|4.||Melanoma (Melanoma, Malignant)
|1.||Kang, Hee Young: 9 articles (10/2015 - 05/2007)|
|2.||Chang, Sung Eun: 8 articles (06/2015 - 06/2013)|
|3.||Hantash, Basil M: 7 articles (01/2014 - 07/2006)|
|4.||Lee, Ai-Young: 6 articles (11/2015 - 02/2010)|
|5.||Lee, Jong Hee: 6 articles (09/2014 - 10/2009)|
|6.||Pandya, Amit G: 6 articles (10/2013 - 12/2002)|
|7.||Sarkar, Rashmi: 6 articles (07/2012 - 01/2002)|
|8.||Bahadoran, Philippe: 5 articles (07/2015 - 01/2009)|
|9.||Benjakul, Soottawat: 5 articles (01/2015 - 05/2009)|
|10.||Lee, Tae Ryong: 5 articles (12/2014 - 06/2012)|
|1.||hydroquinone (Black and White)FDA Link
09/01/2009 - "Topical hydroquinone remains the most effective agent for the treatment of melasma in dark-skinned people with rare side effects."
01/23/1991 - "Hydroquinone (HQ) is one of the most effective inhibitors of melanogenesis in vitro and in vivo, and is widely used for the treatment of melanosis and other hyperpigmentary disorders. "
09/01/2011 - "Efficacy of a novel hydroquinone-free skin-brightening cream in patients with melasma."
02/01/2014 - "UV-VL sunscreen enhances the depigmenting efficacy of hydroquinone compared with UV-only sunscreen in treatment of melasma. "
08/01/2009 - "Efficacy of dioic acid compared with hydroquinone in the treatment of melasma."
|2.||glycolic acid (glycolate)IBA
06/01/2013 - "Previous studies have shown that use of a brightening system comprised of 0.01% decapeptide-12 cream, an antioxidant cleanser, a 20% buffered glycolic acid lotion, and a broad spectrum SPF 30 sunscreen yields good clearance of mild-to-moderate melasma in Caucasian and Asian volunteers. "
03/01/2012 - "To compare the therapeutic efficacy of low fluence QSNYL, high fluence QSNYL, and glycolic acid peel in melasma in three study groups of 25 patients each. "
01/01/2015 - "Both TCA and glycolic acid peels were effective in frictional melanosis. "
03/01/1997 - "This study was undertaken to see if glycolic acid peels are effective and safe in the treatment of melasma and fine facial wrinkling. "
01/01/2015 - "Chemical peeling with both tricholoroacetic acid (15%) and glycolic acid (50%) is safe and effective for the treatment of frictional dermal melanosis. "
|3.||Tretinoin (Retinoic Acid)FDA LinkGeneric
01/01/2010 - "In both studies by other objective measures tretinoin treatment significantly reduced the severity of melasma.Thiospot"
09/01/1999 - "Recently it has been demonstrated that tretinoin (all-trans-retinoic acid) can produce significant clinical improvement of melasma. "
10/01/1993 - "Topical 0.1% tretinoin produces significant clinical improvement of melasma, mainly due to reduction in epidermal pigment, but improvement is slow."
06/01/1994 - "We investigated the efficacy of topical 0.1% all-trans-retinoic acid (tretinoin) in the treatment of melasma in black patients. "
05/01/2004 - "In a recent trial, 1% tretinoin peel has shown good clinical and histologic results after biweekly applications in 2.5 weeks only in the treatment of melasma. "
|4.||Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)FDA LinkGeneric
02/01/2010 - "After 12 weeks of treatment with iontophoresis, both multivitamin and vitamin C were effective for melasma. "
03/01/2012 - " We concluded that nanosome vitamin C is a new, safe and effective, easy and painless method in the treatment of melasma."
01/01/2003 - "The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin C iontophoresis for melasma patients. "
03/01/2009 - "Clinical efficacy of 25% L-ascorbic acid (C'ensil) in the treatment of melasma."
06/01/2007 - "Group B also applied 5% ascorbic acid topically once daily; 20% TCA peel was done for all patients weekly until clearance of melasma or for a maximum of six peels. "
|5.||azelaic acid (Azelex)FDA Link
10/01/2012 - "This study shows the efficacy of low-fluence QSNYL, topical 20% azelaic acid cream and their combination in melasma. "
10/01/2012 - "These patients were randomly divided in three groups (group A = 20 patients of melasma treated with low-fluence QSNYL at weekly intervals, group B = 20 patients of melasma treated with twice daily application of 20% azelaic acid cream and group C = 20 patients of melasma treated with combination of both). "
01/01/2002 - "Azelaic acid (AZA) 20% is considered efficacious in the treatment of melasma, although the response is rather slow. "
01/01/2002 - "A comparative study of 20% azelaic acid cream monotherapy versus a sequential therapy in the treatment of melasma in dark-skinned patients."
01/01/1989 - "[Use of a cream based on 20% azelaic acid in the treatment of melasma]."
|6.||Tranexamic Acid (AMCA)FDA Link
10/01/2012 - "Addition of oral tranexamic acid provides rapid and sustained improvement in the treatment of melasma."
07/01/2013 - "To compare the therapeutic efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TA) microinjections versus tranexamic acid with microneedling in melasma. "
08/01/2014 - "Topical tranexamic acid as a promising treatment for melasma."
07/01/2015 - "The efficacy of tranexamic acid in the treatment of melasma."
10/01/2012 - "To compare the efficacy of oral tranexamic acid with routine topical therapies for the treatment of melasma. "
04/01/1999 - "In 2 patients, there was complete clearance of melasma, and this was on the side where kojic acid was used. "
04/01/1999 - "More than half of the melasma cleared in 24/40 (60%) patients receiving kojic acid compared to 19/40 (47.5%) patients receiving the gel without kojic acid. "
07/01/2014 - "We aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combined system that simultaneously uses monopolar radiofrequency (RF) and transdermal drug delivery of phytocomplex containing 1% kojic acid in the treatment of melasma. "
07/01/2013 - "Eighty patients from a single tertiary care center objectively assessed by calculating the melasma area severity index (MASI) and randomized (simple randomization) into four parallel groups (A, B, C, and D) of 20 each were prescribed once daily local application at night, (participants blinded regarding the difference in identity of interventions), as follows: Group A - kojic acid 1% cream. "
06/01/2012 - "Although in human clinical studies kojic acid has been shown to be effective in the treatment of hyper-pigmentation disorders such as melasma, the reasons for its apparent lack of anti-melanogenic activity in cultured mammalian melanocytes are unclear. "
02/01/2014 - "At onset and at conclusion of the study, they were assessed by the Melasma Activity and Severity Index (MASI; a subjective scale), colorimetry (L*) and histological analysis of melanin. "
12/01/2010 - "In this single-center, randomized, double-blind, controlled study, Thai patients with mild to moderate facial melasma (relative melanin value [RMV] in range of 20-120) were randomized for the application of either the test or the emulsion-based (control) product in the morning and before bedtime for 8 weeks. "
06/01/2009 - "From this study it became apparent that in melasma melanin is concentrated in the deeper layers of the skin but its exteriorization remains the same as for healthy skin. "
01/01/2009 - "This study shows that, at least in part, the phenomenon of splenic melanosis in C57BL/6 mice can be correlated with the synchronized skin melanization parallel to the hair cycle progress, and that splenic melanin undergoes gradual degradation during the mouse life."
04/01/2005 - "The results of this study suggest that melasma is a consequence of specific hyperfunctional melanocytes that cause excessive melanin deposition in the epidermis and dermis."
12/01/2009 - "The efficacy of a 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (QS Nd:YAG) laser with low pulse energy in the treatment of melasma in 25 women was assessed by retrospective analysis of clinical photographs and patient satisfaction rates. "
03/01/2013 - "Histopathological study of the treatment of melasma lesions using a low-fluence Q-switched 1064-nm neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser."
06/01/2015 - "To retrospectively assess the effectiveness and safety of combination therapy using low-fluence Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (QSNY) and long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (LPNY) (dual toning) in patients with rebound melasma. "
04/01/2015 - "Low-fluence Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet 1,064-nm laser combined with GA peeling temporarily reduced melasma in men, but the incidence of side effects does not justify the short-lived benefits of this procedure. "
09/01/2014 - "Compare the efficacy and safety of low fluence Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (1,064 nm) laser (Nd:YAG) versus low-fluence Q-switched alexandrite laser (755 nm) (QSAL) for the treatment of facial melasma. "
02/01/2013 - "High-density coverage fractional 1,927-nm thulium laser proved to be safe and effective for melasma with long-term remission."
06/01/2013 - "The 1,927-nm thulium fiber fractional laser is a safe, effective treatment for photoaging and melasma in Asians."
02/01/2012 - "The 1,927-nm fractional thulium fiber laser is a safe, effective treatment for melasma."
08/01/2013 - "The novel 1927 nm fractional thulium fiber laser is safe and effective in the management of melasma in Chinese patients for up to 2 months. "
06/01/2013 - "Commentary: A split-face study using the 1,927-nm thulium fiber fractional laser for photoaging and melasma in Asian skin."
07/01/2011 - "Already proven effective for the treatment of pigmentary disorders, lasers have been used to treat melasma in recent years. "
01/01/2010 - "After five laser treatments, statistically significant improvement of melasma from baseline was observed in colorimeter (p<.001) and mMASI score (p<.001) on the laser side. "
02/01/2008 - "Recently, successful improvement in melasma has been achieved with this laser system. "
03/01/2013 - "We performed a histopathological study on eight Korean women who had considerable improvement in their melasma lesions after a series of low-fluence QSNY laser treatments. "
11/01/2014 - "FCO2 laser resurfacing is effective and safe in treatment of facial freckles in skin phototypes II-IV. It can offer a more practical alternative to topical treatments, and a cheaper alternative to Q-switched lasers. "
03/01/2014 - "Riehl melanosis treated successfully with Q-switch Nd:YAG laser."
08/01/2011 - "Although the classical Q-switched ruby laser (QSRL) has been used successfully for the removal of tattoos and for the treatment of cutaneous pigmented lesions, its efficacy for melasma remains controversial. "
07/01/2011 - "The 1,064-nm QS Nd:YAG laser is an effective and safe treatment for melasma, although recurrence rates remain high, and further adjunctive therapy needs to be explored to prevent this recurrence."
12/01/2014 - "Although low-fluence 1,064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (QSNYL) is widely used for the treatment of melasma, multiple treatments are necessary for clinical improvement. "
12/01/2014 - "Although low-fluence 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (QSNYL) is widely used for the treatment of melasma, multiple treatments are necessary for clinical improvement. "
08/01/2014 - "The present study shows that low-power fractional CO2 laser is safe and effective and can be considered as a valuable approach in the treatment of melasma."
01/01/2015 - "We conclude that a carbon dioxide laser could be a useful, effective, and safe instrument to treat the aesthetic complications caused by oral smoker melanosis. "
08/01/2014 - "A total of 40 female patients with symmetric melasma were enrolled to the study and each side of their face was randomly allocated to either low-fluence Q-switch 1,064 nm Nd:YAG or low-power fractional CO2 laser. "
01/01/2015 - "Aesthetic Depigmentation of Gingival Smoker's Melanosis Using Carbon Dioxide Lasers."
11/01/2014 - "Efficacy and safety of fractional carbon dioxide laser for treatment of unwanted facial freckles in phototypes II-IV: a pilot study."
|4.||Laser Therapy (Surgery, Laser)
09/01/2007 - "Melasma lesions are resistant to numerous laser therapies, but have responded well in clinical studies to fractional photothermolysis. "
09/01/2010 - "Non-ablative 1,550 nm fractional laser therapy versus triple topical therapy for the treatment of melasma: a randomized controlled split-face study."
03/01/2013 - "Oral TA may prove a safe and efficient treatment option for melasma in combination with low-fluence QSNY laser therapy."
03/01/2011 - "Nonablative 1550-nm fractional laser therapy versus triple topical therapy for the treatment of melasma: a randomized controlled pilot study."
11/01/2005 - "Treatment of melasma includes various hypopigmenting agents, chemical peeling, and laser surgery with unsatisfactory results. "
09/01/2015 - "Skin pigmentation was measured using MASI (Melasma Area and Severity Index) at each visit separately for each side at the base line and every month until one month after treatment course. "
06/01/2015 - "Aggravated melasma after treatment is vulnerable to stimulation, can easily deteriorate, and may be distressing without proper management. "
08/01/2014 - "Melasma area and severity index (MASI) score was used before and after treatment for evaluation. "
07/01/2014 - "The outcome was evaluated before treatment (T0) and 1 month (T1) and 6 months (T2) after treatment using the Melasma Area and Severity Index score, a Mexameter, and Visioface devices for digital and ultraviolet computerized image analysis of skin color. "
02/01/2013 - "Four investigators independently evaluated Melasma Area Severity Index (MASI) scores before, 4 weeks, 3-6 months, and 6-12 months after treatment. "