|3.||Brucellosis (Malta Fever)
|4.||Communicable Diseases (Infectious Diseases)
|5.||Renal Insufficiency (Renal Failure)
|1.||Dellagostin, Odir A: 15 articles (12/2015 - 08/2007)|
|2.||Ko, Albert I: 15 articles (01/2015 - 12/2006)|
|3.||Haake, David A: 15 articles (01/2015 - 01/2002)|
|4.||Yan, Jie: 15 articles (10/2014 - 01/2005)|
|5.||Chang, Yung-Fu: 14 articles (01/2015 - 10/2004)|
|6.||Nascimento, Ana L T O: 13 articles (04/2015 - 03/2005)|
|7.||Vasconcellos, Silvio A: 12 articles (04/2015 - 03/2005)|
|8.||Reis, Mitermayer G: 12 articles (01/2015 - 12/2004)|
|9.||Romero, Eliete C: 11 articles (04/2015 - 03/2005)|
|10.||Hartwig, Daiane D: 10 articles (12/2015 - 01/2010)|
07/01/1982 - "By staphylococcal coagglutination 10(8) leptospires per ml could be detected and by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis 10(7) per ml. The best sensitivity obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was 10(5) leptospires per ml, and by radioimmunoassay 10(4) to 10(5) per ml. Radioimmunoassay offers the prospect of improved diagnosis of leptospirosis through the detection of leptospiral antigen."
01/01/2006 - "The current major focus in leptospirosis research is to discover conserved protective antigens that may elicit longer-term protection against a broad range of Leptospira. "
04/01/1992 - "These findings show that the AF-ELISA can be used effectively as a species-specific antigen for the serological diagnosis of leptospirosis in swine and that sonicated whole cells can substitute excellently for purified AF as the antigen source. "
12/01/2011 - "The aim of this study was to evaluate 27 recombinant antigens to determine their potential to induce an immune response protective against leptospirosis in the hamster model. "
03/01/2014 - "Diagnostic efficacy of lsa63 antigen for human leptospirosis."
|2.||Doxycycline (Vibramycin)FDA LinkGeneric
06/01/1990 - "Two further cases of leptospirosis were recorded after the study period ended; both were very ill but responded well to doxycycline therapy. "
06/01/1985 - "The results of animal studies, the susceptibility of LC0475 and the five other isolates to doxycycline in vitro, and lack of evidence for antibiotic resistance in culture suggests this antibiotic may be useful as a prophylactic drug for high risk groups and an effective treatment for leptospirosis in Thailand."
01/01/2006 - "Doxycycline is effective in preventing leptospirosis in travelers. "
05/01/1984 - "Doxycycline is effective in therapy for patients with leptospirosis."
11/01/2014 - "Four who received doxycycline and two who did not, developed leptospirosis, resulting a protective efficacy of 86.3% (CI = -9.8%-98.2%). "
|3.||Anti-Bacterial Agents (Antibiotics)IBA
01/01/2010 - "The randomised trials suggest that antibiotics could be a useful treatment for leptospirosis. "
01/01/2000 - "The randomised trials suggest that antibiotics could be a useful treatment for leptospirosis. "
12/01/2014 - "interrogans proved to be a novel model to study both acute and chronic leptospirosis, and revealed that, in the kidneys, leptospires are protected from antibiotics. "
05/01/2013 - "Role of various antibiotics in treatment of leptospirosis is uncertain, and can be attributed to nonavailability of adequate clinical trials. "
05/01/2013 - "Antibiotics for the treatment of leptospirosis: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials."
05/01/2012 - "This is the first report of a protective immune response afforded by a subunit vaccine using LipL32 and represents an important contribution toward the development of improved leptospirosis vaccines."
11/01/2001 - "These data indicate that Hap1 could be a good candidate for developing a new generation of vaccines able to induce broad protection against leptospirosis disease."
08/01/2015 - "Thus far, attempts to develop effective leptospirosis vaccines, both for humans and animals, have failed to induce immune responses capable of conferring protection and simultaneously preventing renal colonization. "
01/01/2015 - "Vaccines against leptospirosis."
10/01/2014 - "The development of universal vaccines is critical for the prevention and control of leptospirosis."
07/01/2015 - "Early diagnosis of leptospirosis in humans is critical with regard to initiation of appropriate treatment; however, the gold standard serological test cannot detect antibodies until nearly a week after symptom onset. "
01/01/2002 - "An improved immunohistochemical diagnostic technique for canine leptospirosis using antileptospiral antibodies on renal tissue."
12/01/2010 - "The high prevalence of leptospirosis antibodies in free-ranging white-lipped peccaries and the potential impacts on reproduction and population dynamics emphasize the need for further studies investigating the roles of Pantanal wildlife and livestock in the transmission and maintenance of L. "
07/01/2007 - "This study demonstrated that, although the present notifications of leptospirosis cases in Mato Grosso do Sul are negligible, the prevalence of antibodies was high in the groups investigated. "
06/01/2007 - "The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of serum antibodies to different Leptospira serogroups in dogs with a clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis in southern Germany and to compare seroreactivity to different serogroups with history, clinical signs, laboratory findings and survival rate. "
|6.||DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)IBA
01/10/2008 - "Our results indicate that immunization with LigA DNA vaccine provides significant protection against leptospirosis. "
01/10/2008 - "In the present study we demonstrated the protective efficacy of a LigA DNA vaccine and evaluated the immune mechanism underlying the protection against leptospirosis in hamsters. "
01/01/2010 - "Expanding the diagnostic use of PCR in leptospirosis: improved method for DNA extraction from blood cultures."
03/01/2000 - "Protection against leptospirosis by immunization with plasmid DNA encoding 33 kDa endoflagellin of L. "
03/01/2015 - "Patients were included in the study if they presented with a clinical profile that was compatible with the disease within 21 days of their return from traveling, which were laboratory-diagnosed as leptospirosis by blood culture, rise in antibody titers in paired sera using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), and/or DNA detection using flaB-nested PCR. "
|7.||Azithromycin (Zithromax)FDA LinkGeneric
10/01/2006 - "A two-year study of the efficacy of azithromycin in the treatment of leptospirosis in humans."
01/01/2007 - "In this study, the utility of short courses of azithromycin in treating or preventing leptospirosis was investigated in a lethal hamster model. "
01/01/2007 - "Effect of timing and duration of azithromycin therapy of leptospirosis in a hamster model."
01/01/2007 - "These results suggest short-course therapy with azithromycin, even started well after infection, is efficacious in preventing mortality from acute leptospirosis."
01/01/2010 - "Febrile pregnant women on the Thai-Burmese border who do not have malaria, pyelonephritis or respiratory tract infection should be treated with azithromycin, effective for typhus and leptospirosis."
|8.||Proteins (Proteins, Gene)IBA
07/01/2009 - "Among the four pathogenic serovars, the more virulent serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae (which is most commonly associated with severe leptospirosis in patients) had significantly greater levels of 14 forms of 12 unique proteins, when compared with the other three pathogenic serovars. "
08/01/2003 - "The study showed a 36.7% increase in the excretion of low molecular weight proteins in dogs with leptospirosis but almost no change in the high molecular weight protein pattern. "
01/01/2014 - "Purified recombinant LigA protein is the most promising subunit vaccine candidate against leptospirosis reported to date, however, as purified proteins are weak immunogens the use of a potent adjuvant is essential for the success of LigA as a subunit vaccine. "
08/01/2013 - "All 7 recombinant Lig proteins were screened using a slot-shaped dot blot assay for the diagnosis of equine leptospirosis. "
08/01/2013 - "The roles of LipL41 and Lep in the pathogenesis of Leptospira interrogans were investigated; surprisingly, neither of these two unique proteins was essential for acute leptospirosis. "
|9.||Immunoglobulin M (IgM)IBA
03/01/2008 - "The high sensitivity and specificity of the IgM-IB test for acute leptospirosis would provide greatly improved diagnostic accuracy for identification of patients who would benefit from early antibiotic intervention. "
11/01/1999 - "Assessment of the efficacy of an IgM-elisa and microscopic agglutination test (MAT) in the diagnosis of acute leptospirosis."
07/01/2015 - "Blood, urine and paired sera from 100 patients with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis (study group) were collected and subjected to DFM, culture, IgM Leptocheck, IgM ELISA and MSAT. "
06/01/2010 - "All patients presenting in Medical College Hospital during three months from 1st August to 31st October who tested IgM positive or borderline or PCR positive for leptospirosis were taken into the study. "
09/01/2009 - "This study retrospectively compared lymphocyte counts from the first blood samples taken following hospital presentation in patients with leptospirosis who were either (i) IgM non-reactive, (ii) IgM reactive and microscopic agglutination test (MAT) non-reactive or (iii) IgM and MAT reactive in an effort to determine whether differences in lymphocyte counts are observed in the acute and immune phase of leptospirosis. "
|10.||Penicillins (Penicillin)FDA Link
05/01/2013 - "Parallel group clinical trials involving use of penicillin in treatment of leptospirosis were searched from all available sources. "
01/01/2012 - "Two trials with 332 patients in relatively severe and possibly late leptospirosis, resulted in trends towards increased dialysis when penicillin was used rather than placebo, but the estimate of effect was small and did not reach statistical significance (42/163 (25.8%) versus 31/169 (18.4%); OR 1.54, 95% CI 0.91 to 2.60). "
05/01/2003 - "The present study was developed to assess whether the introduction of penicillin after more than four days of symptoms reduces the in-hospital case-fatality rate of leptospirosis. "
10/01/1988 - "A prospective, controlled randomized study of penicillin therapy in icteric human leptospirosis was carried out between 1 October 1983 and 31 December 1986. "
02/27/1988 - "The effect of a 7-day course of intravenous penicillin (6 million units/day) on severe, advanced leptospirosis was examined in a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial involving 42 patients. "
03/01/2015 - "Validation of a microsphere immunoassay for serological leptospirosis diagnosis in human serum by comparison to the current gold standard."
12/01/1982 - "Black bears (Ursus americanus) from 3 geographic areas of California were tested for antibodies against agents of 6 zoonotic diseases: toxoplasmosis (indirect hemagglutination), Q fever (microagglutination), trichinosis (latex particle agglutination), botulism (passive hemagglutination), leptospirosis (plate agglutination), and plague (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). "
03/01/2015 - "A microsphere immunoassay (MIA) utilising Luminex xMap technology that is capable of determining leptospirosis IgG and IgM independently was developed. "
03/01/2000 - "The assay is performed by mixing, on an agglutination card, serum with equal volumes of stabilized antigen-coated, dyed test and control latex beads and is read within 2 min. The latex agglutination test was evaluated with groups of serum samples from patients with leptospirosis and control patients from Hawaii, the Seychelles, Thailand, and The Netherlands. "
01/14/2009 - "Taken together, the data of the present study suggests that both liposomes and PLGA microspheres are promising adjuvants for use with future subunit vaccines for prevention of leptospirosis."
03/01/2010 - "Our findings showed that plasma exchange with immunosuppression improved survival in patients of pulmonary alveolar haemorrhage due to leptospirosis, suggesting that immune mechanisms play a key role in the pathogenesis of the disease."
01/01/2013 - "Plasma exchange in severe leptospirosis with multi-organ failure: a case report."
03/01/2010 - "Plasma exchange with immunosuppression in pulmonary alveolar haemorrhage due to leptospirosis."
11/14/1981 - "Plasma exchange in severe leptospirosis."
10/01/2011 - "Potential benefits of plasma exchange by apheresis on the treatment of severe Icteric Leptospirosis: case report and literature review."
06/01/2014 - "Vaccination together with proper biosecurity measures and chemoprophylaxis are an affordable insurance to control bovine leptospirosis."
01/01/2012 - "A confirmed leptospirosis outbreak in Guyana occurred after severe flooding, resulting in a massive chemoprophylaxis campaign to try to limit morbidity and mortality."
01/01/2012 - "We describe a leptospirosis outbreak following severe flooding and a mass chemoprophylaxis campaign in Guyana. "
01/01/2010 - "Most of them (73.7%) knew leptospirosis as a lethal condition and 39.5% were aware of chemoprophylaxis. "
09/01/2008 - "Leptospirosis poses a severe threat to the lives of farmers in Sri Lanka, thus, development of an effective chemoprophylaxis is deemed essential. "
01/01/2009 - "Prospective, randomised clinical trials studying antibiotic prophylaxis against leptospirosis were selected. "
01/01/2009 - "Antibiotic prophylaxis for leptospirosis."
01/01/2009 - "This systematic review assessed the current literature for evidence for or against use of antibiotic prophylaxis against Leptospira infection (leptospirosis). "