|1.||Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
|3.||HIV Infections (HIV Infection)
|4.||Graft vs Host Disease (Graft-Versus-Host Disease)
|1.||Singh, Nina: 11 articles (12/2011 - 07/2002)|
|2.||Bower, Mark: 8 articles (09/2012 - 03/2002)|
|3.||Moreno, Asunción: 8 articles (03/2012 - 10/2003)|
|4.||Cervera, Carlos: 7 articles (08/2012 - 08/2007)|
|5.||Miró, José M: 7 articles (01/2012 - 11/2004)|
|6.||Lortholary, O: 6 articles (12/2015 - 01/2000)|
|7.||Holland, Steven M: 6 articles (04/2015 - 12/2010)|
|8.||Torre-Cisneros, Julián: 6 articles (03/2012 - 11/2004)|
|9.||Nelson, Mark: 6 articles (01/2012 - 03/2002)|
|10.||Losina, Elena: 6 articles (09/2010 - 08/2002)|
|1.||Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination (Co-Trimoxazole)FDA LinkGeneric
10/01/1998 - "Cotrimoxazole (Bactrim) has been shown effective in preventing most of the opportunistic infections (OIs) prevalent in Western Africa. "
01/01/2015 - "The majority of health care workers (89.7%) reported that co-trimoxazole is very effective for the prevention of opportunistic infections among children, but frequent shortage of co-trimoxazole in the health facilities was the main challenge. "
01/01/2015 - "Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, currently recommended in HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) children as protection against opportunistic infections, also has some anti-malarial efficacy. "
11/20/2004 - "Co-trimoxazole as prophylaxis against opportunistic infections in HIV-infected Zambian children (CHAP): a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial."
05/22/2004 - "Study of opportunistic infection prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole in Ivory Coast]."
|2.||Zidovudine (Retrovir)FDA LinkGeneric
03/01/1993 - "Three of the 10 patients, none taking zidovudine and all with low initial CD4 counts, were withdrawn during the study due to acute opportunistic infections. "
01/01/1989 - "Only 24 subjects (41%) were receiving zidovudine at the end of the study period including 17 who had neither opportunistic infection nor toxicity. "
06/01/2015 - "Opportunistic infections were similar between regimens without propensity score, while the zidovudine regimen had 1.2 times (p=0.63) more opportunistic infections with propensity score. "
02/01/2013 - "Short inter birth interval (p = 0.002), presence of opportunistic infections (OIs), (p = 0.001), use of zidovudine containing regimen (p = 0.0005) and CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm(3) (p = 0.001) were found to be independently associated with anaemia in HIV positive pregnant women after controlling for confounding variables. "
06/01/1995 - "Response in hematocrit was noted in HIV patients despite the presence of opportunistic infections in 15 and zidovudine administration in 11. "
05/01/1998 - "No significant differences were reported with respect to improvement in CD4 count, elimination of p24 antigen, or development of opportunistic infections. "
09/01/1985 - "Without any deleterious effect a clinical improvement (in terms of adenopathy and opportunistic infection regression) and restoration of the response to recall antigens were observed in all three patients. "
02/01/2014 - "pDCs have both effector and antigen presenting activity and, in HIV-positive patients, low pDC levels are associated with opportunistic infections. "
03/29/2012 - "These data suggest that patients with IRIS do not have a generalized T-cell dysfunction; instead, IRIS represents a dysregulated CD4(+) T-cell response against residual opportunistic infection antigen. "
01/01/2011 - "The basal ganglia are especially susceptible to some viruses, because of their intrinsic neurotropism, a predilection of opportunistic infections for the deep gray matter of the brain, and possibly the mounting of an autoimmune response against basal ganglia antigens. "
|4.||Immunosuppressive Agents (Immunosuppressants)IBA
01/01/2009 - "Increasingly potent immunosuppressive agents have dramatically reduced the incidence of rejection of transplanted organs while increasing patients' susceptibility to opportunistic infections. "
05/01/2013 - "Age ≥50 years and the use of immunosuppressants are risk factors for opportunistic infections in patients with IBD. "
06/01/2010 - "However, the nonspecific nature of immunosuppressive agents is associated with an increased risk of development of opportunistic infections, renal impairment, metabolic derangements, neurotoxicity, de novo malignancies, and recurrence of the primary disease. "
01/01/2010 - "Finally, due to the ever-expanding armamentarium of immunosuppressive agents, a growing list of opportunistic infections is discovered during autopsy. "
12/01/2009 - "We stress the importance of opportunistic infection as a consideration in the use of immunosuppressive agents for the treatment of ALF. "
|5.||Biological Markers (Surrogate Marker)IBA
12/01/2013 - "Although neuropsychological studies have shown that HAND affects a wide array of cognitive functions, a formal diagnosis is still based on the exclusion of opportunistic infections and other common ailments, as no specific tests or biomarkers are currently available. "
01/01/1997 - "They are important for staging HIV disease, they have been used as clinical markers in trials to test drug efficacy, and to determine the correct time for institution of treatment for HIV or prophylaxis against opportunistic infections. "
05/15/1993 - "In human immunodeficiency virus clinical trials, the CD4-lymphocyte count has been regarded as a promising surrogate endpoint for clinical efficacy measures such as time to opportunistic infection and survival time. "
03/01/2015 - "At the 2015 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, neurologic presentations concentrated on characterization of potential CNS reservoirs of HIV, the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction caused by HIV,neuroimaging biomarkers of HAND, and treatment of modifiable risk factors of HAND. "
01/01/2014 - "The prevalence of cigarette smoking and the relations between smoking and HIV clinical markers, HIV medication adherence, and opportunistic infections (OIs) were examined in a sample of 199 HIV-positive, gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) aged 50 and older. "
07/01/2008 - "Studies also need to be conducted to determine if the same CD4 cutoffs can be used in resource-limited settings for initiating antiretroviral therapy and prophylaxis against opportunistic infections due to potential regional differences and the impact of other common co-morbidities on CD4 cell counts. "
03/01/2006 - "A variety of studies involving drug treatment interruption were presented at the 13th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), held in Denver, CO, in February, and their conclusions were mixed. "
01/15/2015 - "In contrast, maternal co-opportunistic infection with primary or reactivated cytomegalovirus (CMV) or other pathogens may facilitate in utero transmission of HIV-1 by activation of cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs). "
01/01/2015 - "Management of adverse-events, opportunistic infections and co-morbidities in these patients is important if the protective benefits of being on ART are to be maximized. "
01/01/2015 - "Factors significantly associated with mortality included: the use of ART before starting MDR-TB treatment (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.02-2.73), severely-underweight (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.89-7.29) and underweight (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.30-4.26), cavities on chest x-rays at baseline (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.08-2.94), presence of other opportunistic infections (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.10-2.94) and presence of other co-morbidities (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.20-4.21). "
|7.||Protease Inhibitors (Protease Inhibitor)IBA
04/01/1999 - "In a study presented at the 6th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections it was reported that as the HIV virus mutates after protease inhibitor exposure it has a reduced ability to infect new laboratory cell cultures. "
12/03/1998 - "To study the relationship between the CD4+ cell response after initiation of protease inhibitors and the occurrence of opportunistic infections and survival. "
08/07/2007 - "Potent therapy against HIV, which includes protease inhibitors (PIs), has beneficial effects also on opportunistic infections by pathogens such as C. "
03/26/2005 - "Response to antiretroviral treatment with protease inhibitors was slow for all patients, but viral load became undetectable for 6 of the 7, after 5 months to 4 years; 3 had opportunistic infections. "
08/15/2001 - "Use of protease inhibitors and history of other opportunistic infections did not significantly differ. "
06/01/2015 - "To pool data from all placebo-controlled studies, to estimate risk of opportunistic infection or malignancy with anti-integrin antibodies. "
06/01/2015 - "Absolute numbers of opportunistic infections were higher with anti-integrin antibodies, but this difference is not statistically significant. "
06/01/2015 - "The RR of developing an opportunistic infection was not significantly higher with non-gut specific (2.34; 95% CI 0.05-108.72) or gut specific anti-integrin antibodies (1.55; 95% CI 0.16-14.83). "
07/01/2014 - "Compared to controls, polyclonal antibodies showed higher risk of serious opportunistic infections (OR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.34-2.80; p < 0.0001); IL-2RAs were associated with lower risk of serious opportunistic infections (OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68-0.94; p = 0.009). "
01/01/2014 - "As the use of immunomodulatory antibodies expands and more patients develop irAEs that require treatment with immunosuppression, recognition of the potential for opportunistic infections in this emerging patient population will be critical. "
05/01/2014 - "The remarkable advances in interferon-sparing, all-oral hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment were a highlight of the 2014 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI). "
02/01/2011 - "Anti-interferon-γ autoantibody and opportunistic infections: case series and review of the literature."
02/01/1987 - "Opportunistic infections were diagnosed in 12 patients with a median onset of 6 months (range 1-10) after start of interferon treatment. "
01/01/1984 - " Interferon therapy has had a beneficial effect in patients with disease limited to skin, with T4/T8 ratios over 0.5, and without a prior history of opportunistic infection; however, there is no evidence that interferon exerts any beneficial effects on the underlying immune defects. "
06/15/2006 - "The authors evaluated the safety and efficacy of immune enhancement using recombinant interferon gamma1b (rIFN-gamma1b) in patients with cancer who received GTX for refractory, systemic, opportunistic infections. "
|10.||Anti-Retroviral Agents (Antiretroviral Agents)IBA
06/01/1999 - "Combinations of new antiretroviral agents have been shown to be effective in prolonging the life of infected individuals, and chemoprophylactic regimens have been useful in preventing opportunistic infections. "
01/01/2013 - "HIV infected patients are frequently exposed to anaemia, due to antiretroviral agents and/or prophylactic treatment of opportunistic infections. "
10/01/2003 - "The contemporary treatment of the child infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) unavoidably requires combination therapy with antiretroviral agents and may include additional drugs for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections or other disease states. "
10/01/2002 - "Complex drug interactions involving antiretroviral agents and drugs for the management of opportunistic infections demand the monitoring of plasma drug concentrations to prevent treatment failure. "
03/01/1999 - "Several new antiretroviral agents were discussed at the 6th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. "
|1.||Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)
01/01/2005 - "A marked decrease in incidence has been observed for most central nervous system (CNS) opportunistic infections (OIs) after the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries. "
03/01/2015 - "Because highly active antiretroviral therapy has reduced incidence of opportunistic infections, it is important to reassess the efficacy of BMAB for this diagnostic purpose. "
07/01/2011 - "The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been associated with a marked decrease in the prevalence of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients. "
06/01/2004 - "In industrialised countries, the use of Highly Active AntiRetroviral Therapy (HAART) results to be effective in suppressing the HIV viral load, with a quantitative and qualitative improvement in the CD4+ T-cell count followed by a strong reduction of opportunistic infections including those caused by parasites. "
05/01/2004 - "However, the introduction in 1996 of highly active antiretroviral therapy as a standard of care for those infected with HIV-1 determined a strong protection against the development of opportunistic infections, as well as a remission of pre-existing complications, including KS. "
10/01/1997 - "The results suggest that, on average, when compared with standard therapy, patients treated with MMF are likely to have lower rejection-related treatment costs because of a lower incidence of rejection ($6237 versus $3702), lower dialysis and graft failure costs because of improved graft survival ($20,104 versus $16,972), no difference in opportunistic infection treatment costs ($1962 versus $1962), and higher additional immunosuppression costs ($855 versus $5170). "
08/01/2009 - "A thorough understanding of the functions of MMF on the immune system and interaction with infectious pathogens could be helpful in implementing preventative strategies against opportunistic infections in transplant patients."
11/01/2012 - "During the study period, 1656 solid organ transplants were performed and 188 opportunistic infections were diagnosed in 163 patients (incidence 10%). "
09/01/2006 - "Four patients were excluded from the study due to noncompliance, graft loss, and patient loss from opportunistic infection. "
04/01/2004 - "Therefore, the current study analysed the role of the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) on day 21 after SCT in predicting transplant outcomes of 82 patients in terms of the risk of opportunistic infections and recurrence of original disease. "
|3.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
10/15/1995 - "Two patients maintained a complete remission 3 years after six cycles of chemotherapy, whereas one died of an early opportunistic infection. "
01/01/1993 - "They all went into complete remission and did not suffer from major opportunistic infections during chemotherapy. "
01/01/2005 - "Patients with aggressive histology HIV-related NHL who were previously untreated with chemotherapy, and who had no active opportunistic infection were eligible for the study. "
03/01/2014 - "In addition to chemotherapy, essential components of an optimal ARL treatment strategy include antiretroviral therapy and prophylaxis for opportunistic infections."
01/28/2014 - "In adjusted analysis, prior CNS opportunistic infection diagnosis increased risk of death (hazard ratio 1.9, P = 0.0006) whereas radiation and/or chemotherapy decreased risk (hazard ratio 0.6, P < 0.0001). "
|4.||Transplantation (Transplant Recipients)
07/01/1999 - "The patient achieved a sustained molecular remission after transplantation, but died from opportunistic infection 4 months after transplantation. "
01/01/1990 - "Improved regimens to control acute and chronic GVHD and prevent opportunistic infections will play a major role in the advancement of supportive care of the marrow transplant recipient."
11/18/2010 - "Post-transplantation management was provided in accordance with study protocols that defined prophylaxis against opportunistic infection, indications for biopsy, and acceptable approaches to immunosuppression, management of rejection, and antiretroviral therapy. "
12/01/1990 - "The findings clearly reflect the marked immunodeficiency in the early post-transplantation period, during which many patients (4/7 in this study) die of opportunistic infections, and are in line with the fact that the earliest signs of reconstitution of the immune system have been found to occur at three months post-transplantation. "
02/01/1980 - "These studies were performed at a time when the allogeneic marrow transplant recipients were markedly immunodeficient and susceptible to opportunistic infections. "
04/01/2014 - "In today's era of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the mortality of HIV patients has greatly reduced due to improved immune function and fewer opportunistic infections. "
12/01/2010 - "The estimation of CD4+ T cell counts is used to decide the initiation of anti retroviral therapy (ART), to monitor the efficacy of ART and to start treatment for opportunistic infections (OIs). "
01/01/2015 - "The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of opportunistic infections (OIs) and associated factors among HIV-infected adults on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. "
01/01/2006 - "The study was designed to examine the knowledge and perception of HIV positive persons about the antiretroviral therapy (ART) program and to determine their ability to pay for ART and the treatment of other opportunistic infections in Nigeria. "
11/01/2005 - "Future studies would include, the molecular epidemiology and the description of opportunistic infections associated to HIV-1; the neuropathological description of primary and secondary HIV-1 complications in different groups; the HIV-1 neurotropism and immune response studies for China's unique HIV-1 strains and recombinant forms derived from the nervous system, including experimental models such as the use of transgenic rats; and the study of potential resistant virus, primarily when the anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has not full access in the brain."