|5.||Wounds and Injuries (Trauma)
|1.||Webster, Joan: 10 articles (10/2015 - 05/2007)|
|2.||Rickard, Claire M: 9 articles (10/2015 - 09/2009)|
|3.||Uchida, Kazushige: 5 articles (10/2015 - 12/2005)|
|4.||Okazaki, Kazuichi: 5 articles (10/2015 - 12/2005)|
|5.||Marsh, Nicole: 5 articles (10/2015 - 02/2014)|
|6.||Lanbeck, Peter: 5 articles (04/2015 - 01/2002)|
|7.||Yamada, Takaaki: 5 articles (01/2015 - 01/2010)|
|8.||Smyrk, Thomas C: 5 articles (02/2014 - 12/2004)|
|9.||Kohno, Emiko: 4 articles (03/2015 - 01/2008)|
|10.||Osborne, Sonya: 4 articles (01/2015 - 05/2007)|
|1.||Heparin (Liquaemin)FDA LinkGeneric
11/01/1991 - "It can be concluded that saline is as effective as heparin in maintaining patency, preventing phlebitis, and increasing duration in peripheral intravenous locks. "
07/01/1999 - "We also designed a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of heparin added to antimicrobial therapy for treatment of women with septic phlebitis. "
03/01/2013 - "Lower phlebitis rates were also observed with heparin usage; however, the results did not reach significance. "
12/01/2012 - "Patients with either phlebitis or occlusion were 45 (42.1%) in the heparin group and 68 (63.6%) in the saline group (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.24-0.72; p= 0.002); patients with occlusion alone were 23 (21.5%) and 47 (43.9%), respectively (p= 0.03); patients with phlebitis alone were 28 (26.2%) and 56 (52.6%) respectively (p= <0.001). "
05/01/2008 - "The incidence of phlebitis increased with heparin flushes. "
01/01/1968 - "[Histological studies on preretinal changes in retinal periphlebitis]."
01/01/1966 - "[Catamnestic studies in retinal periphlebitis]."
05/01/1961 - "[Contribution to the study of retinal periphlebitis]."
01/01/2015 - "Retinal periphlebitis was an early sign of PE. "
12/01/2013 - "Nodules occasionally invaded the inner retina, causing segmental retinal phlebitis in 2 eyes. "
|3.||Immunoglobulin G (IgG)IBA
12/01/2013 - "The proportion of proliferating spindle cells, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, obstructive phlebitis, IgG4+ plasma cells and the ratio of IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cells, and ALK expression are helpful in differentiating these morphologically similar but biologically different lesions, which require different treatment modalities."
04/01/2014 - "IgG4 related disease is a recently emerging entity characterized by a diffuse or mass forming inflammatory reaction rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells associated with fibrosclerosis and obliterative phlebitis. "
11/01/2013 - "In situ hybridization revealed CCL1 to be predominantly expressed in the pancreatic duct epithelium, peribiliary glands, and vascular endothelial cells including the ones involved in obliterative phlebitis in IgG4-SC/AIP, in contrast to IgG4(high) PSC where this chemotactic factor was positive in several infiltrating lymphocytes. "
09/01/2009 - "In addition, the evaluation of IgG4+ plasma cells and the ratio of IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cells and the presence of obstructive phlebitis may be useful for the differential diagnosis between IMT and IgG4-related sclerosing disease."
03/01/2015 - "Histology continues to represent the gold standard for the diagnosis of IgG4 related disease: storiform-type fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis constitute characteristic features of this disease. "
|4.||Cephalothin (Cefalotin)FDA Link
04/01/1976 - "Significant reduction in the incidence of phlebitis with buffered versus unbuffered cephalothin."
10/01/1982 - "No serious adverse reactions were encountered in either group, but phlebitis was significantly more common in patients receiving cephalothin. "
11/01/1980 - "The cephalothin solution used currently is neutral in pH, but prevention of phlebitis is still not perfect. "
11/01/1980 - "When cephalothin was introduced commercially, the frequency of phlebitis was as high as 50%. "
06/01/1977 - "Prevention of cephalothin-induced phlebitis."
|5.||Amiodarone (Amiodarona)FDA LinkGeneric
11/01/2014 - "The results of this study suggest that the implementation of a peripheral amiodarone infusion guideline reduced the incidence and severity of amiodarone-related phlebitis in the cardiac population. "
11/01/2014 - "Peripheral amiodarone-related phlebitis: an institutional nursing guideline to reduce patient harm."
11/01/2013 - "Amiodarone-induced phlebitis occurred in 40% of this sample at higher drug dosages. "
11/01/2013 - "Route of administration, location, concentration, and duration of amiodarone therapy and factors associated with occurrence of phlebitis were examined. "
11/01/2013 - "Objectives To determine the incidence and factors contributing to the development of amiodarone-induced phlebitis in the coronary care unit in an academic medical center and to refine the current practice protocol. "
|6.||Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon)FDA Link
03/01/1981 - "The risk of phlebitis was significantly greater with Teflon catheters (18.8 percent with Teflon catheters, 8.8 percent with steel needles, adjusted odds ratio 1.87). "
01/01/1988 - "A study was conducted to assess the duration of life of the Teflon catheter used for intravenous therapy in neonates, the incidence of phlebitis associated with this catheter, and the factors which contribute to catheter life and phlebitis. "
05/01/2002 - "Peripheral Teflon catheters: factors determining incidence of phlebitis and duration of cannulation."
11/01/1992 - "Chemical phlebitis occurred in 17% of fine-bore catheters and 91.4% of Teflon catheters. "
01/01/1988 - "The Teflon intravenous catheter: incidence of phlebitis and duration of catheter life in the neonatal patient."
|7.||vinorelbine (Navelbine)FDA LinkGeneric
09/01/2008 - "Veins proximal to the injection site were warmed using hot compresses during the vinorelbine injection and physiological saline was increased to wash out the drug after the injection from 250 mL to 500 mL in combination to investigate whether the treatment was effective in preventing phlebitis. "
01/01/2008 - "Methods of preventing vinorelbine-induced phlebitis: an experimental study in rabbits."
01/01/2009 - "We have already reported that both rapid infusion and dilution of the injection solution were effective methods for reducing phlebitis caused by vinorelbine (VNR) in rabbits. "
09/01/2008 - "The comparison of patient characteristics to find other contributing factors to phlebitis than vinorelbine revealed no association with the number of doses, diameter of the vein to be punctured, or pretreatment."
09/01/2008 - "The combination of hot compresses and increase of physiological saline for washing out was an effective treatment to prevent phlebitis caused by vinorelbine. "
09/01/1984 - "The risk of phlebitis at 48 hr was significantly greater in the daily dressing change group as compared with the group that had dressings changed every 48 hr or with those using the polyurethane dressing (p less than 0.05). "
09/01/1997 - "A trend toward lower frequencies of phlebitis (1.8% vs 3.3%) and infiltration (17.6% vs 20.7%) was noted in the patients with the transparent polyurethane dressings. "
02/01/1997 - "Tissue irritation, as evidenced by phlebitis, associated with Optiva (Johnson & Johnson Medical) and Insyte (Becton Dickinson) polyurethane cannulae was studied. "
12/01/1996 - "Tissue irritation, as evidenced by phlebitis, associated with Optiva (Johnson & Johnson Medical) and Insyte (Becton Dickinson) polyurethane cannulae was studied. "
06/01/1988 - "Bacterial colonization and phlebitis-associated risk with transparent polyurethane film for peripheral intravenous site dressings."
|9.||Sodium Chloride (Saline Solution)FDA LinkGeneric
02/01/1992 - "Results indicated that heparinized saline is not needed to maintain the patency of an intermittent intravenous site, and the use of saline solution alone is less irritating, causes less phlebitis, is less expensive to patients, and saves nursing time."
11/01/1990 - "The results from this controlled study would suggest that 0.9% sodium chloride is as effective as 10 units of heparin in sodium chloride solution in maintaining intermittent infusion device patency and preventing phlebitis."
05/01/1991 - "The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine if the patency of the peripheral intermittent intravenous device (PIID) would be maintained as effectively with a sodium chloride solution as with a dilute heparin solution and to determine if a sodium chloride solution could be used with fewer local complications (i.e., infiltration, phlebitis). "
12/01/2012 - "Heparin 100 U/mL in the maintenance of peripheral venous catheters was more effective than saline solution, in that it reduced the number of catheter-related phlebitis/occlusions and the number of catheters per patient, with potential advantages to both patients and the health system. "
12/01/2012 - "Three meta-analyses conducted in the 1990s concluded that the effect of intermittent flushing with heparin at low concentration (10 U/mL) was equivalent to that of 0.9% sodium chloride flushes in preventing occlusion or superficial phlebitis. "
|10.||Anti-Bacterial Agents (Antibiotics)IBA
01/01/2002 - "Antibiotics differ in their tendency to cause infusion phlebitis: a prospective observational study."
01/01/2011 - "Risk factors include: female sex, previous episode of phlebitis, insertion at (ventral) forearm, emergency placement and administration of antibiotics. "
03/01/2010 - "Some pH values measured characterize risk for the development of chemical phlebitis and infiltration, and it is important for clinical practice to emphasize the profile of intravenous solutions of antibiotics, considering method of dilution, and time to infusion."
10/01/2005 - "The use of intravenous antibiotics significantly increased the risk of phlebitis when compared to the administration of other types of medication."
12/01/2004 - "Many drugs, mainly antibiotics and cytotoxic drugs, have previously been reported to induce infusion phlebitis. "
02/01/1994 - "A significant reduction in the rate of phlebitis due to peripheral venous catheters has been demonstrated. "
04/01/2006 - "When the skin lesions had improved, phlebitis was found at the injection site of the peripheral vein catheter. "
10/01/1987 - "Thirty percent of the episodes developed after the catheter was removed, and premonitory symptoms were not helpful in predicting the onset of phlebitis. "
01/01/2015 - "There was very low quality evidence from the same single study of less frequent dislodgement or accidental catheter removal with bordered transparent dressings than securement devices (RR 0.14, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.63) but more phlebitis with bordered dressings (RR 8.11, 95% CI 1.03 to 64.02) (very low quality evidence). "
11/01/2014 - "This multi-centre prospective field study evaluated whether peripheral venous catheter site of insertion influences the risk of catheter-related phlebitis. "
|2.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
01/01/2015 - "In the multivariate analysis, the risk factors associated to chemical phlebitis were skin lesions (p = 0.001, RR 3.479), and additional dressing use (p = 0.007, RR 4.025); for mechanical malfunction the only risk factor was the administration of intravenous chemotherapy (p = 0.026, RR 4.293). "
05/01/2012 - "By preventing the development of severe phlebitis, patients are expected to continue effective chemotherapy with EPI without a decrease in QOL. "
01/01/2012 - "Infusion phlebitis (Ph) is a common and acute complication of chemotherapy. "
07/01/1990 - "Chemotherapy has been associated with an increased incidence of thromboembolic events, and patients treated with chemotherapy often develop evidence of local phlebitis, which may lead to loss of venous access. "
01/01/2011 - "This experimental and dose-response curve study aimed to carry out the quality control of the Chamomilla recutita sample, as well as to estimate the ideal dose, for anti-inflammatory effect, of the extract of its capitula, in patients with phlebitis due to peripheral intravenous infusion of antineoplastic chemotherapy and to evaluate the toxicity of this extract in human beings. "
01/01/1986 - "The addition of antiphlebitic mixture resulted in a marked and highly significant reduction in the incidence of phlebitis and a prolongation of the number of phlebitis-free hours during infusion of peripheral parenteral nutrition (p less than 0.005)."
02/01/1998 - "Dilution is effective in reducing infusion phlebitis in peripheral parenteral nutrition: an experimental study in rabbits."
02/01/1998 - "In this study, we investigated the phlebitic potentials of several infusion solutions for peripheral parenteral nutrition to clarify the effects of pH and osmolality on the development of infusion phlebitis. "
12/01/1991 - "A prospective and randomised study comparing the incidence of infusion phlebitis during continuous and cyclic peripheral parenteral nutrition."
09/01/2005 - "Two patients in the peripheral parenteral nutrition group developed low-grade phlebitis; however, this did not result in discontinuing intravenous therapy. "
01/01/2015 - "In general, intravenous AZM injections are diluted to 1 mg/mL, with a total infusion volume of 500 mL to avoid phlebitis. "
08/01/2005 - "Excluding this, 2,240 injections (97.5%) proceeded uneventfully, and no case of phlebitis was recorded. "
08/01/2003 - "These results support the use of the dynamic model in place of animals for preliminary phlebitis testing of new IV injectables."
01/01/2012 - "The physical compatibility, pharmacokinetic, and vascular irritability studies showed that, in comparison to the commercially available NIM injections, NIM-EPC-SGC-MMs presented better physical compatibility, the same pharmacokinetic profile, and less risk of local vascular irritation and phlebitis. "
01/01/1989 - "This is a retrospective analytical study of the results of prolonged heparin therapy: 4 to 6 days for calf phlebitis--10 days for phlebitis reaching the level of the inguinal ligament with in both cases subcutaneous heparin injections for a further 1 to 2 months. "
|5.||Bed Rest (Bedrest)
11/01/1981 - "The five-year follow-up in the group showed two 48-hour episodes of phlebitis cleared by home bed rest and food abstenance. "
10/01/1990 - "Several symptoms and signs can suggest the diagnosis: onset of the neurological disorders during an activity implying a Valsalva maneuver; onset during a recognized phlebitis of the legs of pelvis or, more often, in a clinical setting suggesting the possibility of phlebitis without overt symptoms and signs: post-partum, post-operative conditions with prolonged bed rest; concomitant pulmonary and cerebral embolism. "