|2.||Hypercalcemia (Milk Alkali Syndrome)
|5.||Parathyroid Neoplasms (Parathyroid Neoplasm)
|1.||Arnold, Andrew: 14 articles (04/2014 - 06/2002)|
|2.||Rubello, D: 11 articles (01/2013 - 07/2000)|
|3.||Westin, Gunnar: 11 articles (12/2012 - 01/2002)|
|4.||Akerström, Göran: 9 articles (12/2012 - 01/2002)|
|5.||Pelizzo, M R: 8 articles (03/2007 - 07/2000)|
|6.||Delbridge, Leigh W: 7 articles (09/2015 - 06/2004)|
|7.||Carling, Tobias: 7 articles (06/2015 - 01/2002)|
|8.||Larsson, Catharina: 7 articles (03/2015 - 06/2008)|
|9.||Höög, Anders: 7 articles (03/2015 - 06/2008)|
|10.||Kebebew, Electron: 7 articles (04/2011 - 12/2004)|
07/25/2000 - "Identification of the calcium receptor has improved our understanding of calcium homeostasis, and significant reductions in calcium receptor levels have been detected in parathyroid adenomas. "
10/01/2007 - "The remission was documented by laboratory findings (normalisation of serum calcium and PTH levels) and by ultrasound examination that showed the disappearance of a cervical mass suggesting a parathyroid adenoma."
06/01/2014 - "Serial serum calcium level and imaging studies lead to the final diagnosis of PHPT due to a parathyroid adenoma. "
01/01/2012 - "(99m)Tc-MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy is most likely to yield identification and localization of a parathyroid adenoma when both PTH and calcium are elevated; however, although there is no lower limit of PTH which can predict a negative study, we cannot recommend (99m)Tc-MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy if the serum calcium is <2·51 mmol l(-1)."
01/01/2012 - "Overall a serum calcium of >2·70 mmol l(-1) was found in 82% of patients with a positive (99m)Tc-MIBI study but only 14% of those with a negative (99m)Tc-MIBI study, this is rose to 97% of patients with a parathyroid adenoma identified on early images. "
|2.||Parathyroid Hormone (Parathormone)IBA
12/01/1988 - "Hyperparathyroid patients undergoing unilateral neck exploration with removal of a single parathyroid adenoma have a rapid clearance of parathyroid hormone (PTH) that declines to undetectable levels within hours after successful parathyroid surgery. "
11/01/1994 - "Diagnosis of parathyroid adenomas: efficacy of measuring parathormone levels in needle aspirates of cervical masses."
03/01/2015 - "In this study, 21 patients with a history of GD developed parathyroid adenoma based on histology, intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) monitoring, and other clinical features. "
09/01/2013 - "The successful identification and resection of the ectopic parathyroid adenoma presented here demonstrate the importance of preoperative imaging studies to allow appropriate operative planning as well as the utility of intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay in predicting cure during surgery. "
06/01/1985 - "Studies on bone metabolism described in a fatal case of acute parathyroid crisis, occurring in a 48-year-old woman in whom serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone levels were very high, and a 5 g parathyroid adenoma was found at operation. "
|3.||cinacalcet (Sensipar)FDA Link
10/05/2009 - "Treatment with cinacalcet and intravenous bisphosphonate has improved the previously often fatal prognosis of parathyroid cancer. "
01/01/2014 - "The use of cinacalcet in pregnancy to treat a complex case of parathyroid carcinoma."
08/01/2007 - "We studied 8 patients with parathyroid carcinoma before and at week 16 of cinacalcet therapy, 6 patients with PHPT, and 6 control individuals. "
11/01/2005 - "Based on the available evidence, cinacalcet is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of secondary HPT and refractory parathyroid carcinoma. "
11/01/2005 - ": The goal of this article was to review the efficacy and safety profile of cinacalcet, a second-generation calcimimetic, in the management of HPT secondary to CKD, primary HPT, and parathyroid carcinoma. "
|4.||DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)IBA
04/15/1990 - "This study indicates that flow cytometric analysis of nuclear DNA content is a valuable adjunct to histologic examination in the diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma and the prediction of the clinical outcome."
01/01/2014 - "Using whole exome and direct sequencing of parathyroid adenoma DNA samples, we identified recurrent somatic mutations in the ZFX gene. "
12/01/2012 - "The mutation S33C (TCT>TGT) was detected by direct-DNA sequencing of PCR fragments in 1 out of 180 sporadic parathyroid adenomas (0.68 %). "
12/01/2012 - "One hundred and eighty sporadic parathyroid adenomas were examined for mutations in exon 3 of CTNNB1 by direct DNA sequencing, utilizing previously published primer sequences. "
08/01/2011 - "PTH gene sequence analysis performed from DNA extracted both from the parathyroid adenoma and the patient's peripheral blood leukocytes was negative for a mutation in the PTH gene sequence. "
|5.||Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol)IBA
01/01/1998 - "Ultrasonically guided ethanol injection can be useful in the treatment of parathyroid adenomas when surgery is not possible. "
11/01/1993 - "In conclusion, our results give evidence that ultrasonically guided percutaneous ethanol injection into parathyroid adenomas can be a very useful alternative therapy in patients not suitable for surgery."
05/01/1998 - "Color and power Doppler are well-established tools in the study of functioning thyroid and parathyroid adenomas after percutaneous ethanol injection. "
01/01/1998 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate mid- and long-term results of ultrasonically guided ethanol injection into parathyroid adenomas. "
06/01/2008 - "Ethanol injection under ultrasound guidance to palliate unresectable parathyroid carcinoma."
|6.||Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi (Cardiolite)FDA LinkGeneric
06/01/1996 - "The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of parathyroid imaging with 99m Tc-MIBI for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas and to compare that method with the high-resolution ultrasonography. "
02/01/2008 - "Forty patients with PHPT, positive to preoperative localization studies (ultrasonography evaluation and (99)Tc-MIBI scan) for a single parathyroid adenoma, were randomly allotted into two groups. "
09/01/1997 - "The aim of the present study was to estimate the additional radiation exposure to personnel, other patients and members of the family caused by patients who had been injected with 99mTc-Sestamibi (Cardiolite DuPONT PHARMA) for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma. "
04/01/1996 - "Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenoma by technetium Tc 99m sestamibi delayed washing-out scanning and high-resolution ultrasound was compared with a historical institutional experience of surgical intervention without preliminary localization studies. "
04/01/2015 - "Parathyroid adenoma localization with 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/CT: a meta-analysis."
02/01/1979 - "[Changes of phosphorus and calcium metabolism following removal of hyperfunctioning parathyroid adenoma]."
01/01/2009 - "The author presents case reports of parathyroid adenomas in patients receiving long-term hemodialysis and emphasizes the necessity of dynamic monitoring phosphorus-calcium and bone metabolism starting from the pre-dialysis phase of chronic renal insufficiency. "
12/01/1985 - "A parathyroid allograft that was performed with tissue from a parathyroid adenoma resulted in normalization of the serum calcium and phosphorus levels with arrest and subsequent healing of the skin necrosis. "
07/01/2006 - "Preoperative mean serum level of calcium was 11.09 +/- 0.9 mg/dL, while phosphorus was 2.3 +/- 0.5 mg/mL, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) was 338.99 +/- 416.43 pg/ml. Ultrasound imaging revealed parathyroid adenoma in 38 of the 52 patients (73%), while 27% of the patients were normal. "
09/01/2013 - "The results of the laboratory tests in our hospital were as follows: serum calcium, 14.6 mg/dL; phosphorus, 3.5 mg/dL; and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 1,911 pg/mL. Neck ultrasonography and (99m)Tc sestamibi scan detected a 5-cm parathyroid neoplasm in the left lower lobe of the patient's thyroid; left parathyroidectomy was performed. "
07/01/2014 - "This report describes the efficacy of denosumab in a patient with parathyroid carcinoma when conventional therapies had been shown to be relatively ineffective.SUBJECT, METHODS AND RESULTS: A 50-year-old man presented with symptomatic hypercalcaemia 1 year after the surgery for his parathyroid carcinoma. "
09/01/2014 - "Denosumab for management of refractory hypercalcaemia in recurrent parathyroid carcinoma."
07/01/2014 - "Refractory hypercalcaemia secondary to parathyroid carcinoma: response to high-dose denosumab."
02/01/2014 - "Denosumab can be effective in the treatment of refractory hypercalcemia in parathyroid cancer. "
01/01/2015 - "Together with recent cases in the literature supporting our observation, we believe that denosumab is relevant for future trials and represents an effective tool to control hypercalcemia in patients with advanced stages of parathyroid cancer. "
|9.||pamidronate (APD)FDA LinkGeneric
03/01/1994 - "Prolonged remission of hypercalcaemia due to parathyroid carcinoma with pamidronate."
09/01/1993 - "We investigated the effect of APD on the bone metabolism of five patients with parathyroid adenoma. "
09/01/1993 - "Effect of aminohydroxypropylidene diphosphonate on the bone metabolism of patients with parathyroid adenoma."
10/01/1994 - "Parathyroid carcinoma arising from parathyroid hyperplasia: autoinfarction following intravenous treatment with pamidronate."
12/01/2000 - "We report on a patient with parathyroid carcinoma with hypercalcaemia and pulmonary metastases, treated with pamidronate and radiotherapy and later with surgery. "
|10.||Technetium (Technetium 99m)IBA
11/01/2012 - "We aimed to compare the efficacy of three different parathyroid adenoma screening tools--high-resolution ultrasonography (USG), technetium Tc 99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) parathyroid scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)--and we evaluated the factors affecting the detection success rates. "
06/01/2012 - "A sestamibi (99m)technetium subtraction study was performed, which suggested an intrathyroid parathyroid carcinoma. "
07/01/2000 - "This study indicates that technetium 99m-MIBI parathyroid scintigraphy is a sensitive and specific tool for topographic localization even of small parathyroid adenomas, especially with the use of SPECT. "
07/01/2000 - "The aim of this study was to assess the value of technetium 99m-MIBI scintigraphy using the single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) technique for preoperative localization of smaller (</= 1 g) parathyroid adenomas. "
09/01/2014 - "Ultrasonography (US) and (99m)Technetium methoxyisobutylisonitrile ((99m)Tc-MIBI) scintigraphy are the imaging methods most widely used to localize parathyroid adenomas. "
12/01/2007 - "Sestamibi scan-directed, minimally invasive video-assisted parathyroidectomy: an effective treatment for solitary parathyroid adenoma."
01/01/2006 - "Focused low dose radioguided parathyroidectomy is a safe and effective means to localize parathyroid adenomas in patients affected by solitary PA thus reducing by 20 fold the radiation exposure dose to the patients and operating room personnel."
06/01/2003 - "To examine the efficacy of sestamibi with the hand-held gamma ray detecting probe for the identification of parathyroid adenomas during revision parathyroidectomy. "
04/01/2015 - "Although our study comprised few patients, it nevertheless showed that in selected cases, parathyroid carcinoma could be solely treated with parathyroidectomy."
01/01/2014 - "Following localisation studies, a right parathyroidectomy was performed with histology revealing parathyroid carcinoma, adherent to thyroid tissue. "
|2.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
03/01/2012 - "Chemotherapy and external beam radiation treatments have been generally ineffective in the treatment of parathyroid carcinoma. "
02/01/2007 - "The coexistence of parathyroid adenoma in this patient was revealed by a sestamibi scintigram, performed prior to chemotherapy. "
02/01/1993 - "Pharmacological treatment, chemotherapy, and radiation are mostly ineffective in the treatment of parathyroid carcinoma. "
09/01/1984 - "Chemotherapy for metastatic parathyroid carcinoma."
09/01/1981 - "Metastatic nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma: ultrastructural evidence of secretory granules and response to chemotherapy."
|3.||Neck Dissection (Radical Neck Dissection)
03/01/2002 - "They have also allowed more limited neck dissection in patients with parathyroid adenomas and have led to the development of US-guided ablative techniques that have eliminated the need for surgery in some cases. "
07/01/2011 - "Because a bilateral neck dissection disclosed no parathyroid adenoma, we performed a parathyroid sestamibi scan and computed tomographic scan of neck and mediastinum to look for aberrant parathyroid glands. "
11/01/2010 - "This retrospective study includes 11 patients with parathyroid cancer who underwent surgery with central and/or lateral neck dissection by a single surgeon between 2005 and 2010. "
11/01/2010 - "However, the clinical significance of prophylactic neck dissection (PND) in the management of parathyroid cancer has not yet been established. "
09/01/1982 - "Twenty-four patients (29%) had had previous thyroid operations; ten patients (11%) had coexistent parathyroid adenomas removed; and seven patients (8.5%) had modified radical neck dissections. "
11/01/2005 - "The search words included 'parathyroid carcinoma', 'pathology', 'genetics', 'management' and 'radiotherapy'. "
04/01/2004 - "Parathyroid carcinoma is traditionally said to be resistant to radiotherapy. "
02/18/1979 - "[Parathyroid adenoma induced by cervical radiotherapy]."
12/01/2012 - "The diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma can be challenging, and adjuvant therapies such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy are not particularly beneficial in the management of this disease, creating a challenge when dealing with unresectable recurrent and metastatic malignancy. "
08/01/2001 - "For patients who have unresectable parathyroid carcinoma, a protocol-based treatment with chemotherapy and external radiotherapy should be considered. "
11/01/2014 - "Mediastinal parathyroid adenomas can be resected by sternotomy or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. "
07/01/2014 - "This case demonstrates that focused transcervical excision of giant parathyroid adenomas is a viable option and should be considered prior to neck exploration or sternotomy. "
07/01/2014 - "Inferior parathyroid adenomas in the mediastinum can be a troublesome cause for hypercalcaemia, requiring a full collar incision or, occasionally, a sternotomy. "
03/01/2006 - "Transcervical approaches for resection of anterior mediastinal parathyroid adenomas are possible with the use of the Rultract Skyhook Retractor without the need for sternotomy. "
12/01/2005 - "Thoracoscopic resection of an intrathymic parathyroid adenoma, a safe and less morbid alternative to median sternotomy, is an option when the transcervical approach is not viable."