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Parkinson Disease (Parkinson's Disease)

A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Also Known As:
Parkinson's Disease; Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease; Parkinsonism, Primary; Lewy Body Parkinson's Disease; Parkinson Disease, Idiopathic; Parkinson's Disease, Idiopathic; Parkinson's Disease, Lewy Body; Idiopathic Parkinson Disease; Lewy Body Parkinson Disease; Paralysis Agitans; Primary Parkinsonism
Networked: 28020 relevant articles (1751 outcomes, 3755 trials/studies) for this Disease, Comments

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Dyskinesias (Dyskinesia)
2. Alzheimer Disease (Alzheimer's Disease)
3. Neurodegenerative Diseases (Neurodegenerative Disease)
4. Tremor (Tremors)
5. Dementia (Dementias)

Experts

1. Masliah, Eliezer: 98 articles (10/2014 - 03/2002)
2. Lang, Anthony E: 93 articles (08/2014 - 01/2002)
3. Jankovic, Joseph: 90 articles (09/2014 - 02/2002)
4. Hattori, Nobutaka: 86 articles (11/2014 - 05/2002)
5. Okun, Michael S: 84 articles (10/2014 - 05/2002)
6. Rascol, Olivier: 74 articles (09/2014 - 01/2003)
7. Poewe, Werner: 74 articles (08/2014 - 03/2003)
8. Müller, Thomas: 73 articles (11/2014 - 04/2002)
9. Dawson, Ted M: 73 articles (11/2014 - 06/2002)
10. Bezard, Erwan: 72 articles (10/2014 - 03/2003)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Parkinson Disease:
1. Levodopa (L Dopa)FDA LinkGeneric
2. Dopamine (Intropin)FDA LinkGeneric
3. Dopamine Agonists (Dopamine Agonist)IBA
4. 1- Methyl- 4- phenyl- 1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)IBA
5. Selegiline (E250)FDA LinkGeneric
6. pramipexol (pramipexole)FDA LinkGeneric
7. Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF)IBA
8. ApomorphineIBA
9. Bromocriptine (Parlodel)FDA LinkGeneric
10. Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)IBA

Therapies and Procedures

1. Deep Brain Stimulation
2. Activities of Daily Living (ADL)
08/01/1999 - "For the first 3 to 6 months postoperatively, all patients showed a mean improvement of motor scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), in the best "on" (21%) and worst "off" (40%) UPDRS III motor subscale, a mean 30% improvement in the UPDRS II activities of daily living (ADL) subscore, and 60% on the UPDRS IV complications of treatment subscale. "
01/01/2013 - "Compared with no intervention, physiotherapy significantly improved the gait outcomes of speed (mean difference 0.04 m/s, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02 to 0.06, P = 0.0002); two- or six-minute walk test (13.37 m, 95% CI 0.55 to 26.20, P = 0.04) and Freezing of Gait questionnaire (-1.41, 95% CI -2.63 to -0.19, P = 0.02); functional mobility and balance outcomes of Timed Up & Go test (-0.63 s, 95% CI -1.05 to -0.21, P = 0.003), Functional Reach Test (2.16 cm, 95% CI 0.89 to 3.43, P = 0.0008), and Berg Balance Scale (3.71 points, 95% CI 2.30 to 5.11, P < 0.00001); and clinician-rated disability using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (total -6.15 points, 95% CI-8.57 to -3.73, P < 0.00001; activities of daily living: -1.36, 95% CI -2.41 to -0.30, P = 0.01; and motor: -5.01, 95% CI -6.30 to -3.72, P < 0.00001). "
01/01/2012 - "Compared with no-intervention, physiotherapy significantly improved the gait outcomes of velocity (mean difference 0.05 m/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02 to 0.07, P = 0.0002), two- or six-minute walk test (16.40 m, CI: 1.90 to 30.90, P = 0.03) and step length (0.03 m, CI: 0 to 0.06, P = 0.04); functional mobility and balance outcomes of Timed Up & Go test (-0.61 s, CI: -1.06 to -0.17, P = 0.006), Functional Reach Test (2.16 cm, CI: 0.89 to 3.43, P = 0.0008) and Berg Balance Scale (3.36 points, CI: 1.91 to 4.81, P < 0.00001); and clinician-rated disability using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (total: -4.46 points, CI -7.16 to -1.75, P = 0.001; activities of daily living: -1.36, CI -2.41 to -0.30, P = 0.01; and motor: -4.09, CI: -5.59 to -2.59, P < 0.00001). "
01/01/2012 - "Compared with no-intervention, physiotherapy significantly improved the gait outcomes of velocity (mean difference 0.05 m/s, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02 to 0.07, P = 0.0002), two- or six-minute walk test (16.40 m, CI: 1.90 to 30.90, P = 0.03) and step length (0.03 m, CI: 0 to 0.06, P = 0.04); functional mobility and balance outcomes of Timed Up & Go test (-0.61 s, CI: -1.06 to -0.17, P = 0.006), Functional Reach Test (2.16 cm, CI: 0.89 to 3.43, P = 0.0008) and Berg Balance Scale (3.36 points, CI: 1.91 to 4.81, P < 0.00001); and clinician-rated disability using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) (total: -4.46 points, CI -7.16 to -1.75, P = 0.001; activities of daily living: -1.36, CI -2.41 to -0.30, P = 0.01; and motor: -4.09, CI: -5.59 to -2.59, P < 0.00001). "
01/01/2010 - "Mean activities of daily living and motor scores from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale as well as quality-of-life scores were significantly improved without an increase in daily "off" time. "
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3. Transplantation (Transplant Recipients)
4. Pallidotomy
5. Transplants (Transplant)

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