|1.||Schizophrenia (Dementia Praecox)
|2.||Dystonia (Limb Dystonia)
|3.||Parkinson Disease (Parkinson's Disease)
|4.||Movement Disorders (Movement Disorder)
|5.||Parkinsonian Disorders (Parkinsonism)
|1.||Jankovic, Joseph: 31 articles (11/2015 - 08/2004)|
|2.||Kulkarni, Shrinivas K: 24 articles (02/2009 - 05/2002)|
|3.||Zhang, Xiang Yang: 19 articles (01/2016 - 08/2003)|
|4.||Okun, Michael S: 18 articles (01/2015 - 08/2005)|
|5.||Lozano, Andres M: 16 articles (08/2015 - 01/2002)|
|6.||Kennedy, James L: 16 articles (02/2014 - 07/2002)|
|7.||Leucht, Stefan: 16 articles (01/2014 - 03/2004)|
|8.||Remington, Gary: 15 articles (09/2015 - 05/2002)|
|9.||Chopra, Kanwaljit: 15 articles (11/2013 - 12/2006)|
|10.||Bishnoi, Mahendra: 15 articles (01/2012 - 12/2006)|
|1.||Antipsychotic Agents (Antipsychotics)IBA
12/01/1982 - "Ironically, neuroleptics are the most consistently effective treatment of tardive dyskinesia. "
02/01/1999 - "The arrival of atypical antipsychotics has markedly improved the outlook: atypical antipsychotics are emerging as effective treatments and may also reduce the prevalence and incidence of tardive dyskinesia. "
07/01/1993 - "Furthermore, tardive dyskinesia may be less likely to develop if the neuroleptics used are less potent against D2 receptors, as has been reported for some of the atypical antipsychotic drugs."
04/01/2011 - "Moreover, recent reports suggest that atypical antipsychotics may have a beneficial effect on tardive dyskinesia remission. "
01/01/2006 - "Treatment with RLAI significantly improved disease symptoms, functioning, hospitalization status, and reduced movement disorders, in psychotic patients considered clinically stable on oral atypical antipsychotics. "
|2.||Clozapine (Clozaril)FDA LinkGeneric
10/01/1984 - "With this in mind, the authors present the case of a 32-year-old chronically institutionalized schizophrenic who showed a remarkable improvement in both tardive dyskinesia and psychotic symptoms following an open trial of clozapine, 900 mg daily. "
01/01/1994 - "Clozapine, the best studied of these agents, is also superior in efficacy with regard to psychopathology and cognitive function and has been shown not to cause tardive dyskinesia. "
09/01/1993 - "With the advent of clozapine, patients with preexisting tardive dyskinesia began therapy and their symptoms did not worsen--and, in many cases, their symptoms improved dramatically. "
03/01/1996 - "Sixteen months of clozapine treatment led to significant reduction of symptomatology with marked improvement in social functioning and diminished tardive dyskinesia. "
05/01/1995 - "It has been suggested that clozapine may be beneficial for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia in adolescents. "
|3.||Botulinum Toxins (Botulinum Toxin)IBA
09/15/2001 - "Botulinum toxin (BTX) has been used successfully to treat various movement disorders, and is increasingly used for many other medical conditions. "
08/01/2012 - "It was discovered that botulinum toxin can be an effective treatment for focal movement disorders with limited side effects. "
02/01/2000 - "Locally administered botulinum toxin, or BTX, is an effective treatment for various movement disorders. "
05/01/1997 - "Botulinum toxin is widely used for the treatment of focal movement disorders, where chemodenervation is used to decrease hyperactivity in selected muscles. "
06/01/1995 - "Botulinum toxin A injection is thus a simple, safe, and effective out-patient treatment for patients with various kinds of movement disorders but it is a costly therapy."
|4.||aripiprazole (Abilify)FDA Link
03/01/2006 - "Marked improvement in chronic tardive dyskinesia after changing to aripiprazole."
01/01/2009 - "A further trial with aripiprazole, improved her tardive dyskinesia symptoms. "
06/01/2012 - "Switching to aripiprazole has been reported to improve tardive dyskinesia caused by other medications. "
01/01/2012 - "Two instances of improvement in tardive dyskinesia after administration of aripiprazole in a single patient."
06/01/2010 - "Case of tardive dystonia improved by aripiprazole."
|5.||Vitamin EFDA LinkGeneric
11/01/1999 - "In other studies, dosages >/=400 IU vitamin E/d were found to be beneficial in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia, although this finding was not confirmed in a larger cooperative study conducted by the Veterans Administration. "
12/01/1999 - "The anti-oxidant vitamin E has been reported to be effective in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia. "
07/01/1998 - "Vitamin E has been suggested to be a promising new treatment for tardive dyskinesia. "
08/20/1993 - "In tardive dyskinesia four clinical trials (double-blind, placebo-controlled) showed improvement in the symptoms with vitamin E in doses of up to 1,600 IU/day. "
07/01/1993 - "In a double-blind placebo controlled trial, the efficacy of Vitamin E in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD) was studied in 32 patients. "
|6.||olanzapine (Zyprexa)FDA Link
02/01/1998 - "Marked improvement in tardive dyskinesia following treatment with olanzapine in an elderly subject."
03/01/2002 - "This study warrants a larger controlled study to conclusively demonstrate the efficacy of olanzapine in tardive dystonia."
07/01/2008 - "However, the question whether olanzapine treats, ameliorates, or masks preexisting tardive dyskinesia was difficult to answer, as no dosage reduction or withdrawal was undertaken."
11/01/2014 - "The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and incidence of tardive dyskinesia in patients treated with olanzapine during the follow-up period of 20 months. "
12/01/2004 - "The results of this open label naturalistic trial showed that olanzapine had an impact on negative symptoms, decreased general psychopathology and reduced the risk of tardive dyskinesia."
|7.||Risperidone (Risperdal Consta)FDA LinkGeneric
02/01/1993 - "These data suggest that risperidone, at the optimal therapeutic dose of 6 mg/day, produced significant improvement in both positive and negative symptoms without an increase in drug-induced parkinsonian symptoms and with a significant beneficial effect on tardive dyskinesia."
01/01/2000 - "Risperidone is less effective in achieving clinical improvement and preventing dropout but outcomes relating to movement disorders change little. "
01/01/1998 - "The present finding suggests that the 5-hydroxytryptamine-2 (5-HT2) antagonistic action of risperidone has brought about the improvement in tardive dystonia. "
11/01/2003 - "This 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the effect of risperidone on severe tardive dyskinesia. "
11/01/2003 - "Risperidone for severe tardive dyskinesia: a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study."
|8.||Haloperidol (Haldol)FDA LinkGeneric
12/01/2000 - "was significantly more effective in reducing the symptoms of acute psychosis and was better tolerated than haloperidol i.m., particularly in movement disorders. "
01/01/2012 - "We also suggest that this model will be effective in preclinical testing of new chemical entities for the treatment of haloperidol induced tardive dyskinesia and related symptoms."
10/03/2014 - "Therefore, this study investigated whether CB1 receptors are involved in haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats. "
06/30/2006 - "In this study, our aim was to examine the effects of diselenide on haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats. "
09/01/2003 - "This study evaluates the 12-month incidence of tardive dyskinesia in subjects with first-episode psychosis who were treated with very low doses of haloperidol. "
|9.||Levodopa (L Dopa)FDA LinkGeneric
07/15/2004 - "The use of DBS of the STN and GPi is very effective for the treatment of movement disorders induced by levodopa. "
05/01/1994 - "Although L-dopa decarboxylase inhibitors were markedly effective in alleviating these symptoms, an adverse reaction due to the agent was observed as the form of oral dyskinesia. "
02/01/1989 - "Stable remission of tardive dyskinesia by L-dopa."
12/01/2007 - "In this article, we review recent studies in rodent models, which have uncovered two principal alterations at the basis of the movement disorder, namely, an abnormal pre-synaptic handling of exogenous L-DOPA, and a hyper-reactive post-synaptic response to DA. "
01/01/2015 - "Only lower levodopa equivalent dose (LED) was associated with periodic limb movement disorders (PLMD). "
01/01/1980 - "In this paper, the efficacy of lithium therapy in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia is reviewed. "
02/01/2008 - "Evidence that lithium protects against tardive dyskinesia: the Curaçao Extrapyramidal syndromes study VI."
01/01/1980 - "The well-designed studies indicate that lithium is useful in certain tardive dyskinesia patients and that the red blood cell lithium level may be related to the therapeutic response. "
03/01/1976 - "A single blind trial and a placebo controlled double blind trial of lithium were carried out in elderly patients with tardive dyskinesia. "
02/01/2008 - "Lithium may have neuroprotective properties and therefore could affect the occurrence of tardive dyskinesia (TD). "
|1.||Deep Brain Stimulation
07/01/2014 - "Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an implanted electrical device that modulates specific targets in the brain resulting in symptomatic improvement in a particular neurologic disease, most commonly a movement disorder. "
01/01/2006 - "Functional neurosurgery has benefited from these technologies, as deep brain stimulation surgery has become the standard of care for most cases of movement disorder surgery. "
07/01/2014 - "Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has proven remarkably safe and effective in the treatment of movement disorders. "
05/01/2004 - "Quantifying movement disorders is becoming crucially important in neurosurgery units to evaluate the efficacy of new therapeutic interventions such as deep brain stimulation. "
01/01/2014 - "High-frequency electrical stimulation of specific brain structures, known as deep brain stimulation (DBS), is an effective treatment for movement disorders, but mechanisms of action remain unclear. "
01/01/2015 - "Most symptoms were markedly improved after treatment, but mild movement disorders combined with impaired memory and personality changes remained in a small number of patients. "
04/01/1985 - "Spontaneous remission of tardive dyskinesia after treatment discontinuance is common, although it may not occur for many months. "
11/01/2012 - "She developed orofacial dyskinesia involving the tongue, lips, and facial muscles after treatment. "
01/01/2012 - "Inertial sensing to determine movement disorder motion present before and after treatment."
08/01/2008 - "More rarely, movement disorders appear a few days after treatment, whereas neurological symptoms are improving. "
09/01/2003 - "Injectable neuromuscular blockade in the treatment of spasticity and movement disorders."
01/05/1998 - "Movement disorders induced by gamma-aminobutyric agonist and antagonist injections into the internal globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata of the monkey."
01/01/1998 - "The indications for performing injections under EMG guidance in different forms of movement disorders are discussed. "
10/01/1994 - "Subjects with tardive dyskinesia were randomly assigned to single-blind placebo injections for 1 week, followed by 1 month of double-blind intramuscular placebo or GM1 100 mg. The final sample included 29 patients: 12 younger than 55 years of age and 17 older. "
04/15/1989 - "Patients given placebo injections experienced fewer extrapyramidal side effects and showed a trend towards a reduction in tardive dyskinesia. "
06/01/2005 - "The authors conclude that intraoperative monitoring of sEMGs of the affected muscles of patients with movement disorders during stereotactic surgery provides sensitive and quantitative information that can contribute to improved electrode or lesion placement."
05/01/2014 - "Our objectives were to study the length of multi-unit recordings (MURs) of brain activity in 20 years of movement disorder neurosurgeries and to determine the number of times in which it was necessary for the teams using single-unit recording (SUR) to explore all the electrode tracks in the simultaneously recorded sites (SRS). "
01/01/1962 - "Depth electrode studies of thalamus and basal ganglia in movement disorders in man."
03/01/2015 - "Neural electrodes are an important part of brain-machine interface devices that can restore functionality to patients with sensory and movement disorders. "
01/01/2014 - "In 5 patients undergoing movement disorder surgery, preoperative MRI was used to generate a three-dimensional cortical surface manually scaled to fit an intraoperative skull fluorogram with an in situ six-contact subdural electrode strip. "
06/01/2012 - "Following 9 months of ketogenic diet started at the age of 10 years, there was distinct improvement of speech and movement disorder. "
02/01/2006 - "Atypical GLUT1 deficiency with prominent movement disorder responsive to ketogenic diet."
04/01/2003 - "We report on a novel complication of the ketogenic diet manifesting as a severe extrapyramidal movement disorder and bilateral putaminal lesions. "
01/01/2015 - "A ketogenic diet/modified Atkins diet (KD/MAD) can attenuate paroxysmal movement disorders associated with GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS), but there are no reports on the effect of KD/MAD in AHC. "
09/01/2013 - "The modified Atkins diet is an effective and feasible alternative to the ketogenic diet for the treatment of GLUT1DS-related paroxysmal movement disorders in adolescence and adulthood."