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Kernicterus

A term used pathologically to describe BILIRUBIN staining of the BASAL GANGLIA; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM and clinically to describe a syndrome associated with HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Clinical features include athetosis, MUSCLE SPASTICITY or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and DEAFNESS. Nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (e.g., SEPSIS). This condition occurs primarily in neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN), but may rarely occur in adults. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p613)
Also Known As:
Encephalopathy, Bilirubin; Encephalopathy, Hyperbilirubinemic; Bilirubin Encephalopathies; Encephalopathies, Bilirubin; Encephalopathies, Hyperbilirubinemic; Hyperbilirubinemic Encephalopathies; Bilirubin Encephalopathy; Hyperbilirubinemic Encephalopathy
Networked: 450 relevant articles (12 outcomes, 46 trials/studies)

Relationship Network

Disease Context: Research Results

Related Diseases

1. Hyperbilirubinemia
2. Jaundice
3. Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
4. Kernicterus
5. Neonatal Jaundice

Experts

1. Bhutani, Vinod K: 13 articles (02/2015 - 05/2003)
2. Brites, Dora: 12 articles (01/2016 - 01/2002)
3. Shapiro, Steven M: 10 articles (06/2011 - 11/2002)
4. Watchko, Jon F: 8 articles (11/2014 - 10/2003)
5. Tiribelli, Claudio: 8 articles (03/2014 - 07/2003)
6. Fernandes, Adelaide: 6 articles (01/2016 - 09/2007)
7. Kaplan, Michael: 6 articles (06/2011 - 04/2002)
8. Ahlfors, Charles E: 6 articles (04/2010 - 05/2003)
9. Slusher, Tina M: 5 articles (01/2015 - 06/2004)
10. Wennberg, Richard P: 5 articles (11/2014 - 10/2004)

Drugs and Biologics

Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Kernicterus:
1. BilirubinIBA
2. Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase (Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase)IBA
3. bilirubin glucuronoside glucuronosyltransferaseIBA
4. Phenobarbital (Luminal)FDA Link
5. MetalloporphyrinsIBA
6. bucolomeIBA
7. Protons (Proton)IBA
8. Carrier Proteins (Binding Protein)IBA
9. Sulfisoxazole (Sulfafurazole)FDA Link
10. SulfadimethoxineIBA

Therapies and Procedures

1. Phototherapy (Light Therapy)
2. Liver Transplantation
3. Patient Isolation
4. Intrauterine Blood Transfusion
5. Drug Therapy (Chemotherapy)