescein angiography. "
8. MioticsIBA
9. Gadolinium DTPA (Magnevist)FDA Link
10. Amlodipine (Norvasc)FDA LinkGeneric

Therapies and Procedures

1. Aftercare (After-Treatment)
2. Lasers (Laser)
3. Intraocular Lens Implantation
4. Decompression
5. Vitrectomy