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Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A (PAPP-A)

A product of the PLACENTA, and DECIDUA, secreted into the maternal circulation during PREGNANCY. It has been identified as an IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-4 protease that proteolyzes IGFBP-4 and thus increases IGF bioavailability. It is found also in human FIBROBLASTS, ovarian FOLLICULAR FLUID, and GRANULOSA CELLS. The enzyme is a heterotetramer of about 500-kDa.
Also Known As:
PAPP-A; IGFBP-4 Metalloproteinase; IGFBP-4 Protease; IGFBP-4-Specific Proteinase; Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Dependent IGF Binding Protein-4 Protease; Insulin-Like-Growth Factor Binding Protein-4 Protease; PAPP-alpha; Pregnancy Associated alpha Plasma Protein; Pregnancy-Associated alpha-Plasma Protein; IGFBP 4 Metalloproteinase; IGFBP 4 Protease; Insulin Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 4 Protease; Insulin Like Growth Factor Dependent IGF Binding Protein 4 Protease; Metalloproteinase, IGFBP-4; PAPP alpha; Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein A; Protease, IGFBP-4
Networked: 788 relevant articles (24 outcomes, 145 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Bio-Agent Context: Research Results

Experts

1. Nicolaides, K H: 51 articles (09/2015 - 05/2000)
2. Nicolaides, Kypros H: 40 articles (11/2015 - 10/2002)
3. Spencer, K: 39 articles (09/2015 - 02/2000)
4. Conover, Cheryl A: 30 articles (12/2015 - 04/2002)
5. Spencer, Kevin: 25 articles (11/2013 - 10/2002)
6. Oxvig, Claus: 20 articles (12/2015 - 04/2002)
7. Wright, D: 20 articles (07/2015 - 05/2008)
8. Kagan, K O: 18 articles (04/2013 - 09/2007)
9. Bale, Laurie K: 14 articles (10/2015 - 04/2002)
10. Christiansen, Michael: 13 articles (03/2015 - 03/2002)

Related Diseases

1. Down Syndrome (Down's Syndrome)
2. Pre-Eclampsia (Preeclampsia)
3. Acute Coronary Syndrome
4. Neoplasms (Cancer)
5. Chromosome Aberrations (Chromosome Abnormalities)

Related Drugs and Biologics

1. Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A (PAPP-A)
2. Chorionic Gonadotropin (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)
3. Biological Markers (Surrogate Marker)
4. alpha-Fetoproteins (AFP)
5. Placental Hormones
6. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-1)
7. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (Tumor Necrosis Factor)
8. Pregnancy-Specific beta 1-Glycoproteins
9. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases (TIMP)
10. Messenger RNA (mRNA)

Related Therapies and Procedures

1. Stents
2. Cesarean Section (Caesarean Section)
3. Ligation
4. Transplantation (Transplant Recipients)
5. Renal Dialysis (Hemodialysis)