|1.||Hypogonadism (Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism)
|3.||Pituitary Neoplasms (Pituitary Adenoma)
|5.||Hypoglycemia (Reactive Hypoglycemia)
|1.||Ghigo, E: 6 articles (09/2008 - 06/2004)|
|2.||Aimaretti, G: 5 articles (09/2008 - 06/2004)|
|3.||Ghigo, Ezio: 4 articles (11/2015 - 09/2004)|
|4.||Vance, Mary Lee: 4 articles (03/2014 - 08/2003)|
|5.||Corneli, G: 4 articles (09/2008 - 03/2005)|
|6.||Di Somma, C: 4 articles (09/2008 - 06/2004)|
|7.||Guaraldi, Federica: 3 articles (05/2014 - 01/2013)|
|8.||Salvatori, Roberto: 3 articles (05/2014 - 08/2009)|
|9.||Agha, Amar: 3 articles (03/2011 - 06/2004)|
|10.||Monson, John P: 3 articles (03/2011 - 01/2003)|
|1.||Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)FDA Link
05/01/2000 - "A comparison of the 1-microgram and the 250-microgram ACTH stimulation tests in healthy controls and in patients with pituitary disease whose HPA axis status was characterized formally by a gold standard test. "
08/01/2000 - "The aim of our study was to define the normal response to 1 microgram ACTH stimulation in a control population and to study the sensitivity and specificity of the test in a group of patients with suspected pituitary disease. "
03/01/2010 - "In our prospective series of patients with pituitary disease, GST is a potential alternative test for the assessment of GH reserve, but is a poor test for ACTH reserve. "
01/01/2010 - "The low-dose (1 microg) corticotropin test may be superior to standard-dose (250 mcg) for patients with suspected hypothalamic-pituitary disease."
11/01/2007 - "In our meta-analysis of patients with pituitary disease without ACTH or GH excess, SMR was significantly higher in women than in men. "
|2.||Insulin (Novolin)FDA Link
05/01/2010 - "Recovery of pituitary function in the late-postoperative phase after pituitary surgery: results of dynamic testing in patients with pituitary disease by insulin tolerance test 3 and 12 months after surgery."
08/01/2008 - "Generally, the insulin tolerance test (ITT) is useful for examining the HPA axis in both hypothalamic and pituitary diseases; however, ITT has a number of disadvantages. "
12/01/2007 - "In 2000 and 2001, we tested 142 adult patients with hypothalamo-pituitary disorders for somatotropic function using Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT), the reference test for the diagnosis of GHD, with concomitant Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) determination, a marker of somatotropic function. "
07/01/2002 - "An audit of the insulin-tolerance test in 255 patients with pituitary disease."
04/01/2000 - "The insulin tolerance test (ITT) is widely accepted as the method of choice to evaluate GH secretion capacity in adults with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders. "
03/01/1969 - "Studies of metyrapone responses in patients with pituitary disease."
01/01/2003 - "Abnormal responses should be considered diagnostic, while normal responses, especially in newly onset or recent pituitary disease, should be followed by either ITT or metyrapone test. "
08/01/2000 - "The overnight metyrapone test was performed only in the subjects with pituitary disease. "
11/01/1964 - "METHOPYRAPONE TESTS IN HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY DISEASE."
08/01/2000 - "The 65 patients with pituitary disease were categorized according to the 11-deoxycortisol response to metyrapone as follows: 53 normal (11-deoxycortisol > 200 nmol/l) and 12 subnormal (< 200 nmol/l). "
|4.||Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH)FDA Link
01/01/2009 - "The main cause can be traced back to an irregular or absent hypothalamic GnRH secretion, whereas only a minority suffers from a pituitary disorder. "
01/01/1987 - "The response of patients with organic hypothalamic-pituitary disease to pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy."
11/01/1985 - "LH and FSH responses to intravenous bolus GnRH were evaluated in healthy men and women and in patients with various hypothalmo-pituitary disorders. "
10/15/1980 - "Response to repetitive luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone stimulation in hypothalamic and pituitary disease."
01/01/1980 - "LH-releasing hormone stimulation test in pituitary diseases."
|5.||Hydrocortisone (Cortisol)FDA LinkGeneric
04/01/2002 - "Our study showed that patients with pituitary disease had significantly lower plasma cortisol response after oCRH than controls. "
03/01/1999 - "The results of this study indicate that both SST and LDSST, at a cortisol cut-off of 600 nmol/L, are safe for the purpose of clinical decision-making with regard to steroid replacement therapy in patients with pituitary disease. "
06/01/2015 - "We compared hair cortisol concentrations (CORT(hair)) of patients with primary or secondary AI on replacement therapy with those of patient controls with a pituitary disease without AI (PCs) and of healthy controls (HCs). "
03/01/2015 - "Exclusion criteria include those with a history of adrenal/pituitary disease or medications altering cortisol level. "
07/01/2014 - "For patients with known pituitary disease (n = 152), basal cortisol of >214 nmol/l (sensitivity 85% and specificity 71%) may obviate the need for SST in the appropriate clinical context, although 330 nmol/l gives a specificity of 95%. "
|6.||Growth Hormone (Somatotropin)IBA
10/01/2004 - "Growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy for children and adults with proven GH deficiency due to a pituitary disorder has become an accepted therapy with proven efficacy. "
11/01/2010 - "Twenty six male subjects with growth hormone deficiency (peak GH response <5 microg/L after appropriate stimulation) due to pituitary disorders were recruited for the study in a tertiary care institute in north India. "
01/01/1999 - "Growth hormone replacement therapy in the elderly with hypothalamic-pituitary disease: a dose-finding study."
03/01/2007 - "The management of adults who have severe growth hormone deficiency (GHD) includes its recognition in susceptible patients, including all subjects who have any form of hypothalamic pituitary disorder. "
08/01/2002 - "Growth hormone deficiency in pituitary disease: relationship to depression, apathy and somatic complaints."
03/01/1991 - "The present study aimed at evaluating the anterior pituitary hormone levels in the inferior petrosal sinuses and in the peripheral blood of 55 patients affected by various pituitary disorders and undergoing perihypophysial phlebography on neurosurgical indication or for diagnostic purposes. "
01/01/1991 - "Four different studies of sexual problems and sexual dysfunction in patients with hypothalamo-pituitary disorders have been undertaken and data about the sex life of the patients have been correlated with diagnosis, tumour extension and pathology, endocrine insufficiency and pituitary hormone hypersecretion. "
01/01/2013 - "For the cohort as a whole, the best predictors of persistent GHD (100% PPV) were history of organic hypothalamic-pituitary disorder or ≥2 additional pituitary hormone deficiencies (PHD). "
03/01/2011 - "The group at highest risk are those with organic pituitary disease or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. "
03/01/2010 - "Elucidating pituitary SRIF receptor signaling enables understanding of pituitary hormone secretion and cell growth, and also encourages future therapeutic development for pituitary disorders."
|8.||Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-1)IBA
01/01/2007 - "Although serum IGF-I cannot be used as a stand-alone test for the diagnosis of adult GH deficiency, very low IGF-I levels in the context of documented hypothalamic or pituitary disease may be helpful in identifying patients with a high probability of GH deficiency. "
09/01/2008 - "This GHIGF- I secretive pattern resembles that of severe GH deficiency in adulthood due to pituitary diseases, but without leading to IGF-I serum levels below the normal range. "
03/01/2005 - "In all, the GHRH+ARG test and measurement of IGF-I are able to evidence different degrees of GHD in adult patients with pituitary disease."
01/01/2003 - "Elderly adults who have hypothalamic-pituitary disease have a degree of GHD that can be distinguished from the decline in GH and IGF-I levels that is seen with normal ageing. "
11/01/2000 - "Compared with control subjects, the elderly female patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disease and GHD had a significantly higher total fat mass, with the WHR indicating a more central fat distribution and lower female serum IGF-1 levels. "
09/01/1982 - "These studies further reveal the presence of an additional hypothalamic-pituitary disorder of gonadotropin secretion associated with the aging process."
02/01/1977 - "Accurate measurement of basal gonadotropins and the expression of LRF responses as per cent increments aided in distinguishing between patients with hypothalamic and pituitary diseases. "
03/01/2010 - "Pituitary disorders namely Cushing's disease; acromegaly; prolactinoma; TSH-secreting, gonadotropin-producing, and clinically nonfunctioning adenomas; craniopharyngioma; and Sheehan's syndrome, which is one of the most common causes of hypopituitarism, lymphocytic hypophysitis, and hypopituitarism, in relation to pregnancy are discussed. "
12/01/1976 - "In subjects with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism there was no significant difference in mean basal LH levels and mean response to LRF between patients with primarily pituitary disease (pituitary tumors or Sheehan's syndrome) and conditions which might represent hypothalamic disease (hypothalamic tumors or idiopathic gonadotropin deficiency). "
05/01/2006 - "In conclusion, in men with HH due to hypothalamic-pituitary disease or injury, the pituitary-testicular hormonal axis maintains its physiological negative feedback between testosterone and gonadotropins. "
|10.||Anterior Pituitary HormonesIBA
10/26/2012 - "By raising awareness with general practitioners of pituitary disease, with potential for deficiency of other anterior pituitary hormones, would focus more specific questioning on related symptoms."
01/01/1988 - "We conclude that no specific or etiologic abnormalities are present in the pituitary glands of subjects with anorexia nervosa and that the altered secretion of adenohypophyseal hormones often noted in patients with this disorder cannot be attributed to a primary pituitary disorder."
07/01/1981 - "Plasma ACTH concentrations following metyrapone were significantly lower in patients with pituitary disease with no evidence of anterior pituitary hormone deficiency (mean 90.0 +/- SD 63.9 ng/l) when compared with normal individuals (mean 182.5 +/- SD 14.1 ng/l, P leads than 0.01) but significantly greater than in patients with pituitary disease in whom a deficiency of one or more anterior pituitary hormones was demonstrated (mean 50.8 +/- SD 14.1 ng/l, P less than 0.01). "
07/01/2008 - "Cushing's Disease: Pituitary Surgery versus Adrenalectomy."
10/01/1983 - "This case demonstrates that patients with normal menstruation can have significant pituitary disease, and it exemplifies the need for regular follow-up examination to look for radiologic abnormalities in patients who have had adrenalectomy for treatment of Cushing's disease."
09/01/1980 - "It is recommended that in the rate case where total adrenalectomy is required in Cushing's disease, pituitary irradiation should be given before or shortly after adrenalectomy. "
02/01/1998 - "We performed bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomies on four patients (three women and one man) with Cushing's disease (pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome) showing persistent hypercortisolism after transsphenoidal surgery. "
07/01/2002 - "The final clinicopathological diagnosis was virilization in 4 cases, Cushing's syndrome in 2, pheochromocytoma in 2, neuroblastoma in 2, Cushing's pituitary disease in 1, teratoma in 1 and primary carcinoma in 1. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is feasible and shows positive results in select pediatric patients."
01/01/2007 - "According to previous studies, both surgery type and subsequent radiotherapy may have an impact on quality of life (QOL), and some studies have shown increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with pituitary disease. "
11/01/2009 - "Conversion of IGHD into MPHD was not predicted by aetiology, baseline characteristics, surgery or radiotherapy, whereas in MPHD additional deficits were predicted by age (P<0.001) and pituitary disease duration (P<0.01). "
01/01/2009 - "Questions remain unanswered, and the use of conventional external beam radiotherapy in the management of pituitary disease must involve a critical risk-benefit analysis in each case."
11/01/2005 - "However, in view of advances in the techniques of radiotherapy planning and administration, neurosurgery and pharmacological manipulation of the pituitary, there are a growing number of questions and controversies surrounding the current and future use of pituitary radiotherapy in the management of pituitary disease."
11/01/2005 - "External beam radiotherapy has been used extensively in the management of patients with pituitary disease. "
02/01/2008 - "Regarding the appropriate clinical context for the suspicion of adult GHD, one should evaluate patients with hypothalamic or pituitary disease or a history of cranial irradiation, as well as those with childhood-onset GHD are at obvious risk as adults for severe GHD. "
09/01/2008 - "Regarding who to test for GHD, advice should be extended from primitive hypothalamic- pituitary diseases and cranial irradiation to include brain injuries (Traumatic Brain Injury in particular). "
12/01/2007 - "Testing for GHD should be extended from hypothalamic-pituitary disease and cranial irradiation to include traumatic brain injury. "
06/01/2003 - "Optic pathway tumors cause PP, but cranial irradiation causes most of the other hypothalamic-pituitary disorders. "
04/01/2003 - "Consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of adult GHD recommend provocative testing of GH secretion for patients who have evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary disease, patients with childhood-onset GHD, and patients who have undergone cranial irradiation or have a history of head trauma. "
|4.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)