|1.||Benowitz, Neal L: 35 articles (10/2015 - 01/2002)|
|2.||Tyndale, Rachel F: 33 articles (01/2016 - 02/2002)|
|3.||Quik, Maryka: 33 articles (10/2015 - 10/2002)|
|4.||Lerman, Caryn: 30 articles (01/2015 - 12/2003)|
|5.||McIntosh, J Michael: 25 articles (12/2015 - 08/2003)|
|6.||Markou, Athina: 22 articles (11/2015 - 07/2003)|
|7.||Damaj, M Imad: 22 articles (10/2015 - 04/2003)|
|8.||Levin, Edward D: 21 articles (12/2015 - 03/2002)|
|9.||George, Tony P: 21 articles (07/2014 - 04/2002)|
|10.||Zvolensky, Michael J: 19 articles (07/2015 - 01/2004)|
|1.||Tobacco Use Disorder (Nicotine Dependence)
01/01/2009 - "The Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) test proved to be the most useful for the group of teenagers whereas for adults the CAGE questionnaire, the Four C test, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and Heaviness of Smoking Index (HIS) gave the best results. "
12/01/2005 - "Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) are an effective treatment for tobacco dependence, yet most smokers do not quit or remain abstinent. "
01/01/2005 - "The effect of active NRT treatment did not differ significantly by smoking rate or nicotine dependence, with the exception that the nicotine patch was significantly more effective than placebo in highly dependent smokers. "
03/01/1996 - "Nicotine transdermal patches were most effective for smokers with moderate nicotine dependence and for younger smokers. "
01/01/2014 - "In a multivariate analysis, only the average nicotine addiction level according to the Tobacco Dependence Screener test was associated with a clinically significant improvement in the SGRQ (OR 1.35 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.59)). "
|2.||Substance Withdrawal Syndrome (Withdrawal Symptoms)
11/01/1995 - "Withdrawal symptom relief can be improved with more complete nicotine replacement. "
10/01/2015 - "Nonsmokers experienced significant reduction in nicotine craving and withdrawal symptoms. "
08/01/2007 - "Women with Childhood Onset weight problems reported first trying cigarettes at a significantly younger age than those with Later Onset (13 vs. 15 years of age, respectively), and they reported more nicotine withdrawal symptoms during smoking abstinence, with a significantly greater likelihood of endorsing anger/irritability and trouble concentrating. "
12/11/1991 - "All transdermal nicotine doses significantly decreased the severity of nicotine withdrawal symptoms and significantly reduced cigarette use by patients who did not stop smoking. "
07/01/2014 - "The combination of VLNC cigarettes and nicotine patch was more effective in reducing use of VLNC cigarettes and withdrawal symptoms among males than females, whereas females were equally responsive to VLNC cigarettes with and without the nicotine patch. "
|3.||Schizophrenia (Dementia Praecox)
10/15/2011 - "Positive allosteric modulation of the α7nAChR offers an alternate approach to direct agonism that could prove to be particularly beneficial in certain disease populations where smoking nicotine is prevalent (e.g., schizophrenia) and could interfere with an orthosteric agonist approach. "
02/01/2008 - "In summary, nicotine improved attentional performance in both groups and was associated with greater improvements in inhibition of impulsive responses in subjects with schizophrenia. "
02/01/2008 - "In addition, nicotine reduced commission errors on the CPT-IP and improved the performance on a Card Stroop task to a greater extent in those with schizophrenia vs controls. "
06/01/2009 - "Although evidence suggests that nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), relative to placebo, enhances spatial working memory (SWM) in smoking-abstinent smokers with schizophrenia, the extent to which NRT may be helpful in attenuating abstinence-related SWM in other groups with deficits in SWM is unknown. "
01/01/2013 - "Nicotine has been reported to improve neurocognitive processes in schizophrenia patients but no studies have investigated possible nicotine-induced facilitation of social cognition. "
|4.||Parkinson Disease (Parkinson's Disease)
10/01/2000 - "The data indicate that there is no loss of alpha3, alpha4, alpha7 and beta2 immunoreactivity in the putamen in Parkinson's disease, despite a highly significant reduction in [(3)H]nicotine binding. "
09/15/1999 - "These findings might be important for the protective effects of nicotine in Parkinson's disease and in its dependence-producing properties."
10/15/2007 - "Altogether, these observations suggest that nicotine treatment may be beneficial in Parkinson's disease. "
11/01/2012 - "Is nicotine protective against Parkinson's disease? "
09/15/2008 - "This reduced incidence of Parkinson's disease has been attributed to the nicotine in tobacco products, at least in part, based on experimental work showing a protective effect of nicotine against toxic insults. "
04/13/1995 - "Transdermal nicotine alone was no better than placebo in the maintenance of remission of ulcerative colitis, and premature withdrawal due to side effects was more common in the nicotine group."
12/01/2012 - "Nicotine's application as a therapeutic treatment in ulcerative colitis is limited. "
02/01/1998 - "I've heard that the nicotine skin patch is a new treatment for ulcerative colitis. "
12/01/2010 - "Findings from clinical studies of the efficacy and tolerability of nicotine preparations in maintaining remission of ulcerative colitis (UC) have been inconsistent. "
05/01/1999 - "Controlled trials have demonstrated efficacy of transdermal nicotine for active ulcerative colitis. "
|2.||Nicotinic Receptors (Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor)
|4.||Cocaine (Cocaine HCl)
|6.||Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol)
|7.||Acetylcholine (Acetylcholine Chloride)
|8.||Levodopa (L Dopa)
|1.||Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)
|3.||Self Administration (Administration, Self)