|4.||Legionnaires' Disease (Legionnaire's Disease)
|5.||Human Influenza (Influenza)
|1.||van der Poll, Tom: 31 articles (07/2015 - 01/2002)|
|2.||Florquin, Sandrine: 23 articles (11/2014 - 01/2002)|
|3.||van 't Veer, Cornelis: 11 articles (07/2015 - 03/2004)|
|4.||Roelofs, Joris J T H: 10 articles (07/2015 - 01/2010)|
|5.||Schouten, Marcel: 10 articles (03/2015 - 04/2009)|
|6.||Suttorp, Norbert: 9 articles (06/2015 - 06/2006)|
|7.||Levi, Marcel: 9 articles (03/2015 - 04/2002)|
|8.||Rijneveld, Anita W: 9 articles (06/2006 - 01/2002)|
|9.||Musher, Daniel M: 8 articles (10/2015 - 07/2004)|
|10.||Mancuso, Peter: 8 articles (07/2015 - 01/2006)|
|1.||Penicillins (Penicillin)FDA Link
07/01/1979 - "Pneumococcal pneumonia in rats with intact host defense mechanisms could be successfully cured by penicillin. "
03/28/1998 - "Different clinical studies have demonstrated that mortality due to pneumococcal pneumonia has not been affected by the development of resistant strains, eventually because the strains involved belong to less invasive serotypes than penicillin susceptible pneumococci. "
01/01/1994 - "This study suggests that 80% of the community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia in a population with a high prevalence rate of disease requiring hospital admission are very sensitive in vitro to penicillin in contrast with its seldom clinical use in the authors environment. "
04/01/1956 - "The relevance of these in vitro observations to the curative action of penicillin was demonstrated in a systematic histologic study of the antimicrobial effect of the drug in experimental (type I) pneumococcal pneumonia. "
02/01/1950 - "Immunological studies of pneumococcal pneumonia in patients treated with penicillin."
11/06/2012 - "Effective protection against secondary pneumococcal pneumonia by oral vaccination with attenuated Salmonella delivering PspA antigen in mice."
02/01/1993 - "Detection of pneumococcal antigen may help to increase the rate of diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia. "
01/01/2012 - "The present study was conducted to characterize the clinical features of pneumococcal pneumonia after the introduction of the urinary antigen test. "
01/01/2012 - "The urinary pneumococcal antigen test has been increasingly used for the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia, but there have been few studies on pneumococcal pneumonia after this test became prevalent. "
10/01/2011 - "This study was designed to determine whether a newly designed urinary antigen test score correlated with severity of pneumococcal pneumonia in children. "
|3.||Pneumococcal Vaccines (Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine)IBA
01/01/2010 - "To determine the efficacy of a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in people at high risk of pneumococcal pneumonia. "
01/01/2000 - "The efficacy of pneumococcal vaccines in protecting against pneumococcal pneumonia can feasibly be measured only with a diagnostic technique that has a high specificity (0.98 to 1.00) and a sensitivity greatly exceeding that of blood cultures (>0.2 to 0.3). "
07/30/1999 - "Randomized controlled trials have shown that pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is efficacious in preventing pneumococcal bacteraemia and pneumococcal pneumonia in young adults. "
10/01/2015 - "This is particularly true for pneumococcal pneumonia in older adults; therefore, the standing committee on vaccination of the Robert Koch Institute (STIKO) recommends a once only vaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine for all persons aged 60 years and over. "
10/01/2012 - "Serial refinements permitted Colin MacLeod and Michael Heidelberger to conduct a 1944-45 clinical trial of quadrivalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV), demonstrating a high degree of efficacy in soldiers against pneumococcal pneumonia. "
|4.||Anti-Bacterial Agents (Antibiotics)IBA
02/01/2015 - "The initial parenteral antibiotics were not related to the progression of pneumococcal pneumonia."
02/01/2015 - "There was no difference in choice of initial parenteral antibiotics between groups of progressive and non-progressive pneumococcal pneumonia. "
06/01/2014 - "The yield of sputum culture in bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia after initiation of antibiotics."
09/01/2011 - "Both actual antibiotics available and new antibiotics that may have a role in the treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia are extensively reviewed. "
09/01/2011 - "Nowadays, despite excellent antibiotics being available, mortality of pneumococcal pneumonia remains high. "
|5.||Amoxicillin (Wymox)FDA LinkGeneric
03/01/2005 - "Pulmonary damage and bacterial load in assessment of the efficacy of simulated human treatment-like amoxicillin (2,000 milligrams) therapy of experimental pneumococcal pneumonia caused by strains for which amoxicillin MICs differ."
08/01/2004 - "There is a non-significant trend to higher mortality in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia caused by intermediately resistant strains; however, they do not have a poorer outcome when they are treated with amoxicillin."
10/25/2003 - "The third patient died, despite extensive treatment, of multiorgan failure and sloughing of 70% of the skin, probably as a reaction to amoxicillin given for pneumococcal pneumonia."
12/01/1999 - "In view of our results, the guidance to increase the amoxicillin-loading dose in pneumococcal pneumonia appears to be immediately clinically relevant."
09/01/2005 - "Efficacy of pulsatile amoxicillin and clarithromycin dosing alone and in combination in a murine pneumococcal pneumonia model."
|6.||Clarithromycin (Biaxin)FDA LinkGeneric
06/01/1992 - "Individual efficacy of clarithromycin (A-56268) and its major human metabolite 14-hydroxy clarithromycin (A-62671) in experimental pneumococcal pneumonia in the mouse."
06/01/1992 - "An experimental mouse model was used to compare the efficacy of clarithromycin versus 14-OH clarithromycin in pneumococcal pneumonia by treatment with either the parent drug or its 14-OH metabolite alone. "
05/01/2002 - "Pharmacodynamic assessment of clarithromycin in a murine model of pneumococcal pneumonia."
01/01/2002 - "High efficacy of clarithromycin for the treatment of moderate and mild pneumonia (including pneumococcal pneumonia) was demonstrated. "
02/01/1989 - "TE-031 was effective in all cases of mycoplasmal pneumonia, pneumococcal pneumonia, streptococcal pharyngitis, pertussis and Campylobacter gastroenteritis. "
|7.||Ceftriaxone (Ceftriaxon)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2010 - "Remarkably, homozygous FVL mice were strongly protected against death due to pneumococcal pneumonia when treated with ceftriaxone, which was associated with more pronounced FXIII depletion; this protective effect was not observed in the absence of antibiotic therapy. "
05/01/2005 - "Ceftriaxone pharmacokinetics in interleukin-10-treated murine pneumococcal pneumonia."
07/15/2003 - "To determine the effect that treatment with anti-TNF has on pneumococcal pneumonia, mice were intranasally inoculated with Streptococcus pneumoniae and, 25 h later, treated with 1 of the following: (1) control antibody, (2) anti-TNF, (3) ceftriaxone (CEF) with control antibody, or (4) CEF with anti-TNF. "
05/01/2002 - "therefore was as effective as ceftriaxone in experimental pneumococcal pneumonia, whereas the 25-mg/kg b.i.d. "
05/01/2002 - "The pharmacodynamic activity and in vivo efficacy of linezolid were compared to those of ceftriaxone in an immunocompetent rat model of pneumococcal pneumonia. "
10/01/2015 - "Thus, there are two vaccines for prevention of pneumococcal diseases: one with a broader range of serotype coverage but with an uncertain protection against non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia and another one with less serotype coverage but more effective protection. "
05/01/2015 - "The morbidity and mortality associated with pneumococcal pneumonia can be prevented with access to vaccines and treatment. "
01/01/2011 - "An evaluation of emerging vaccines for childhood pneumococcal pneumonia."
02/01/2010 - "Potential role for mucosally active vaccines against pneumococcal pneumonia."
06/01/2008 - "To provide information on pneumococcal pneumonias, on their associated serotypes, and to estimate the coverage potentially afforded by antipneumococcal vaccines. "
|9.||Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF)IBA
04/15/2004 - "The present study sought to determine the role of endogenous G-CSF in host defense against pneumococcal pneumonia. "
04/15/2004 - "Activation of neutrophils and inhibition of the proinflammatory cytokine response by endogenous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in murine pneumococcal pneumonia."
01/01/2001 - "The effect of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) in a murine model of pneumococcal pneumonia was examined. "
07/01/1996 - "These data suggest that despite increasing numbers of circulating and pulmonary PMNL, G-CSF does not protect against fatal pneumococcal pneumonia in cirrhotic rats."
07/01/1996 - "Effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in cirrhotic rats with pneumococcal pneumonia."
|10.||Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol)IBA
05/01/1999 - "A rat model of ethanol feeding was used to study the effects of ethanol on antibiotic therapy of pneumococcal pneumonia. "
01/01/2006 - "Achievement of adequate antibiotic-free fraction area under the concentration-time curve/MIC ratios helps overcome ethanol-induced immune defects induced in experimental pneumococcal pneumonia."
01/01/2006 - "This investigation compared the effect of ethanol on fluoroquinolone antibiotic efficacy and pharmacodynamics in an ethanol-fed rat model of pneumococcal pneumonia. "
01/01/2006 - "Effect of ethanol on fluoroquinolone efficacy in a rat model of pneumococcal pneumonia."
12/01/1997 - "Vaccination with protein-conjugated and native type 3 capsular polysaccharide in an ethanol-fed rat model of pneumococcal pneumonia."
01/01/1998 - "The current study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of partial liquid ventilation with a perfluorocarbon (FC-77) in the treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia in rats. "
01/01/1998 - "These observations suggest that partial liquid ventilation with perfluorocarbon in combination with antibiotic administration may be an effective therapeutic modality in pneumococcal pneumonia."
01/01/1998 - "Partial liquid ventilation with perfluorocarbon in the treatment of rats with lethal pneumococcal pneumonia."
02/01/2002 - "Liquid ventilation with perflubron in the treatment of rats with pneumococcal pneumonia."
|2.||Intensive Care (Surgical Intensive Care)
12/01/1996 - "The intensive care management, mortality and prognostic indicators in severe community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia."
01/01/1989 - "A retrospective study analyzing the case notes of 49 hospitalized adults, either in intensive care (n = 26) or in thoracic medicine units (n = 23), for acute bacteriologically proven pneumococcal pneumonia based on samples obtained other than by sputum examination. "
06/13/1992 - "The prognosis of pneumococcal pneumonia with a fulminant course has not improved in the last few decades despite proper antibiotics and intensive care treatment. "
10/01/2011 - "Patients in group I had significantly more respiratory distress (p = 0.01), oxygen desaturation (p = 0.04), febrile days (p = 0.03), pulmonary complications (p = 0.01), and bacteremia (p = 0.01), greater requirement for intensive care (p = 0.004), longer hospital stays (p < 0.001), and lower white blood cell counts (p = 0.01) than patients in group II or III. A new urinary pneumococcal antigen test score correlated well with the severity of pneumococcal pneumonia in children. "
|4.||Length of Stay
05/01/2008 - "In the current study we assess the combined impact of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic timing on outcomes, including inhospital mortality, complications, length of stay, and time to stability, for patients hospitalized with community-acquired bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia. "
01/01/2015 - "Our findings suggest that in patients aged <65 years, age and serum ChE and T-cho levels were associated with both the severity of pneumococcal pneumonia and length of stay. "
07/01/2007 - "Patients with bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia treated with empiric combination therapy had no significant difference in mortality; however, they did have increased length of stay after adjusting for severity of illness. "