|2.||Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure)
|3.||Muscle Cramp (Cramp)
|4.||Dysmenorrhea (Menstrual Pain)
|1.||Gallo, Richard L: 18 articles (02/2015 - 04/2003)|
|2.||Soehnlein, Oliver: 6 articles (01/2015 - 10/2011)|
|3.||Gallo, R L: 6 articles (05/2014 - 07/2001)|
|4.||Brandenburg, Lars-Ove: 5 articles (08/2015 - 01/2011)|
|5.||Elias, Peter M: 5 articles (08/2012 - 01/2008)|
|6.||Agerberth, Birgitta: 4 articles (08/2015 - 06/2006)|
|7.||Pufe, Thomas: 4 articles (08/2015 - 01/2011)|
|8.||Khan, Karim M: 4 articles (03/2015 - 06/2011)|
|9.||Garrison, Scott R: 4 articles (03/2015 - 06/2011)|
|10.||Weber, Christian: 4 articles (03/2013 - 10/2011)|
|1.||Quinine (Quinson)FDA Link
06/01/1995 - "Most patients consider quinine beneficial for their leg cramps, which is difficult to refute by scientific data. "
01/01/2015 - "Cramp duration was not significantly affected.A significantly greater number of people suffered minor adverse events on quinine than placebo (risk difference (RD) 3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0% to 6%), mainly gastrointestinal symptoms. "
01/01/2010 - "Cramp duration was not significantly affected.A significantly greater number of people suffered minor adverse events on quinine than placebo (risk difference +3%, 95% confidence intervals 0% to 6%), mainly gastrointestinal symptoms. "
01/07/1995 - "Treatment with quinine resulted in a significant reduction in the number of cramps for a four week period compared with placebo (8.83 fewer cramps; 95% confidence interval 4.16 to 13.49). "
05/01/1993 - "During the 2 weeks patients used quinine, there was no statistically significant reduction in mean leg cramp number (quinine 3.5 vs placebo 4.2, P = 0.48), mean leg cramp duration (quinine 152 seconds vs placebo 163 seconds, P = 0.89), or patient ratings of severity using a 1 (low) to 10 (high) scale (quinine = 4.2 vs placebo = 4.0, P = 0.83). "
05/01/1983 - "Muscle cramps during pregnancy do not have to be considered a risk factor; they can be significantly improved by the administration of oral magnesium."
02/01/2005 - "Owing to a higher dietary magnesium intake confirmed by higher urinary magnesium excretion, habitual plant-based diets result in a slightly improved magnesium status during pregnancy and reduce the frequency of calf cramps during the third trimester of pregnancy compared to an average Western diet. "
04/01/2015 - "The objective of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of oral magnesium in pregnant women with leg cramps. "
06/01/2011 - "Oral magnesium supplements are marketed for prophylaxis of such cramps but clinical trials exploring the efficacy of oral magnesium conflict. "
01/01/2012 - "Magnesium supplements are marketed for the prophylaxis of cramps but the efficacy of magnesium for this indication has never been evaluated by systematic review. "
|3.||Carnitine (L-Carnitine)FDA LinkGeneric
04/01/2003 - "Therapeutic administration of carnitine shows promise in treating selected groups of patients who have altered carnitine homeostasis, resulting in improved cardiac function, increased exercise capacity, reduced muscle cramps, and reduced intradialytic complications."
08/01/2015 - "The dose of L-carnitine was significantly associated with percentages of patients with reduced muscle cramps after 8 weeks (43.5% in the 1200 mg/day group vs 10.5% in the 900 mg/day group, P = .037) and VAS scores at 8 weeks (9.9 ± 13.5 in the 1200 mg/day group vs 39.6 ± 31.9 in the 900 mg/day group, P = .003). "
08/01/2015 - "Therefore, L-carnitine appears to be safe and effective for reducing liver cramps in patients with cirrhosis. "
11/01/2008 - "L-Carnitine is an endogenous compound thought to be helpful in treating patients with dialysis-related hypotension and muscle cramps; however, sufficient evidence for these indications is lacking. "
08/01/2015 - "Consecutive patients with cirrhosis and muscle cramps were given L-carnitine 300 mg, 3 times/day (900 mg/day, n = 19) or 4 times/day (1200 mg/day, n = 23) for 8 weeks. "
09/01/2001 - "Further advantages of sodium profiling are a reduction in the incidence of muscle cramps, improved sodium removal, and improved vascular stability. "
08/21/2013 - "Sweat pH can be correlated to sodium concentration and sweat rate in order to indicate to users the proper time to hydrate during physical exercise and avoid the risk of muscle cramps. "
01/01/2011 - "Low dialysate sodium concentrations have been associated with intradialytic symptoms such as muscle cramps and hypotensive episodes. "
11/01/2009 - "These changes may place cramp-prone players at greater risks for developing acute sodium deficits during training."
12/01/2005 - "These data indicate that sweat sodium losses were comparatively larger in cramp-prone football players than in NC. "
|5.||Glucose (Dextrose)FDA LinkGeneric
06/01/1979 - "Hypertonic glucose seems to be safe and effective for the relief of dialysis-induced cramps. "
02/01/1981 - "Hypertonic dextrose (50% dextrose in water [D50W]) has been studied as a therapeutic agent to relieve dialysis-related muscle cramps (DMCs). "
02/01/1981 - "Treatment of dialysis-related muscle cramps with hypertonic dextrose."
06/01/1979 - "Of a total of 44 episodes of cramps, 26 were treated with hypertonic glucose and 18 with normal saline. "
09/01/1982 - "Osmotically similar concentrations of dextrose and NaCl were shown to be equally effective in providing relief of hemodialysis-related muscle cramps; both were superior to 5% dextrose."
|6.||Acetaminophen (Paracetamol)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/1991 - "The efficacy of naproxen and paracetamol in relieving uterine cramps has been compared in a sequential trial. "
01/01/1985 - "The Duncan's Multiple Range Test for pain of cramps showed that the average pain for the placebo group was higher than for either the aspirin or the acetaminophen group, although the means for these two groups were not significantly different. "
01/01/1984 - "Neither analgesic showed a significant reduction in pain due to headache or cramps, although acetaminophen appeared to be slightly more effective than aspirin in reducing menstrual cramps."
01/01/1985 - "Effect of small doses of aspirin and acetaminophen on total menstrual loss and pain of cramps and headache."
01/01/1984 - "Two commonly taken over-the-counter analgesics, aspirin and acetaminophen, were compared for: effect on total menstrual loss, effect on total days of menstruation, and effect in reduction of pain due to headaches and/or menstrual cramps. "
02/22/1997 - "In our study, 300 mg hydroquinine was safe to take in the short-term and significantly more effective than placebo in the prevention of frequent, ordinary muscle cramps. "
04/01/1994 - "In this study a daily dose of 300 mg hydroquinine hydrobromide was effective in preventing frequent ordinary muscle cramp in healthy female volunteers. "
04/01/1994 - "In order to compare the efficacy of a daily dose of 300 mg hydroquinine hydrobromide and placebo in preventing frequent ordinary muscle cramp, we designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of three consecutive 2-week periods viz. "
04/01/1994 - "Efficacy of hydroquinine in preventing frequent ordinary muscle cramp outlasts actual administration."
05/03/1997 - "Randomised controlled trial of hydroquinine in muscle cramps."
01/01/2014 - "Poor fat content in the diet and a light decrease in calcium levels, which were already very low, were observed in the group with cramps. "
05/15/2005 - "CRAMP also induced calcium mobilization and the activation of MAPK in monocytes. "
01/01/2002 - "The evidence that calcium reduces cramp is weak and seems to depend on placebo effect. "
01/01/2000 - "Compared with placebo, calcium reduced leg cramps (odds ratio 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.15 to 0.56). "
08/01/1999 - "These findings suggest that cramps in muscle PGAMD are caused by a high calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum relative to calcium re-uptake capacity."
|9.||Vitamin EFDA LinkGeneric
08/01/2014 - "There were some reported improvements in muscle cramps with most interventions with the exception of vitamin E but the evidence predominantly relies on case study reports. "
04/01/2011 - "A pilot study of vitamin E for the treatment of cirrhotic muscle cramps."
03/01/2005 - "Many years ago my doctor recommended that I take two 400-IU vitamin E pills each day for leg cramps. "
09/01/1992 - "Vitamin E was not effective in reducing leg cramp frequency, severity, or sleep disturbance. "
04/01/1991 - "Vitamin E and cirrhotic muscle cramps."
|10.||Lidocaine (Xylocaine)FDA LinkGeneric
04/01/1978 - "The injection cramp may be relieved by adding to the concentrated product 60% of an equal amount of 2% Xylocaine. "
11/01/1993 - "When an ulnar nerve was blocked with lidocaine at the elbow, no cramp was induced despite the application of high-frequency stimulation at the wrist. "
12/01/1979 - "A double-blind study was performed using the Bettmann-Paulin technique to test the hypothesis that small quantities of Xylocaine mixed with diluted contrast medium would reduce leg cramps in patients during venography. "
12/01/1979 - "The use of xylocaine to diminish leg cramps in venography."
04/01/2012 - "We describe a Polish patient with severe myotonia, transient weakness, and muscle cramps who only responds to lidocaine. "
|1.||Renal Dialysis (Hemodialysis)
09/01/1982 - "A double blind controlled trial of acute therapy for hemodialysis-related muscle cramps was undertaken. "
11/01/2015 - "Hemodialysis-associated muscle cramps (HAMC) are a common complication during hemodialysis (HD) sessions. "
09/01/2010 - "Muscle cramps are not uncommon complications of hemodialysis (HD) treatments and lead to early termination of HD sessions and are therefore a significant cause of under-dialysis. "
01/01/2009 - "The episodes of hemodialysis-related muscle cramps were recorded over a 28-day period. "
01/01/2009 - "The mechanism of muscle cramp in hemodialysis patients is not well understood. "
01/01/2015 - "Outcomes that showed differences were: frequency of leg cramps after treatment: never, and twice a week (risk ratio (RR) 5.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 to 23.68, one trial, 69 women, evidence graded low; RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.80, one trial, 69 women), and frequency of leg cramps: 50% reduction in number of leg cramps after treatment (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.86, one trial, 86 women, evidence graded low). "
04/01/2015 - "Outcome measure was the reduction of cramp frequency after treatment and cramp intensity measured by 100-mm visual analogue scale. "
09/01/1993 - "Number of evaluations, cramps and consistency of stools, have been evaluated before and after treatment. "
07/01/2006 - "The menstrual cramps were significantly lowered in the aromatherapy group than in the other two groups at both post-test time points (first and second day of menstruation after treatment). "
05/30/2004 - "Symptoms as pain, heaviness of the leg, muscle cramps, improved significantly (p < 0.001) after treatment. "
01/01/1997 - "Muscle cramps disappeared in 4 weeks on the average after oral administration of TJ-107 in all 12 patients. "
06/01/2000 - "This study was conducted to determine the pharmacokinetic properties of hydroquinine after oral administration in adult patients with muscle cramps. "
01/01/2012 - " Oral administration of 1 mg/day biotin promptly reduced the onset and the severity of cramps in 12 patients both during and after HD. "
01/01/2003 - "Skeletal muscle cramps completely disappeared in two of the treated patients after the start of oral administration of Shakuyaku-kanzo-to. "
06/01/2000 - "Hydroquinine pharmacokinetics after oral administration in adult patients with muscle cramps."
|4.||Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
06/01/1982 - "Severe muscle cramps relieved by transcutaneous nerve stimulation: a case report."
08/01/2015 - "The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a new portable TENS device (TANYX®) for menstruation cramps. "
09/01/2013 - "Direct observation under windowed CRAMPS typically introduces several tens of times more noise, partly because wideband analog filters (e.g. "
08/01/2015 - "The portable, disposable, active TENS device induced a prompt onset of pain relief and improved the quality of life, without adverse effects, in patients with painful cramps associated with dysmenorrhea."
08/01/2015 - "The New Portable Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Device Was Efficacious in the Control of Primary Dysmenorrhea Cramp Pain."
02/01/1996 - "In the second protocol study, the effects of a sustained expansion of the effective circulating volume induced by intravenous infusion of human albumin were compared with those of a placebo in 12 cirrhotic patients with more than three cramp crises a week. "
01/01/1989 - "In a subacute open trial with repeated intravenous infusions of RX77368 (median 2 weeks), improvement in bulbar function in 8 of 12 responders, cramps (5 of 9), and spasticity (5 of 8) were maintained for medians of 18, 14, and 7 days, respectively. "
04/01/1990 - "We studied a patient with typical tetanic cramps that responded to intravenous infusion of calcium despite normal serum concentrations of total and ionized calcium. "
07/01/2011 - "We report a patient with typical tetanic cramps and carpopedal spasm in the postoperative period, despite normal serum concentrations of calcium, which responded to intravenous infusion of calcium."
01/01/2006 - "This is an epoch-making therapy, for it was impossible to cope with muscle cramp except in hospitals because the therapy of muscle cramp was limited to intravenous infusion of hypertonic solutions of dextrose, mannitol, and saline during HD sessions."