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Proinsulin

A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.
Networked: 750 relevant articles (11 outcomes, 98 trials/studies)

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Bio-Agent Context: Research Results

Experts

1. Pfützner, Andreas: 13 articles (01/2015 - 01/2003)
2. Forst, Thomas: 12 articles (05/2012 - 01/2003)
3. Zethelius, Björn: 9 articles (03/2014 - 05/2002)
4. Weiss, Michael A: 8 articles (08/2014 - 01/2009)
5. Lind, Lars: 7 articles (03/2014 - 03/2003)
6. Marx, Nikolaus: 7 articles (03/2013 - 03/2004)
7. Maffioli, Pamela: 6 articles (07/2014 - 06/2010)
8. Derosa, Giuseppe: 6 articles (07/2014 - 06/2010)
9. Forst, T: 6 articles (06/2013 - 01/2005)
10. Zethelius, B: 6 articles (01/2009 - 01/2000)

Related Diseases

1. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (Autoimmune Diabetes)
2. Hyperglycemia
3. Chronic Kidney Failure (Chronic Renal Failure)
4. Insulin Resistance
5. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (MODY)

Related Drugs and Biologics

1. Insulin (Novolin)
2. C-Peptide
3. Glucose (Dextrose)
4. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
5. Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein (Anakinra)
6. Glipizide (Glucotrol)
7. Adiponectin
8. Leptin
9. Complementary DNA (cDNA)
10. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1

Related Therapies and Procedures

1. Kidney Transplantation
2. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
3. Transplantation (Transplant Recipients)
4. Aftercare (After-Treatment)
5. Pancreatectomy