Muscle Hypertonia

Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Also Known As:
Hypertonia, Detrusor Muscle; Hypertonia, Infantile; Hypertonia, Neonatal; Hypertonia, Sphincter; Hypertonia, Transient; Muscle Tone Increased; Detrusor Muscle Hypertonia; Detrusor Muscle Hypertonias; Hypermyotonias; Hypertonia, Muscle; Hypertonias, Detrusor Muscle; Hypertonias, Infantile; Hypertonias, Muscle; Hypertonias, Neonatal; Hypertonias, Sphincter; Hypertonias, Transient; Hypertonicities, Muscular; Hypertonicity, Muscular; Increased, Muscle Tone; Infantile Hypertonia; Infantile Hypertonias; Muscle Hypertonia, Detrusor; Muscle Hypertonias; Muscle Hypertonias, Detrusor; Muscular Hypertonicities; Neonatal Hypertonia; Neonatal Hypertonias; Sphincter Hypertonia; Sphincter Hypertonias; Tone Increased, Muscle; Transient Hypertonia; Transient Hypertonias; Hypermyotonia; Muscular Hypertonicity
Networked: 114 relevant articles (10 outcomes, 3 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Cerebral Palsy (Spastic Diplegia)
2. Contracture
3. Spasm (Spasms)
4. Tremor (Tremors)
5. Dyskinesias (Dyskinesia)


1. Rees, Mark I: 4 articles (09/2014 - 01/2008)
2. Harvey, Robert J: 4 articles (04/2012 - 01/2008)
3. Chung, Seo-Kyung: 3 articles (09/2014 - 01/2008)
4. Kofler, Markus: 3 articles (02/2013 - 09/2010)
5. Yablon, Stuart A: 3 articles (11/2012 - 01/2010)
6. Stokic, Dobrivoje S: 3 articles (11/2012 - 01/2010)
7. Harvey, Kirsten: 3 articles (01/2010 - 01/2008)
8. Stetkarova, Ivana: 2 articles (02/2013 - 09/2010)
9. Topf, Maya: 2 articles (04/2012 - 09/2008)
10. Charles, P David: 2 articles (03/2010 - 11/2003)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Muscle Hypertonia:
1. Clonazepam (Rivotril)FDA LinkGeneric
2. BaclofenFDA LinkGeneric
3. Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum Toxin)IBA
4. Type A Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum A Toxin)FDA Link
5. Phenobarbital (Luminal)FDA Link
6. Levodopa (L Dopa)FDA LinkGeneric
7. EtomidateFDA LinkGeneric
8. alphaxalone (alfaxalone)IBA
9. Jumping Frenchmen of MaineIBA
10. Diazepam (Valium)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/1985 - "Surprisingly, the beta-carboline did not elicit signs of withdrawal when given after 22 days of a daily dose regimen of diazepam, while Ro 15-1788 precipitated an acute abstinence syndrome largely characterized by tremors, increased muscle tone, back arching, myoclonic jerks and pupil dilatation. "
02/01/1992 - "The two well-known antispastic drugs diazepam and baclofen reduced the normal muscle tone in both groups of muscles in non-treated animals as well as the muscle tone increased by reserpine (10 mg/kg i.p.). "
04/16/1985 - "In mutant rats exhibiting an increased muscle tone of the hindlimbs, ZK 91296 was devoid of muscle relaxant effect and antagonised the muscle relaxant action of both diazepam and phenobarbitone. "
07/01/1989 - "4. In dogs treated 3 times daily with diazepam, 2 mg kg-1 orally, for 2 weeks, severe abstinence symptoms were precipitated in all animals by infusion of either antagonist but differences were found in the type of the symptoms: Ro 15-1788 induced rigid postures or rigid walking with increased muscle tone, tremor, twitches and jerks, whereas ZK 93426 did not alter motility but induced generalized myoclonic jerks and tonic-clonic seizures. "
11/01/1994 - "The effect of pretreatment with nondepolarizing muscle relaxants (atracurium 40 micrograms/kg or metocurine 50 micrograms/kg), benzodiazepine agonists (diazepam 5 mg or midazolam 2.5 mg), or thiopental sodium 1 mg/kg on the increased muscle tone produced by alfentanil 175 micrograms/kg was compared with a control group (given no pretreatment). "

Therapies and Procedures

1. Massage (Reflexology)
2. Electric Stimulation Therapy (Electrotherapy)
3. Orthotic Devices (Orthosis)
4. Injections
5. Acupuncture Points (Acupuncture Point)